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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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A Survey of Plastid Crystals and Microtubules in Flowering Plants
Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 73~80
The plastid inclusion has long been known to exist in leaves of numerous plant species, especially in those of flowering plants. Among the inclusions, crystalline bodies are the most frequently distinguished structures of the foliar plastids, however, microtubules and phytoferritins are also reported occasionally. The crystalline inclusions vary in shape, and are located either in the stroma or within intrathylakoidal spaces, whereas microtubules and phytoferritins are more uniform in shape and are formed in the stroma. In crystalline structures, the composing elements exhibit a lattice pattern and/or paralleled tubules that are either bounded by membranes or exist without membrane enclosing. Other types of inclusions have not been shown to be enclosed by any membranous structures. According to the current survey, the plastid inclusion, with the exception of phytoferritins, has been shown to exhibit a crystalline or tubular pattern, and has been reported in more than 56 species of various families. Their occurrence is not restricted to any photosynthetic pathway, but is found to be randomly distributed among C-3, C-4 and CAM species, without phylogenetic relationships. The progress in plastid inclusion research reveals more information about the function and complexity, but the need for characterizing the 3-D structure of the crystalline inclusions also has been acknowledged in previous studies. A 3-D characterization would utilize tilting and tomography of serial sections with appropriate image processing that would provide valuable information on the sub-structures of the crystalline inclusions. In fact, recent studies performed on 3-D reconstruction of the plastid inclusions revealed important information about their comprising elements. In this article, the crystals and microtubules that have been reported in various types of plastids have been reviewed, with special consideration given to their possible sub-cellular function within the plastids.
The Preventive Effect of Captopril on VEGF Expression in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Retiniopathy
Bae, Chun-Sik ; Lim, Seul-Ki ; Park, Min-Jung ; Han, Ho-Jae ; Kim, Kye-Yeop ; Jeong, Soo-Young ; Yoon, Kyung-Chul ; Park, Soo-Hyun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 81~87
Diabetic retinopathy is one of major complications of diabetes mellitus, which is associated with the dysfunction of retina. It has been reported that the onset of diabetic retinopathy is related to the activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, is a key component of RAS. Among many growth factors, vascualr endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important cytokine in the neovasculization of retina, which is a characteristics of diabetic retinopathy. However, the relationship between ACE and VEGF was not elucidated in diabetic retinopathy. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the protective effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in the retina of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats. In present study, STZ-treated diabetic rats exhibited the increase of VEGF levels in serum and retina. The serum levels of VEGF in STZ-treated diabetic rats was not blocked by the treatment of captopril. However, the retina levels of VEGF in STZ-treated diabetic rats was blocked by the treatment of captopril, suggesting the local action of captopril in retina. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that the retina of STZ-treated diabetic rats manifested the increase of ganglion cell layers, outer nuclear layers, and inner nuclear layers, which were also prevented by the treatment of captopril. In conclusion, captopril prevented the expression of VEGF in the retina of STZ-treated diabetic rats.
Ultrastructural Observation on the Sperm of the Grey Red-blacked Vole, Clethrionomys rufocanus
Lee, Jung-Hun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 89~99
To investigate the morphological characteristics of spermatozoa of the grey red-blacked vole (Clethrionomys rufocanus) belongings to the subfamily Cricetinae, subgenus Clethrionomys were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The sperm head of C. rufocanus was an ax or hatchet in shape with a curved single dorsal hook. The total length of C. regulus sperm was 95.8
. The length of sperm head was 7.8
, and the tail (88.0
) consisted of four major segments: the neck (1.0
), middle piece (22.0
), and principal piece plus end piece (65.0
), respectively. The segmented columns were about 10~12 in number. The number of gyres of mitochondria ranged from about 170 to 178. The post-nuclear cap occupied about a half of nucleus. The equatorial segment is located between the post-nuclear cap segment and acrosomal cap on the nuclear surface. Nos. 1, 5 and 6 of the outer dense fibers were larger than the others. A fibrous sheath and longitudinal column of the principal piece were in evidence, but the fibrous sheath was not seen at the end piece. In conclusion, the morphological structures of sperm head and tail may be useful information to patterning of sperm evolution and classifying of species.
Morphological Study on the Dorsal Lingual Papillae of Sorex caecutiens Laxmann
Park, Ji-Won ; Lee, Jung-Hun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 101~106
The dorsal lingual papillae of Sorex caecutiens were studied morphologically using scanning electron microscopy. Three types of lingual papillae were found: filiform papillae, fungiform papillae and circumvallate papillae. Filiform papillae were observed in most part of the tongue except on the lateral surface. There were basically three types of filiform papillae distinguished mainly by their morphological shape and structure. Numerous fungiform papillae were spread throughout the whole tongue, especially concentrated in lateral sides. The size varied according to the position of fungiform papillae, becoming larger as it reached to the rear. Strict pair-wise distribution was not observable, but fungiform papillae were mostly located in orderly manner. There were two large circumvallate papillae at the posterior region of the tongue. There were two thick pads around the center part where several bodies were gathered together. Overall research provided similar results with other close species such as common shrew (S. araneus). The circumvallate papillae of S. caecutiens were different from other Sorex species. They were circular, as in bats and other Sorex species, and had two distinguishable pads while others had only one.
Histochemical and Fine Structural Visualization of the Epithelial Apoptosis in the Anuran Tadpole during the Tail Regression Stages
Lee, Hye-Won ; Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 107~115
The programed cell death of the cutaneous epithelial tissue during tail regression stages in anuran tadpoles of the blackspotted frog, Rana nigromaculata were visualized by the histochemical and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Metamorphotic changes in the tail regression during the period of the Shumway stage number 31 to 33 are characterized by the disappearance of mucous layer and formation of compound epithelium through cutaneous thickening. Following the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated d-uridine triphosphate nick end labeling) staining technique, the apoptotic cells were detected at the distal region of the tail skin initially, but they can be seen at the proximal region according to their following development. It has been also revealed that the number of the TUNEL-positive cells gradually increased from apical to basal direction of the epithelial layers during the tail regressing stages. Following the TEM observation, the early apoptotic cells shown in the epithelium demonstrated condensation and margination of the chromatin material at the nuclear periphery. Another epithelial apoptotic cells were shown nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and cytoplasmic condensation. Following the process of the apoptotic degradation, well preserved organelles and nuclear fragments can be identified in the cytoplasm of lysosome-rich cells, however they soon reduced to lysosomal residual bodies through the progressive degradation.
Effect of Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-secretory Product on the Cultured SD Rat Bile Duct Fibroblast
Kwon, Jung-Nam ; Min, Byoung-Hoon ; Lee, Haeng-Sook ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Joo, Kyoung-Hwan ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 117~124
Clonorchis sinensis is the most important widely distributed parasite of the human bile duct in East Asia and the most prevalent parasitic helminth in Korea. The prevalence rate of human clonorchiasis has remained at about 2.9% in Korea. C. sinensis induces dilatation of the duct, hyperplasia of the mucosa, metaplasia or neoplasia of the mucosal epithelium, periductal inflammation and fibrosis, and thickening of the ductal wall. Fibroblast are the most common cells in connective tissue and are responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation and injury may also contribute to cholangiocarcinoma pathogenesis, particularly through an increase in extracellular matrix components, which participate in the regulation of bile duct differentiation during development. In this study, ultrastructural changes, the distribution of lectin receptors and actin protein in cultured SD rat bile duct fibroblast after infection of C. sinensis were observed. Experimental group had been divided into four groups: normal bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media (G1); C. sinensis infected bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media (G2); normal bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media containing excretory-secretory product (ESP) (G1-1); C. sinensis infected bile duct fibroblast cultured in basal media containing ESP (G2-1). Overall, once a host is infected by C. sinensis, it affects the host to the extent that sialic acid of ductal fibroblast is increased. Number of cytoplasmic process of SD rat bile duct fibroblast was increased. Actin protein and sialic acid were located in cell surface. Fibroblast induced by C. sinensis was not recovered to normal fibroblast. The cytoplasm bulk and cytoplasmic process were increased whereas the growth rate of the fibroblast of infected SD rat was reduced rather than that of normal fibroblast. In result, it inhibits fibroblast proliferation and increases actin protein on fibroblast cytoplasm, and so causes fibroblast metamorphosis and cellular mutation.
The Anticancer Effect of Inonotus obliquus Pilat (Chaga) Processed by Nanomill Technology In vivo
Kim, Dong-Heui ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Yoon, Yang-Sook ; Qi, Xu-Feng ; Jeong, Hyun-Seok ; Chang, Byung-Soo ; Lee, Kyu-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 125~132
Extracts and fractions of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga in Russia) have been known to have various biological activities, including antimutagenic, anticancer, antioxidative, and immunostimulating effects. This study was performed to confirm anticancer effect of 10% superfine Chaga mushroom processed by nano-mill technology on C57BL/6 mice. Chaga particles belonged in the size of 1
was about 40% after nanomill processing according to the volume distribution. As the result of subcutaneous injection of B16BL6 melanoma cells to the mice, the tumor volume (p<0.001) and tumor weight (p<0.01) was significantly decreased in the experimental (NCh) group as compared with control (C) group and the tumor growth inhibitory rate was 29.2%. On examination of survival rate after intraperitoneal injection of B16BL6 melanoma cells, the mean survival time per a mouse was 17.7 and 26.0 days in C and NCh group respectively. The survival rate of NCh group was 40% when that of C group was 0% at the 35th day. On the result of examination to confirm histological toxicity by Chaga superfine particles, both groups did not show any morphological and pathological changes in the small and large intestine under the light microscope. These results suggest that feeding of superfine Chaga produced by nanomill technique has a tumor growth inhibitory effect in vivo.
The Food Safety of Superfine Powder (Phellinus linteus) Processed by Nanomill in C57BL/6 Mice
Kim, Dong-Heui ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Yoon, Yang-Sook ; Qi, Xu-Feng ; Jeong, Hyun-Seok ; Joo, Kyung-Bok ; Lee, Kyu-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 133~139
A officinal mushroom, Phellinus linteus (PL) has been known to exhibit potent biological activities including antioxidative and anticancer effect. PL is consumed as a type of powder or extract for the purpose of health promotion and disease treatment. Recently superfine PL products was commercialized according to the development of pulverizing technology such as nanomill, so the evaluation of food safety is suggested. This study was conducted to evaluate the food safety of superfine PL (SPL) through hematological, biochemical and histological examination in mice as compared with fine PL (FPL). In the particle size distribution in volume after nanomill processing, the mean diameter of SPL and FPL particles was 11.78
, and d (0.5), the particle diameter measured at 50% of distribution was 5.5
, respectively. As the result of body weight, food intake and the weight of organs, SPL group didn't show any statistical difference compared with FPL group and normal group (N). Hematological and biochemical values were also involved in the normal range, although ALT (N vs. FPL, P<0.001) and BUN (N vs. FPL, P<0.01; N vs. SPL, P<0.01) showed significance compared with N group but there are no significance between FPL and SPL group. In the result of histological examination with liver, kidney, spleen, and small and large intestine, abnormal findings such as inflammatory reaction and histological changes were not observed. Our results suggest that the oral intake of SPL diet is not harmful to the animal in the hematological, biochemical and histological aspects although particle size was reduced to the level of superfine. However, further study will be necessary to confirm the histological safety in relation to the gastrointestinal contact of superfine particles in the case of large amount and long-term intake.
Microstructure of the Antennal Sensilla in the Millipede Anaulaciulus koreanus koreanus (Julida: julidae)
Chung, Kyung-Hwun ; Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 141~147
The antennae of millipedes have a prominent function in detecting various types of environmental stimuli, and structural modification of the antennae is closely associated with the degree of sense recognition. Although the biological significance of the antennal sensillae to millipedes are widely understood, the structure and function of the antennal sensillae are still not clear and more precise analysis is required. We have analysed the ultrastructural characteristics of the antennal sensillae in a millipede Anaulaciulus koreanus koreanus using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). According to their morphological and substructural features, we could identify three different types of antennal sensillae as follows: trichoid sensilla (TS), chaetiform sensilla (CS) and basiconic sensilla (BS). The TS on the articles are long, blunt-tipped, almost straight hairs with deep longitudinal grooves in their lower parts whereas, the CS are long, sickleshaped bristles with longitudinal grooves acuminating toward the tip. The BS can be subdivided further into three subtypes which are the large-sized basiconic sensilla (
), the small-sized basiconic sensillae (
) and the spiniform basiconic sensillae (
). The BS between the terminal segment and distal margins of the other segments are clearly discriminated in this species.
Fine Structural Analysis of the Attachment Devices in the Jumping Spider Plexippus setipes
Moon, Myung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Gu ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 149~156
Fine structure of the dry adhesion system in the tarsal appendages of the jumping spider Plexippus setipes (Araneae: Salticidae) with examined using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The jumping spiders have the distinctive attachment apparatus for adhesion on smooth dry surface without sticky fluids. They attach to rough substrates using tarsal claws, however attachment on smooth surfaces is achieved by means of a tuft-like hair called a scopula. All eight legs have the scopulae with a pair of claws on the tip of feet, and each scopula is composed of two groups of setae that are capable of dry adhesion on smooth surface. The apex of each seta is flattened pad bearing many specialized adhesive setules on one side. The cuticular sensillae are interspersed at the dorsal surface of the seta. It has been revealed by this research that the contact area of the setule is always a triangular shape, and these cuticular surfaces are connected by the elongated stalks from the underlying setae. Moreover, adhesion between the numerous setules and the setae was prevented by the microscopic hairs, since these were interspersed on the upper side of the setae.
Fine Structure of the Silk Spinning Apparatus in the Spider Nurscia albofasciata
Park, Eun-Ah ; Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 157~165
Here we demonstrate the fine structural characteristics of the spigots on the cribellum and its peculiar sieve-like structure at the aspects of the functional significance. The surface of the cribellum is covered by hundred of tiny spigots which producing numerous cribellate silk fibrils. It has been known that the cribellar silk is considered as a quite different sort of catching silk with dry-adhesive properties. By our fine structural observation using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the titanoecid spiders have a specialized sieve-like plate just in front of the anterior spinnerets. The other types of the silk spigots were identified as follows: ampullate, pyriform and aciniform glands. Two pairs of major ampullate glands send secretory ductules to the anterior spinnerets, and another 1~2 pairs of minor ampullate glands supply the median spinnerets. In addition, the pyriform glands send ductules to the anterior spinnerets, and the aciniform glands feed silk into the median and the posterior spinnerets, respectively. Characteristically, 2 distinct types (A & B types) of the aciniform spigots were identified in this spider, and the spigots of the aciniform B type are always detected at the posterior spinneret, however sexual dimorphism for spigot is unlikely to be exhibited in this species of spider.
Ultrastructure of the Integument of Capillaria hepatica (syn. Calodium hepatica)
Kim, Soo-Jin ; Min, Byoung-Hoon ; Lee, Haeng-Sook ; Lee, Byoung-Wook ; Joo, Kyoung-Hwan ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 167~173
Capillaria hepatica is a parasitic nematode which causes hepatic capillariasis in rodents and other mammals, including man. Rat species of the genus Rattus are main primary host and rates of genus Rattus of up to 100% have been reported. Infection to reservoir and other mammalian hosts occur incidentally due to ingestion of water or food contaminated with C. hepatica embryonated eggs. The worms mature exclusively inside the liver, but they die and disassemble soon after egg spawning in rats. Dead worms and their eggs cause immune response of focal necrosis and inflammation within the liver. C. hepatica adult with a thin and long body is similar to capillary. The members of Order Trichurida are characterized by having a stichosome and the bacillary bands in front of the body. As already mentioned, the adult C. hepatica residesin the liver, where it deposits groups of eggs, and finally die in the encapsulated tissue of the liver. They produce eggs that elicit a marked granulomatous reaction that eventually destroy the worms. And the adult worms were mixed with eggs. So the complete isolation of the worm and observation of intact ultrastructure is very difficult. In this study, integument structure of C. hepatica isolated from the liver of mouse at 7 weeks after inoculation of embryonated eggs were observed with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. As a results, body length of isolated C. hepatica was about 99 mm. Cuticle, bacillary band and bacillary pore were obtained in the integument of worm. Bacillary pore across cuticular surface of the worm were observed. According to the existence of cap material, external forms of bacillary pore can be divided into three types such as flat, ingression, and ingression with the cap material type. The complete isolation of the worm and observation of ultrastructure of integument will provide the fundamental data which is important in the nematode research including C. hepatica.
Simulated Images of the Second Derivative of the Exit-plane Wavefunction Giving Sub-50 pm Resolutions in HRTEM
Kim, Hwang-Su ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 175~183
In this paper we present sub-50 pm resolution images of atom columns simulated with the negative of the second derivative of the exit-plane wave function (EPW). The EPW can be retrieved from a focal series reconstruction in the (high resolution) transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The simulated images are for Si and InAs in  and  orientations, which give about sub-50 pm separations of atom columns. The theoretical reason for the validity of this method is given from analysis based on the kinematical diffraction theory, and the limitation for applicability of this method also is discussed.
Three Dimensional Reconstruction of Cellular Structure in Drosophila Retina Using High Voltage Electron Microscopy
Mun, Ji-Young ; Lee, Kyung-Eun ; Han, Sung-Sik ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 185~189
Studies about the structure of Drosophila melanogaster retinal cell using electron microscopy have been carried out in details since 1960s. However, these results can have limitations in functional research because of two-dimensional structure. In this study, the adult retina of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by employing high pressure freezing method, serial sections, high voltage electron microscopy, and 3-dimensional reconstruction method. From there results, mitochondria, microtubules, and nuclei were reconstructed as 3-dimensional structure using IMOD program. The 3D structure of these organelles showed that mitochondira mainly located in distal region near lens, and microtubule mainly located in distal and basal region. The 3D reconstruction of these organelles can be used for a critical evaluation in the dynamic change of cellular organelles caused by functional abnormality like retinal degeneration.
Effects of Onion and Naringin Extract Mixed Products on Antihyperlipidemic Levels of Bio FIB Hamster
Kim, In-Suk ; Chae, Soo-Chul ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 191~197
This study investigated the effects to lowering hyperlipidemic levels in hamsters by feeding them naringin and onion extracts. The hyperlipidemic levels on all of the hamsters were raised by feeding them with high fat atherogenic diet (HFAD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol. The experimental groups were randomly assigned to 5 groups (normal, control, OEN, OES, and OESN) each 6 hamsters over a 40 days period. The control group (HFAD) received a 10% coconut oil and 0.05% cholesterol with basal diet, the OEN group which received an onion extract mixture contaning 50% water and 50% onion extract, the OES group which received 100% onion extract, the OESN group which received 100% onion extract combined with 1% naringin. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly decreased in the naringin treated group while the HDL cholesterol level increased. On the other hand, the morphology of the mitochondria and nuclei found in the livers of the treated group given naringin were siginficantly different when compared to those group given high fat diets. In conclusion, onion extract with naringin decreased cholesterol levels in hamster's livers.
Morphological Changes of Hair by Repeated Treatments of Permanent Wave
Kim, Keum-Eui ; Lee, Gui-Young ; Kim, Dong-Heui ; Ham, Joo-Hyun ; Lee, Jae-Cheon ; Chang, Byung-Soo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 39, issue 2, 2009, Pages 199~204
In this study, we observed the effects of repeated perms on the morphology of virgin hair of a healthy thirteen year-old girl with scanning electron microscopy. After the first treatment, the outer parts of cuticle cell were broken unevenly and roughly. Cuticle cells were lifted upward making a space. After the third treatment, cuticle cells were lifted off one another and the folded scales showed irregular surface areas. Broken pieces of cells were stuck on the surface and an empty hole was present in the endocuticle of the cytoplasm. We observed that cortex separated from cuticle layer more easilywith repeated treatments.