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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
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A New Sample Preparation Technique for SEM Observation of Polyolefin Microstructure
Park, Je-Myung ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 405~415
In general, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is usually used in the investigation of polymer microstructure. Microtoming, solution casting, staining and carbon replica method are frequently introduced to the study of the polymer morphology with TEM, however the sample preparation procedure of those techniques is very difficult, and it takes a long time. The purpose of this study is to develop a new sample preparation technique which is suitable for the investigation of the various shapes and species of polyolefin microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By modifying the conventional chemical etching method, we developed a new chemical etching technique and sample preparation procedure that are suitable for SEM study of polymer microstructure. In this study the permanganate etching method is introduced and the optimum etching condition are determined by simply adjusting the etchant formulation, concentration and etching time. This technique has shown good reproducibility and it's morphological results agree well with other works on various types of microstructures such as spherulite characterization of isotatic polypropylene
, polyethylene and poly-propylene copolymer characterization, and the study of lamellar growth pattern of unsheared or oriented materials. This technique has also been applied to the industrial fields for characterization of the polyolefin film, automobile products and the others.
Fine Structure of the Integumentary Supporting Cell and Gland Cell of the Sea Bass, Lateolabrax japonicus (Teleostei: Moronidae)
Lee, Jung-Sick ; Kim, Jae-Won ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 417~426
The present investigation is designed to provide basic information on fine structure of the skin of the sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicks in relation to study of epidermal change with environmental and physiological change. The skin of the sea bass is divided into the epidermal layer and dermal layer. Epidermal layer consists of supporting cells and unicellular glands. The supporting cells were classified into the superficial cell, intermediated cell and basal cell. Gland cells were classified into the mucous secretory cell and club cell which is more frequently observed. Superficial cell of epidermal layer is squamous or cuboidal and contains well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and the surface is covered with numerous microridges. Superficial cells are connected to another cell with membrane interdigitations and desmosomes. Intermediated cell is ovoid and the electron density is higher than the other supporting cells. Basal cell is cuboidal and has a well-developed mitochondria and membrane interdigitation. The mucous secretory cell has a numerous membrane bounded secretory granules. The cytoplasm of club cell is divided into cortex and medullar. The medullar cytoplasm has a nucleus, intracellular organelles and central vacuole, and the cortical cytoplasm has a well-developed tonofilament. Club cells are connected to another cell with well -developed membrane interdigitations and desmosomes.
Ultrastructural Study on the Spermatogenesis of the Marbled Sole, Limanda yokohamae (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae)
An, Cheul-Min ; Lee, Jung-Sick ; Huh, Sung-Hoi ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 427~435
Spermatogenesis and fine structure of the spermatozoon of the marbled sole, Limanda yokohamae were examined by means of the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The process of spermatogenesis of the marbled tole is similar to that of other teleost with external fertilization. During the spermiogenesis, chromatin that has been became fine]y granular progressively condenses into many large globules and that homogeneously condensed in the spermatozoan head. A spermatozoon consists of head and tail, and the acrosome is absent. The cytoplasmic collar contained eight mitochondria is observed in the posterior part of the head. The well -developed axonemal lateral fins are observed in the tail. In the TEM observation, the cross section of the axial filament shows '9+2' axonemal structure of microtubules, and the numerous vesicles are observed in the cytoplasm.
Electron Microscopic Study on the Role of Actin Filaments during the Formation of Bile Canaliculi in Isolated Rat Hepatocyte Culture System
Park, Chang-Hyun ; Chang, Byung-Joon ; Uhm, Chang-Sub ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 437~450
Bile canaliculi are the structure delivering bile secreted by hepatocytes into the bile passage. Bile secretion is mainly controlled by the cytoskeletal elements, mainly of actin in the microvilli, pericanalicular web. Most studies on the bile secretion have been done in viva situation, however, to control the various parameters in vitro culture system seem to be more useful. To set up an in vitro experimental system, the investigator isolated hepatocytes with an enzymatic method using a mixture of collagenase and hyaluronidase from normal Sprague-Dawley rat liver and cultured. Isolated hepatocytes were round and formed cords in culture. Microvilli covered the whole surface of hepatocytes. Bile canaliculi were formed between hepatocytes and were characterized by the presence of microvilli of various lengths and shapes mainly arising from small surface mounds. Actin filament core in the microvilli and pericanalicular actin web were incomplete. After cytochalasin D treatment, cultured hepatocytes were round but the surface were irregular with surfacen blebs, folds and grooves. Microvilli on the surface were scarce. Bile canaliculi were markedly dilated often with the detached junctional complexes. Bile canaliculi lacks microvilli almost completely and extended into the pericanalirular cytoplasm showing complex vacuolar and tubular structures by transmission electron mciroscopy. Pericanalicular actin web, intermediate filaments were hardly identified. Subsurface actin filaments were scattered scarcely under the cell membranes. These results suggest that hepatocytes isolated from rats can survive and form bile canaliculi in culture and the actin filaments are involved in the formation and/or maintenance of the bile canaliculi.
Ultrastructural Study of Drosophila Ocellar Visual System by Osmium Impregnation
Yoon, Chun-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 451~457
Ultrastructure of adult Drosophila ocellus was compared with conventional electron microscopic method and osmium impregnation. When osmium impregnation was applied, some organelles of cells were strongly stained. Especially, subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) were strongly stained and showed network-iike structure as in compound eye. Other organelles including SSC, ER, nuclear envelope, pigment granules and mitochondria were also strongly stained. These organelles are known as a general calcium ion reservoir. In conclusion, the strong effect of light and shade by osmium impregnation was regarded as a result of strong binding between calcium ion and osmium tetroxide. Thus, we agree to the opinion that osmium impregnation is very useful methods to the comparative morphology of cell organelles.
Ultrastructure and Dehydrogenase Activity on the Differentiation of the Cerebral Nerve Cell in the Chick Embryo (II)
Kim, Saeng-Gon ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 459~470
To investigate the changes during the differentiation of the cerebral neurons of the embryogenic day (ED) 9 and 10, investigated the ultrastructural changes in the cerebral neurons by Electromicroscope, also cerebral protein, the activity of dehydronases (LDH, MDH and SDH) and changes of adenosine triphosphate concentration were analyzed, the result obtained are as follows. In the ultrastructural changes in the cerebral neurons, chromatin in 9 day-old chick embryos are comparatively distributed to even in neucleoplasm and could investigate very prominently that nuclear membrane is double-layer. Esperially, Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi complex are developed well, also polysome is investigated and synaptic vesicles were scattered. In 10 day-old chick embryos, chromatin evenly spread and nuclear membrane could be differentiated prominently. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) contain cytoplasm, mitochondria and Golgi complex are comparatively developed well. In 9 day-old cultural group of chick embryo cerebrum were separated 37 polypeptide bands and In 10 day-old cultural group of chick embryo cerebrum were separated 38 poly -peptide bands. The more culture time increase, the more the activity of dehydronases (LDH, MDH and SDH) increase. LDH activity was 11.07 (9th day) and 12.12 (10th day), MDH activity was 11.89 (9th day) and 13.44 (10th day) and SDH activity was 8.45 (9th day) and 10.52 (10th day) respectively. The ATP concentration degreesed 10 day-old cultural group than 9 day-old cultural group.
Observations on the Modulated Structure in Pyrochlore-type Compounds,
Lee, Hwack-Joo ; Park, Hyun-Min ; Cho, Yang-Koo ; Ryu, Hyun ; Nahm, Sahn ; Bando, Y. ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 471~477
Microstructural observations on the pyrochlore-type
and the similar type of compounds,
which were made by the isothermal heat-treatment at 1623K for 18 days in Pt tube, were carried out using a top-entry HRTEM working at 200 kV. The modulated structures were found in both compounds, however, not in
. From the electron diffraction pattern analysis, the modulated superlattices are incommensurate and are 2.69 times of sublattices along (220) direction. The high resolution TEM images have shown that the superlattices consist of alternate superlattices which are composed of two or three sublattices, resulting in the average of 2.7 times of sublattices in accordance with the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The crystal structures of both compounds are found to quite similar to those of pyrochlore, however the evidence that the cubic axes are slightly deviated from right angle. The modulated structure has gradually changed to the unmodulated structure induced by electron irradiation.
Distribution and Differentiation of the Choline Acetyltransferase-immunoreactive Nerve Cells in the Basal Nucleus of Meynert of the Rat Forebrains During the Postnatal Development
Lee, Nam-Seob ; Chung, Young-Wha ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 479~491
This study was performed to investigate the distribution and differentiation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive cells in the basal nucleus of Meynert of the postnatal and adult rat forebrains, utilizing techniques of immunocytochemistry. According to the cell shape and the ratio of long axis vs short axis of cell soma, the ChAT-immunoreactive nerve cells in the basal nucleus of Meynert of the adult rat were classified into six types. In the adult rat, the frequency distributions (FD) of round, oval, elongated, fusiform, triangular and polygonal cells were 9.4%, 35.5%, 32.1%, 5.9%, 9.1% and 8.0%, respectively. The FD of oval and round nerve cells on the postnatal day (PND) 14 were observed to be 18.7% and 51.5%, respectively. Those were shown to be progressively decreased during developmental process to the adult. Also, those of elongated and triangular nerve cells on the PND 21 were observed to be 30.4% and 10.1%, respectively. Those were shown to be same phenomenon a,1 those in the round and oval cells. Meanwhile, those of the triangular and polygonal nerve cells were progressively increased from the early postnatal stage to the adult. The total mean volumes of ChAT-immunoreactive cell somata in the PND 7 rat were the lowest
and those in the PND 21 rat were shown to be the highest
. But in the adult, those were decreased to
. Those in the PND 21 rat were shown to be about 84.7% larger than those in the adult. On the electron micrography, the cell organelles such as ribosomes, polysomes, rough endoplasmic reticula (RER) and mitochondria were well developed in the PND 21 rat forebrains, but Golgi complexes were shown to be proliferating phase. Especially, ribosomes, polysomes and RER were immunoreactive in the tissues treated with 0.05% triton X-100. According to the observations in the present study, it is considered that the ChAT-immunoreactive nerve cells in the basal nucleus of Meynert of the rat forebrains are differentiated throughout the following processes of changes during the postnatal development: 1) increase of cell soma volumes with the differentiation of tell organelles and neurites, 2) increase in the FD of differentiated tell types and 3) cell schrinkage without cell loss. The ribosomes, polysomes and RER are considered to be closely related to the intracellular localization and biosynthesis of the ChAT but not Colgi complex.
Microstructural Observation of Phase Change Optical Disk by TEM
Kim, Soo-Chul ; Kim, Gyeung-Ho ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 493~498
With increasing demand for fast and reliable, yet economical data storage devices, the role of optical disk technology is becoming more important. In recent years, advanced laser technology combined with new materials has given the competitive edge over the traditional magnetic memory devices both in memory capacity and reliability of data retrieval. Continuing effort is being put into developing smaller and more complex structures for optical disks to increase their memory density. Characterization of such multilayered structure requires not only high spatial resolution for observation but also laborious specimen preparation. In this paper, the method of preparing optical disk specimens for TEM characterization is described in detail. The microstructural features in optical disks observed by TEM are also discussed.
Terminal Dilation and Transformation of the Protein-filled ER to Form Protein Bodies in Pea (Pisum sativum L. var, exzellenz) Cotyledons
Jeong, Byung-Kap ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 499~509
Accumulations of the storage proteins in protein storage vacuole and the differentiation of protein bodies from protein-filled ER in developing pea cotyledons have been investigated using conventional and immunoelectron microscopy. To improve the fixation quality, single cells separated enzymatically from sliced cotyledons were used. At early stages of seed development osmiophilic protein accumulates in rER lumen were observed quite often. This protein-filled ER cisternae were differentiated into cytoplasmic protein bodies at late stage by the process called terminal dilations which have been considered a principal route of the formation of cytoplasmic protein bodies somewhat later in seed maturation. Immunocytochemical labellings of the vicilin and legumin show that presence of vicilin on both of the cytoplasmic PB and PD, but limited presence of legumin only on the cytoplasmic PB at intermediate stage of seed development. Immunogold labellings of Bip, ER retention protein, were observed on the inner periphery of protein deposits in protein storage vacuole. This result was regarded that Bip can recognize and retrieve misfolded protein during active accumulation of storage protein to the PD in PSV.
Morphological Differentiation of Leydig Cells in Human Fetal Testes
Rhee, Kye-Il ; Kim, Dae-Joong ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ; Park, Eon-Sub ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 29, issue 4, 1999, Pages 511~522
The Leydig cell found within the interstitium of the testis is important in the spermatogenesis. The differentiation of Leydig cell, even though relatively well known in animals, is not fully elucidated yet in human. In the present study, human fetal testes (
weeks) obtained from artificially induced abortions legally without gross malformations were studied using light and transmission electron microscopy to make clear the differentiation process of Leydig cells in humans. Leydig cells could be classified as 4 types: fusiform, light, dark, and degenerating cells. The most immature cell was the fusiform cells found frequently at 14 weeks, which seemed to differentiate successively into light and dark cells. Light cells were most frequently found at 17 weeks and dark cells at 24 weeks. Light cells were found to have mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticuli (sER) most prominently than any other cell types. The lumen of sER became to be expanded with age. Some electron-dense inclusions were observed in the mitochondrial matrix of the dark cells. Lipid droplets found more in light cells than dark cells were most prominent at 16 weeks and gradually decreased after 20 weeks. Glycogen particles were rich in dark cells. Degenerating cells were most frequently found at 27 weeks. From the results, it is suggested that Leydig cells in human fetal testes undergo similar differentiation process af in animals.