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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Techniques for Cryo-electron Tomography in Biological Field
Mun, Ji-Young ; Lee, Kyung-Eun ; Han, Sung-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 73~79
In Biology, Studies Using Electron Microscopy for making Cell Structure to 3D reconstruction very fast development. Recently, by using Cryo fixation, we can see cell 3D structure without structural change, instead of using chemical fixation which can change cell structure. Before using this technology, we could understand cell structures only in 2D images. But now, through cryo-ET, 3D reconstruction of cell structure without artificial structure changes can be possible and this technology will give us many advantages in Drug delivery and Nanothechnology.
The Effect of Mineral-induced Alkaline Reduced Water on the DSS-induced Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mouse Model
Jin, Dan ; Kim, Dong-Heui ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Xufeng, Qi ; Lee, Kyu-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 81~87
Alkaline reduced water (ARW) has been used for drinking widely in several countries of Asia. The safety and clinical effects of ARW has been reported including anti-oxidative effect and intestinal abnormal fermentation. To confirm the effect of ARW on DSS-induced acute inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mouse model, we observed the length of total large intestine and the histopathological changes after supplying mineral induced-ARW (MARW) for 2 weeks and oral administration of 4% DSS (dextran sulfate sodium). As the result, the length of total large intestine and the disease scores by macro and microscopical access in the ARWsupplied group showed no significant differences compared with those in the control group. This result suggests that the supply of ARW for 2 weeks exerted no effect on amelioration in the DSS-induced acute IBD model. However, in consideration of the effect of ARW on the improvement of intestinal environment and gastrointestinal disease, this result seems that acute IBD animal model is not suitable or the period of ARW supply is not enough to prove the effect of ARW. The ameliorative effect of ARW on the intestinal abnormal fermentation has been confirmed by some researchers, but the precise mechanism also remain unclear. In conclusion, although MARW had no effect on the DSS-induced acute experimental colitis model, further studies on the verification of the effects of ARW by using other intestinal disease model and by long-term supply of ARW will be required. Also, It needs to clear the mechanism of ARW on the intestinal environment.
Fine Structure of the Silk Spigots in the Spider Dolomedes sulfureus (Araneae: Pisauridae)
Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 89~96
Dolomedes spiders of the family Pisauridae are one of free wandering spiders with semi-aquatic habitation. They do not build web for prey-hunting but build a nursery web for spiderlings. This paper describes the fine structure of the silkspinning spigots of the fishing spider Dolomedes sulfureus revealed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The fishing spider Dolomedes sulfureus possesses only three types of silk glands which connected through the typical spinning tubes on the spinnerets. The silk spigots of this spider were identified as three groups: ampullates, pyriforms and aciniforms. Two pairs of major ampullate glands send secretory ductules to the anterior spinnerets, and another two pairs (or
pairs in males) of minor ampullate glands supply the middle spinnerets. In addition, the pyriform glands feed silk into the anterior spinnerets (
pairs in females and
pairs in males), and the aciniforms send ductules to the middle (
pairs in females and
pairs in males) and the posterior spinnerets (
pairs in females and
pairs in males). Among these, the ampullate one is the most predominate gland in both sexes.
Molt-related Changes in the Granulocytes of the Spider Araneus ventricosus (Araneae: Arachnida)
Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 97~105
The fine structural modification of the granulocytes between the molt and intermolt period were investigated by the transmission electron microscopy. The granular hemocytes of the spider Araneus ventricosus were composed of three subtypes: eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs), basophilic granulocytes (BGs) and cyanocytes. Both of the EGs and BGs have electron dense granules within their cytoplasms, however the granules of BGs are larger than those of EGs. During the molt period, some of the EGs have fine structural modification in their cell organelles including formation of phagosomes as a result of active phagocytosis. However, the BGs have no phagosomes, but electron densities of the granules are changed to lower states than the intermolt period. The cyanocyte is the biggest hemocyte among the granulocytes. They contain numerous hemocyanin crystals in the cytoplasm with some electron-lucent vacuoles. During the molt period, some of the cyanocytes are changed to irregular shapes. High magnification electron micrographs reveal that the lattice sub-structure of the hemocyanin crystals are very similar to those of microtubules, and each tubule is composed of approximately 20 filaments with fine fibrillar structure.
The Transmission Electron Microscopic Study on the Alteration of Filtration Barrier in Aged Rat Kidney
Lee, Se-Jung ; Lim, Hyoung-Soo ; Lim, Do-Seon ; Hwang, Douk-Ho ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 107~115
The filtration barrier of kidney consists of endothelial cell, glomerular capillary, glomerular basement membrane, mesangial matrix, and podocyte. In aged rats, the morphological changes were shown in various parts, including the glomerulus. These changes were thickening of basement membrane and mesangial matrix, crescent formation of glomerular capillary, deformity of foot processes, glomerular sclerosis and obsolescence. But these glomerular morphologies are partial images or few serial images analysis. In this study, we examined the morphological alteration of glomerulus in the young and aged rats by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional reconstruction. We were found in aged rat glomerulus, expansion of urinary space and mesangial matrix, thickening and degrading of glomerular basement membrane, decreasing in podocyte foot processes, fragmentation of podocytic nucleus membrane. These observations indicate that may provide useful data for investigating the pathogenesis of age-related dysfunction of kidney.
Development of the Trichomes in Floating Leaves of Salvinia Species
Seo, Ae-Ri ; Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 117~124
Salvinia is an aquatic plant forming dimorphic leaves that have been modified into floating and submerged leaves. A air of floating leaves plays an important role for the floating and photosynthesis while the submerged leaves, which are lim and long, have the form and function of root. Many aquatic plants develop trichomes in the epidermis but in Salvinia, richomes grow densely in the epidermis of the dimorphic leaves. The present study examined the differentiation pattern of trichomes developing in the floating leaves of S. natans and S. molesta by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Trichomes developing in the floating leaves of Salvinia showed very different patterns. In S. natans, they were arranged in a V-shape form, having 20
25 rows at
on both sides of the lamina divided by the midrib in the floating leaf. In each row, 8
10 oval-shaped cells,
in length, were arranged in a spiral fashion. Four trichomes of this form made a trichome unit, but their apical parts were separated from one another and developed into the so-called 'knuckle-crane' type. On the other hand, in S. molesta, trichomes differentiated in a unique pattern quite different from those of S. natans. At the early stage of differentiation, trichomes protruded from the epidermis and then 4
6 cylindrical cells grew
long and the four trichomes formed as an unit. The four grouped trichomes were interconnected through their apex and developed in the 'egg-beater' type. Then
long multi-cellular stalk cells grew and protruded out of the epidermal surface from the basal part of the trichomes. Such a structural characteristic of trichomes is considered to play a very important role along with the aerenchyma tissue in the leaf mesophyll tissue for the floating of Salvinia on the water surface.
The Formation and Change of Cytochrome-c-oxidase in the Mitochondria of the Bovine Cardiac Muscle
Kim, Soo-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 125~133
Cytochrome-c-oxidase in mitochondria membrane is one of the most important factors for energy generation in the cell. As well as it is electron transfer enzyme, it is also heavily related to the apoptosis and other pathologic conditions. Meanwhile, porin is a protein located in inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, which is assumed to be functionally correlated with cytochrome-c-oxidase. It functions as forming electron transfer chain and conveying ATP. Therefore, using the immune-microscopy, It compared the distribution of cytochrome-c-oxidase and porin to figure out the formation and changes on cytochrome-c-oxidase in mitochondrial cristae. The sarcroplasm of cardic muscle tissue has many mitochondria. They are classified into two groups: the mitochondria with many cytochrome-c-oxidase and the mitochondria with only porins. The mitochondria with porins had few cytochrome-c-oxidases in their membrane; in contrast, the other mitochondria with rich cytochrome-c-oxidase had few porins in their walls. In addition, according to the location of the tissue in bovine heart, distribution of those kind of mitochondria had been clearly separated. As a result, it could be assumed that immature mitochondria has many porins to transfer the protein materials from sarcroplasm through the porins, and they made cytochrome-c-oxidase until it is enough, and then they decreased the porin and maintained minimum number of the porin.
Analysis on the Preservation of Scalp Collected from Full-Term Baby Mummy of Medieval Joseon Dynasty
Chang, Byung-Soo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 135~140
In this study, I investigated on the ultrastructure of scalp skin from full term baby mummy by using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The baby mummy was found within the uterus of a 16th century (Joseon Dynasty) mummified woman aged 20
30 years old. In scanning electron microscopic study, I found that the outer surface of scalp skin containing of sweat gland and stratum corneum are well preserved. The skin of the scalp measured about 1 mm in thickness and the epidermis was well distinguished from the dermis. In transmission electron microscopy, the shape and structure of the epithelial cells were not confirmed. I also observed well preserved collagen fibers composed of collagen fibrils with cross banding pattern ultrastructurally. But, the other connective cells were not observed due to decomposition of the dermis.
Expression of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS) in Developing Rat Kidney
Song, Ji-Hyun ; Ryu, Si-Yun ; Kim, Jin ; Jung, Ju-Young ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 38, issue 2, 2008, Pages 141~148
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of renal blood flow, glomerular hemodynamics, and tubule transport processes in the kidney. There is also evidence that NO is involved in cell cycle regulation and mitotic division. During development the nNOS expression pattern differs from that observed in adult animals. However, little is known about temporal and spatial patterns of nNOS expression in the developing kidney. The purpose of this study was to establish the time of expression and the distribution of nNOS in the developing rat kidney. Kidneys from 14-, 16-, 17-, 18-, and 20-day-old fetuses, 1-, 4-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups, and adult animals were preserved and processed for immunohistochemistry. In the adult kidney, nNOS was detected in the parietal epithelium of Bowman s capsule, macula densa, descending thin limb and inner medullary collecting duct. nNOS immunoreactivity appeared first in the distal tubule anlage at 15 days of gestation, and in all epithelial cells of developing thick ascending limbs (TAL) as well as macula densa of 17- and 18-day-old fetuses. From 20 days of gestation to 14 days after birth, nNOS was expressed in the newly formed cortical TAL, which are located in the medullary ray, whereas in mature TAL of juxtamedullary nephrons, nNOS immunolabeling gradually decreased in intensity and became restricted to the macula densa. In inner medullary collecting ducts, nNOS immunoreactivity appeared first at 7 days after birth in the papillary tip and gradually ascended to the border between outer and inner medulla. In the descending thin limb and parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule, weak nNOS immunoreactivity was observed at 14 days after birth and labeling gradually increased to adult levels at 21 days after birth. These results suggest that differential expression of nNOS in the developing kidney is an important physiological regulator of renal function during kidney maturation.