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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Studies on the Therapeutic Effect and Mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng Total Saponin on Infertility Caused by Polycystic Ovaries
Kim, Se-Eun ; Oh, Dong-Min ; Sim, Kyung-Mi ; Jeong, Moon-Jin ; Lim, Sung-Chul ; Nah, Seung-Yeol ; Lee, Yun-Lyul ; Kang, Seong-Soo ; Moon, Chang-Jong ; Kim, Jong-Choon ; Kim, Sung-Ho ; Bae, Chun-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~7
Experimental induction of polycystic ovary (PCO) resembling some aspects of human PCO syndrome was produced using the long-acting compound estradiol valerate (EV). Our previous study on the role of Korean red ginseng total saponins (GTS) in a steroid-induced PCO rat model demonstrated that electro-acupuncture modulates nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration in the ovaries. In fact, the involvement of a neurogenic component in the pathology of PCO-related ovarian dysfunction is preceded by an increase in sympathetic outflow to the ovaries. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that therapeutic GTS administration modulates sympathetic nerve activity in rats with PCO. This was done by analyzing NGF protein and NGF mRNA expression involved in the pathophysiological process underlying steroid-induced PCO. EV injection resulted in significantly higher ovarian NGF mRNA expression in PCO rats compared to control rats, and PCO ovaries were counteracted by GTS administration with significantly lower expression of NGF mRNA compared to EV treated ovaries. However, NGF protein was unaffected in both EV and GTS treated ovaries compared to control rats. These results indicate that EV modulates the neurotrophic state of the ovaries, which may be a component of the pathological process by which EV induces cyst formation and anovulation in rodents.
Ultrastructure of the Fertilized Egg Envelope in Cichlasoma managuensis, Cichlidae, Teleost
Kim, Dong-Heui ; Chang, Byung-Soo ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Kim, Seok ; Joo, Kyung-Bok ; Lee, Kyu-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 9~15
The ultrastructure of the fertilized egg envelope in Cichlasoma managuensis belonging to Cichlidae were investigated by routine light and electron microscopes. The fertilized eggs of Cichlasoma managuensis was of the light yellow, non-transparent, ellipsoidal, adhesive and nonfloted type. The size of fertilized egg was the major axis
, the minor axis
. The egg envelopes have a single micropyle, which is thought to the pathway of sperm in the area of the animal pole. An outer surface of fertilized egg envelope was covered by a adhesive reticular structures and the fertilized egg envelopes consisted of two distinct layers; an outer adhesive layer and an inner layer of
horizontal lower electron density lamellae alternating with interlamellae of higher electron density. The external shape of fertilized egg is common trait of fishes belonging to Cichlidae and these ultrastructural characters of fertilized egg envelope can be utilized in taxonomy of teleost.
Effects of Estrogen Receptor
-Selective Agonist Propyl Pyrazole Triol on the Morphology of Accessory Genital Glands of Male Mouse
Han, Ji-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun-Wook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 17~25
This study investigated that exposure of male mice to estrogen receptor
-selective agonist, 4,4',4"-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT) induce morphological changes of accessory genital glands. The male reproductive organs were fixed and processed for light microscopy. The PPT induced decreases of ventral prostates, seminal vesicles and preputial glands weights with experimental time. The glandular lumen of ventral prostate was atrophied compared with control group. Type of epithelial tissues in the prostate was changed from simple columnar epithelium to stratified cuboidal or squamous epithelium. Treated group with the agonist showed that increased connective tissue underlying epithelium in the prostate and seminal vesicle. Especially, the glandular lumen of the seminal vesicle was contracted when PPT-treated animals were compared with control group. Secretion cells of preputial gland were smaller than that of control group. On week 8, PPT treatment caused decrease of epithelial cell height lining the lumen of preputial gland. These results provide information useful in researching the physiological function of estrogen mediated by estrogen receptor
in male accessory genital gland.
The Change of Alveolar-capillary Barrier by Germanium in Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide
Lee, Yoon-Jeong ; Cho, Hyun-Gug ; Sin, Gun-Ho ; Jeune, Kyung-Hee ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 27~40
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as an acute inflammatory lung disease is developed by various factors that is originated from the destruction of alveolar-capillary barrier, and neutrophils plays an important role in the destruction. The study intended to confirm, the anti-inflammatory effect of germanium, whether a lung injury has been mitigated with the reduction of injury in alveolar-capillary barrier resulting from inhibition of neutrophils migration in lung tissue. Test groups were divided in saline administered CON, 5 hours of endotoxin administered LPS and 5 hours of endotoxin administered Ge+LPS following 1 hours of pre-processed germanium.
endotoxin was melted in 0.5 mL saline and sprayed into airway and 26 mg germanium per 100 g weight was administered into abdominal cavity. The endotoxin group which induced an acute lung injury with administered endotoxin showed dramatic increase of pulmonary edema (p<0.001), protein contents in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, BALF (p<0.05) and neutrophils of infiltration in BALF (p<0.001) comparing with a control group, while a pre-treated germanium group showed significant decrease in all categories comparing to the endotoxin administerd group. In the result of a microscopic observation, the structure of alveolar-capillary barrier which is constructed with basal lamina, alveolar type I cells and endothelial cell were preserved of the pre-treated germanium group relatively well compare to the endotoxin administered group. And the construction of lamellar body, microvilli and basal lamina of alveolar type II cells were also preserved relatively well. Hence, germanium activates as an anti-Inflammatory mediator in other words, it interfered neutrophils migration into lung tissue, thereby reduced injury of alveolar-capillary barrier from toxic substances of activated neutrophils. Consequently, the study has determined that the acute lung injury induced by endotoxin has been decreased by the pre-treated germanium.
Characteristics of Pearlescent Pigment using in Make-up Cosmetics
Kwak, Han-Ah ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Chang, Byung-Soo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 41~48
We investigated the morphological characteristics of the pearlescent pigment by using scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and thermal analyzer. The result is that the shape of pigment is platy polygonal form through observing the pearlescent pigment by the scanning electron microscope. The size of pigment is various and not formed in standardized size or shape. The pigment flakes were measured about from
. The tip of the piece of pigment is pointed shape or angled. The result of observing them by the scanning electron microscope in magnifying high power is that the edge and the lateral face of them is an round form and the measurement of thickness is about
. As well using the high magnification scanning electron microscope, the surface of the pigment flake observed like rugged as coating with the
element, the diameter of the coating particle is around 60 nm, then the coating particle consists of granular substance. Analysis of the configuration elements of pearlescent pigment using by the energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry is that O, Si, C, Na, Ca, Ti, Zn detected in the surface of pigment and its lateral face identifies similar components. In thermal analysis, there are no contained quantity differences between them in beginning from
showing thermal analysis, 1.1% out of contained quantity reduced at
, 1.7% dropped at
, and 1.9% decreased at
Study on the Morphological Change of Straight Permanent Waved Hair by Tensile Strength Test
Roh, Jung-Ae ; Chang, Byung-Soo ; Choi, Tae-Bu ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~56
In this study, we investigated tensile properties and ultrastructural changes of straight permed hair using the rheometer and the scanning electron microscopy. First, we compared the morphological characteristic between the virgin hair and the straight permed hair after testing tensile strength. Cuticle cells were heavily lifted off in straight permed hair than in the virgin hair. Cuticle cells were separated by the destruction of intercellular membrane complex and no destruction or damage were found in cytoplasm. In the comparative test for tensile characteristic between the virgin hair and the straight permed hair, tensile distance of the straight permed hair was decreased by 24.5% or 3.05 mm than the virgin hair. The tensile strength was decreased by 34.63% or
and the maximum stress by 34.59% or 56.12 g. As a result, the tensile property dropped to the lowest level with the straight permed hair than with the bleached hair or the permanent dyed hair of previous studies.
Development of the Glandular Trichomes in Trapping Leaves of Drosera Species
Lee, Hye-Jin ; Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 57~64
The trapping leaves of Drosera capture insects by secreting sticky mucilage from numerous glandular trichomes (GTs) that are developed on the leaf epidermis. The present study examines and compares the structural features of those trichomes in Drosera binata and D. pygmy with the use of light and electron microscopy. The study focuses primarily on the development and differentiation pattern of the GTs during growth. Upon examination, the upper and lower epidermis were readily distinguishable by the features of GTs in developing leaves. In particular, the GTs were dense in the upper epidermis and along the leaf margin. In D. binata, the capitate GTs with elongated stalk and sessile peltate GTs were found most commonly, whereas only capitate GTs with varying degrees of the stalk length were observed in D. pygmy. Up to ca.
long capitate GTs were seen in the leaf margins of D. binata and ca.
long GTs having racket-like head with adaxial hemispheric structures, otherwise known as tentacles, were noted in the leaf margin of D. pygmy. The peltate GTs were found to be distributed in the lower epidermis of D. binata. In both species, head cells were dense with cytoplasm containing high numbers of Golgi bodies, ER, mitochondria and small vesicles. Secretory materials accumulated within numerous small vacuoles, then fused together to form a single large vacuole, which serves as a secretory cavity. Flection movement of the marginal GTs and leaf blade GTs, and increased mucilage secretion from the head cells upon contact with prey during the capturing process are considered to be major factors in their active insectivorous mechanism. The findings of this study will be useful in comparisons to similar findings in other species that form adhesive trapping leaves, such as Drosophyllum or Pinguicula., further contributing a better understanding of the function and structure of the trapping leaves of carnivorous plants.
Observations of the Cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using Cryo-Methods and Cryo-SEM
Lee, Eun-Ju ; Moon, Yoon-Jung ; Oh, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Su-Jin ; Chung, Young-Ho ; Kweon, Hee-Seok ; Kim, Youn-Joong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 65~72
Cryo-SEM which enables specimens to be observed in frozen form has been used to study liquid specimens in their native states. Cryo-methods, sample preparation for cryo-SEM, are quite complex and involve several discrete but vitally interconnected steps which are rapid cooling, fracturing, sectioning, etching and coating. It is important to select practical techniques and to optimize conditions of each steps considering analytic purpose and specimen characters, viz., sample dimension, water contents. In this study, etching methods and sample preparation before freezing had been studied for observation of cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 using cryo-SEM and their cryo-SEM images were compared to Conventional SEM (CSEM) images treated by chemical fixation. We could observe the improved morphological images of the pili of the surface and membranes of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the three-dimensional architectures of their biofilm, which were difficult to observe using chemical fixation and CSEM. These results suggest that cryo-methods/cryo-SEM are useful techniques for morphological study of biological specimen.
Experimentally Minimized Contaminative Condition of Carbonaceous Artifacts in Transmission Electron Microscope
Kim, Young-Min ; Choi, Joo-Hyoung ; Song, Kyung ; Kim, Yang-Soo ; Kim, Youn-Joong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 73~77
Contaminative artifacts such as carbonaceous materials on carbon-coated microgrids are unavoidable, which is induced by electron beam exposure inside electron microscopes. This phenomenon raise a source to produce confusing information to the samples investigated by analytical TEM, which should be alleviated as much as possible. As experimental precautions for reducing this unwanted effect, the use of
cooled anti-contaminator and pre-illumination of electron beam at low magnification can be helpful. Nevertheless, we should be cautious to set an illumination condition for microanalysis because the contaminative effect is dependent with the types of irradiation situations, which is well known to be a decisive factor for causing the carbonaceous artifacts. Accordingly, it is necessary that optimal illumination to minimize the contaminative effect should be selected for improving the accuracy of microanalysis. In this paper, we introduce the practical method to determine the optimal illumination condition by evaluating the contaminative effect as a function of instrumental spot size, which is directly linked with electron current density.
Estimation of Electron Dose Rate using CCD Camera
Kim, Jin-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Min ; Kim, Youn-Joong ; Lee, Sang-Hee ; Hong, Ki-Min ; Oh, Sang-Ho ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 1, 2009, Pages 79~83
We report a useful method to estimate the electron dose rate which may be a decisive factor to characterize sample properties. Even though most mircoscopes have their own exposure meters, there are several practical concerns when such exposure meters are used to measure the electron dose rate: 1) Specimen should be avoided within the entire area of exposure meter; 2) beam current has to be always recorded whenever the operation mode is changed; 3) the electron dose rate can not be calculated for the beam current beyond the detectable range. To overcome these limitations, we suggest a useful method which utilize a CCD (charge coupled device) camera which is now a popular detector to obtain the final electron micrographs. We have evaluated the CCD sensitivity using the linear relationship between electron current on the exposure meter and counter ratio on the CCD camera which are built in KBSI-HVEM (high voltage electron microscope). Applying the new method, we obtained the CCD sensitivity which are approximately 0.039 counts/
and 1.37 counts/
for the Top-TV and the HV-GIF CCD cameras, respectively.