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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Immunohistochemical Localization of NMDA Receptor in the Auditory Brain Stem of Postnatal 7, 16 Circling Mouse
Choi, In-Young ; Park, Ki-Sup ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Maskey, Dhiraj ; Kim, Myeung-Ju ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 53~64
Glutamate receptors may play a critical role in the refinement of developing synapses. The lateral superior olivary nucleus (LSO)-medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB) synaptic transmission in the mammalian auditory brain stem mediate many excitatory transmitters such as glutamate, which is a useful model to study excitatory synaptic development. Hearing deficits are often accompanied by changes in the synaptic organization such as excitatory or inhibitory circuits as well as anatomical changes. Owing to this, circling mouse whose cochlea degenerates spontaneously after birth, is an excellent animal model to study deafness pathophysiology. However, little is known about the development regulation of the subunits composing these receptors in circling mouse. Thus, we used immunohistochemical method to compare the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) NR1, NR2A, NR2B distribution in the LSO which project glutamergic excitatory input into the auditory brainstem, in circling mouse of postnatal (p) 7 and 16, which have spontaneous mutation in the inner ear, with wild-type mouse. The relative NMDAR1 immunoreactive density of the LSO in circling mouse p7 was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. The density of p16 circling mouse was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. The relative NMDAR2A immunoreactive density of LSO in circling mouse p7 was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. The density of LSO in p16 circling was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. The relative NMDAR2B immunoreactive density of LSO in circling mouse p7 was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. the density of LSO in p16 circling mouse was
in heterozygote, and
in homozygote. These results reveal alteration of NMDAR immunoreactivity in LSO of p7 and p16 circling mouse. The results of the present study are likely to be relevant to understand the central change underlying human hereditary deafness.
The Oogenesis of Kribensis, Pelvicachromis pulcher, Cichlidae, Teleostei
Kim, Dong-Heui ; Chang, Byung-Soo ; Teng, Yung-Chien ; Kwon, Jung-Kyun ; Lee, Myeong-Seon ; Lee, Gui-Young ; Lee, Kyu-Jae ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 65~71
Kribensis, Pelvicachromis pulcher is a teleost belonging to Cichlidae. The oogenesis was investigated by light microscope. The ovary was located between intestine and air bladder, a yellowish and ellipsoidal shape with the major axis 20mm and the minor axis 5 mm. Cytoplasm of oogonia in early stage was basophilic and many nucleoli were located at inside of nuclear membrane. In primary oocytes, yolk vesicles were distributed only in the marginal area and egg envelope was not formed on the outside of an egg. In secondary oocytes, the egg envelope was formed and yolk vesicles in the cytoplasm were increased than the earlier stage. The basophilic substance of cytoplasm was changed to acidic. Some yolk vesicles started forming small yolk mass except the surrounding nucleus. In case of matured egg, size of egg were increased. The yolk vesicles were changed to yolk mass in accordance with development. The yolk mass contained crystal-like structures. In conclusion, the oogenesis of Pelvicachromis pulcher was summarized by the increase in cell size, the formation and the accumulation of yolk, and the decrease of basophilic substance in the cytoplasm. The oogenesis of Coreoleuciscus splendidus is similar with other teleost. But there were differences in distribution of yolk vesicle and yolk mass containing cristal-like structures.
Effects of rrhGM-CSF on Morphology and Expression of PCNA in Regenerating Rat Liver
Jeong, Jin-Ju ; Heo, Si-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Yoon, Kwang-Ho ; Lee, Young-Jun ; Han, Kyu-Boem ; Kim, Wan-Jong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 73~80
Liver regeneration is a result of highly coordinated proliferation of hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells. Partial hepatectomy (PH) is the most often used stimulus to study liver regeneration because, compared with other methods that use hepatic toxins, it is not associated with the tissue injury and inflammation, and the initiation of the regenerative stimulus is precisely defined. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is a cytokine able to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, was first identified as the most potent mitogen for bone marrow. Particularly, rrhGM-CSF, which is highly glycosylated and sustained longer than any other types of GM-CSF in the blood circulation, was specifically produced from rice cell culture. In this experiment, effects of rrhGM-CSF administration were evaluated in the regenerating liver after 78% PH of rats. Morphological changes induced by PH were characterized by destroyed hepatocyte plate around the central vein and enlarged nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and increased hepatocytes with two nuclei. And then, proliferation of liver cells (parenchymal and nonparenchymal) and rearrangement of plates and lobules seemed to be carried out during liver regeneration. These alterations in the experimental group preceded those of the control. Since proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is known to be a nuclear protein maximally elevated in the S phase of proliferating cells, the protein was used as a marker of liver regeneration after PH in rats. PCNA levels by western blot analysis and immunohistology were compared between the two groups. PCNA protein expression of two groups at 12 hr and 24 hr after injury showed similar pattern. The protein expression showed the peak at 3 days in both groups, however, the protein level of the experimental group was higher than that of the control. On immunohistochemical observations, the reaction product of PCNA was localized at the nuclei of proliferating cells and the positive reaction in experimental group at 3 days was clearly stronger than that in control group. The results by Western blotting and immunohistology for PCNA showed similar pattern in terms of the protein levels. In conclusion, rrhGM-CSF administration during liver regeneration after 78% PH accelerated breakdown and restoration of the hepatic plate and expression of PCNA. These results suggest that rrhGM-CSF might play an important role during liver regeneration in rats.
Fine Structure of the Epithelial Apoptosis in the Anuran Tadpole Rana nigromaculata
Lee, Hye-Won ; Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 81~88
The fine structural characteristics of the apoptotic cells in the cutaneous epithelium of the anuran tadpole of the black-spotted frog, Rana nigromaculata was examined using the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated d-Uridine triphosphate Nick End Labeling) staining technique and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) observations. The cutaneous epithelium of the tadpole was composed of stratified cuboidal cells and the apoptotic cell death was observed continuously during the tail degeneration stages from the Shumway stage number 31 to 33. The early apoptotic cells shown in the epithelium demonstrated condensation and margination of the chromatin material at the nuclear periphery, and nuclear breakdown and cytoplasmic condensation were followed. Subsequent cytoplasmic degeneration of the apoptotic cell were produced by membrane-bounded cell fragments with relatively well preserved organelles. Following the processes of autophagic degradation, the late apoptotic cells being phagocytosed by other surrounding cells. These nearby cells, presumptive intraepithelial macrophages, contain a variety of lysosomal residual bodies which fuses with other cell organelles or other cytoplasmatic material to form secondary lysosomes. They are soon transformed into lamellar shaped vesicles and finally disappeared during the process of degradation.
Reduction of Mitochondrial Electron Transferase in Rat Bile duct Fibroblast by Clonorchis sinensis Infection
Min, Byoung-Hoon ; Hong, Soon-Hak ; Lee, Haeng-Sook ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Joo, Kyoung-Hwan ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 89~99
Fibroblasts are the most common cells in connective tissue and are responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation and injury may contribute to cholangiocarcinoma pathogenesis, particularly through an increase in extracellular matrix components, which participate in the regulation of bile duct differentiation during development. Mitochondria produce ATP through oxidative metabolism to provide energy to the cell under physiological conditions. Also, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in cellular senescence and aging. Alternations in mitochondrial structure and function are early events of programmed cell death or apoptosis and mitochondria appear to be a central regulator of apoptosis in most somatic cell. Clonorchis sinensis, one of the most important parasite of the human bile duct in East Asia, arouses epithelial hyperplasia and ductal fibrosis. Isolated fibroblast from the bile ducts of rats infected by C. sinensis showed increase of cytoplasmic process. In addition, decrease of cellular proliferation was observed in fibroblasts which was isolated from normal rat bile duct and then cultured in media containing C. sinensis excretory-secretory product. However, the effects of C. sinensis infection on the mitochondrial enzyme distribution is not clearly reported yet. Therefore, we investigated the structural change of C. sinensis infected bile duct and mitochondrial enzyme distribution of the cultured fibroblast isolated from the C. sinensis infected rat bile duct. As a result, C. sinensis infected SD rat bile ducts showed the features of chronic clonorchiasis, such as ductal connective and epithelial tissue dilatation, or ductal fibrosis. In addition, fibroblast in ductal connective tissue was damaged by physical effect of fibrotic tissue and chemical stimulation. Immunohistochemically detected mitochondrial electron transferase (ATPase, COXII, Porin) was decreased in C. sinensis infected rat bile duct and cultured fibroblast from infected rat bile duct. It can be hypothesized that the reason why number of electron transferase decrease in fibroblast isolated from the rat bile duct infected with C. sinensis is because dysfunction of electron transport system is occurred mitochondrial dysfunction, increase of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and apoptosis after chemical damage on the cell caused by C. sinensis infection. Overall, C. sinensis infection induces fibrotic change of ductal connective tissue, mutation of cellular metabolism in fibroblast and mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, ductal fibrosis inhibits fibroblast proliferation and decreases mitochondrial electron transferase on fibroblast cytoplasm. It was assumed that the structure of bile duct could not normalized and ductal fibrosis was maintained for a long period of time according to fibroblast metamorphosis and death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction.
Developmental Patterns of Glandular Trichomes in Leaves of Vitex negundo
Park, Jae-Yong ; Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~108
Vitex negundo is an aromatic plant which releases a unique scent due to the presence of essential oil stored presumably within glandular trichomes. The focus of this research was to study developmental patterns of glandular trichomes in Vitex negundo leaves using electron microscopy. There are two types of glandular trichomes which develop on the leaf epidermis of Vitex negundo, peltate glandular type (PT) and capitate glandular type (CT). Structural features differ significantly depending on size and density, formation of secretory cavity, plastid, etc during developmental stages. In young leaves, undifferentiated PTs are densely distributed in the upper epidermis, but are not externally exposed in the lower epidermis because they are covered by non-glandular simple trichomes. Upon leaf development, PTs and CTs show clear structural differentiation in the upper and lower epidermis. PTs are composed of up to eight head cells (ca. 35~40
) and one stalk cell (ca. 5
), while CTs are composed of four head cells (ca. 10~15
) and 1~2 stalk cells (ca. 10
). Although secretory cavities develop on the secretory head cells, their size, structure, and formation proceed very differently depending on trichome type. In early development of PT, a large cavity with numerous secretory vesicles form rapidly from the head cells. In CT, however, only a small secretory cavity is formed, slowly relative to PT, without secretory vesicles. The PTs are considered to play an important role in releasing the aromatic components of Vitex negundo.
Morphological Study of the Suction Trap in Aquatic Utricularia japonica
Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 109~116
Morphology and microstructure of the suction trap in aquatic Utricularia japonica were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Branched stems bear numerous suction traps without root formation. The traps are derived axillary from the node, and their antennae and appendages extend in a peculiar fashion. The trap walls are thin, two-celled, parenchyma tissue and simple, small glands are scattered in both internal and external surface of the trap. The entrance of the trap is surrounded by one pair of dorsal antennae and ventral appendages, where the former guides the prey to the entrance. Trap door is situated below the entrance and numerous sessile and stalked capitate trichomes cover the entrance and even on the door surface. The capitate trichomes are secretory, but four trigger hairs formed on the central areas of the door are not. They are believed to function in activating and tripping the trap door. A specialized region of the threshold come in contact with the lower portion of the door upon closing. The secretory capitate trichomes near this region are responsible for producing and secreting a mucilage-like substance which composes the velum. Two-armed bifid glands are located in the interior side of the threshold, while four-armed quadrifid glands are considerably numerous occurring over the entire inner trap wall. Bifid and quadrifid glands develop semi-spherical basal cells that connect them to the inner wall surface. Antennae, trigger hairs, capitate trichomes, bifid and quadrifid glands are more important structures in the carnivory of U. japonica.
Experimental Examination of the Beer's law for Quantitative Electron Tomography
Kim, Jin-Gyu ; Song, Kyung ; Lee, Su-Jeong ; Jou, Hyeong-Tae ; Kim, Youn-Joong ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 40, issue 2, 2010, Pages 117~123
This study has examined experimentally the Beer's law which is a precondition for quantitative electron tomography. We used carbon support film and latex spheres, which have similar absorption coefficients with biological samples, as the test samples to take a tilt-series of images for electron tomography. First, the 3D information of carbon film and latex spheres was obtained by electron tomography. Then, the regression analysis on the relationship between the intensities of the incident and the transmitted beams in a tilt series was carried out to examine the Beer's law. The regression results with RMS error of 0.976 show the linear intensity variations of the transmitted beam as the tilt angles were increased. In addition, the relative absorption coefficients of carbon support film and latex spheres calculated experimentally through the Beer's law were 1.71 (5) and 2.67 (6)/
, respectively. The absorption coefficients remained constant within a full tilt range. Therefore, it is expected that quantitative electron tomography could be performed for biological samples by applying Beer's law provided the exact intensity of incident beam can be obtained under the thoroughly controlled experimental conditions.