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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Effects of Fenvalerate on Apoptosis Level and GFAP Expression in the Brain Tissue of the Pale Chub (Pisces: Zacco platypus)
Kim, Sung-Woo ; Park, No-Kwan ; Lee, Sang-Rae ; Reu, Dong-Suck ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.053
We evaluated the level of toxicity by LC50 and investigated the mechanism of brain impairment and GFAP expression by light and fluorescence microscopes in the pale chub, Zacco platypus, treated with fenvalerate. Survival rate was decreased according to the rise of fenvalerate concentration, and LC50 concentration was
. Apoptosis was increased according to the rise of fenvalerate concentration by TUNEL assay which determine apoptotic cell death population. Also, GFAP expression was increased in the periventricular zone. These results suggest that apoptosis might be a major mechanism to brain impairment of the pale chub by fenvalrerate. Increased GFAP expression in the periventricular zone would be an index of brain impairment. Taken together, this study might contribute to reveal the pathological mechanism of fish brain impairment by insecticide of pyrethroid, and to be an useful basic data for preservation of aquatic ecosystem.
Ultrastructure of Blacktip Grouper, Epinephelus fasciatus Spermatozoa
Kim, Seong-Hoon ; Lee, Chi-Hoon ; Song, Young-Bo ; Ju, Hea-Sung ; Kim, Hyung-Bae ; Lee, Young-Don ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.061
Ultrastructural characteristics of blacktip grouper, Epinephelus fasciatus spermatozoa were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The spermatozoa of E. fasciatus consisted of a spherical head part, a midpiece with cytoplasmic canal entrance and a flagellum with lateral fins. Internal ultrastructurally, the nucleus contains high electron dense chromatin having granular particles and has no acrosome. The centriolar complex lies outside of the nuclear fossa and it is connected by the osmophilic filaments. Also the osmophilic filaments connect between the centriolar complex and the nuclear membrane. The midpiece contains eight to nine spherical mitochondria, cytoplasmic canal and necklaces. The flagellum has a typical 9+2 axonemal structure. The lateral fins contain vesicles and a typical 9+2 axonemal structure. Consequently this study contributes to comparative grouper spermatology and provide useful systematic taxonomic characters.
Biomimetic Analysis on the Spider Silk Apparatus for Designing the Nanofiber-spinning Nozzle
Moon, Myung-Jin ; Kim, Hoon ; Park, Jong-Gu ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 67~76
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.067
The biomimetic approach on the cuticular spinning nozzles of the major ampullate silk glands in the golden-web spider Nephila calvata has been attempted using various visualizing techniques of light and electron microscopes to improve the design of spinning nozzle for producing synthetic nanofibers spun from electrospinning apparatus. The major ampullate spigot which has the most effective nozzle system to produce nanofibers for dragline silk with high strength and elasticity is connected via the bullet type spigot on anterior spinneret with flexible terminal segment. The excretory duct which transports the liquid silk feedstock from ampulla to spigot is divided into 3 limbs by loops back on itself to form an S-shape morphology that is bundled in connective tissue. Final diameter of the nanofibers at nozzle was dramatically reduced by gradual narrowing of duct cuticle less than 10 times comparing to its original size of funnel region. Moreover, the funnel has a characteristic cuticular organization with porous microstructure which seems to be related to water removal from feedstock of silk precursors. High magnification electron micrographs also reveal the presence of the spiral grooves on the surface of the cuticular intima near the valve which presumed to reduce friction during rapid flow of liquid silk.
Development of the Central Nervous System in the Wolf Spider Arctosa kwangreungensis (Araneae: Lycosidae)
Yang, Sung-Chan ; Moon, Myung-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 77~86
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.077
The morphological and histologic differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) in the wolf spider Arctosa kwangreungensis with respect to postembryonic development are studied using light and scanning electron microscopes. The organization of CNS which consisted of supraesophageal ganglion (SpG) and subesophageal ganglion (SbG) are established prior to the postembryo stage. The brain of first instar spiderling after a molt of the postembryo is also made up of supraesophageal ganglion and subesophageal ganglion. Although development of the optic nerve and optic lobe in SpG are not completed during the postembryoic stage, completion of whole neural system resemble to that of adult are established during the second instar stage. In particular, optic gangalion is developed from the undifferentiated cell clusters of the SpG, moreover four pairs of appendage ganglia and another pairs of abdominal ganglia are produced from the SbG. Nerve cells of the most developing stages are composed of typical monopolar neur1ons, and total three types of neurons can be identified through the histological and morphological basis of present study. These cell clusters are differentiated into neurons and grow dendritic fibers according to further development of the CNS.
Property of Silica and Fine Structure of Cosmetic White Powders
Jeon, Myung-Ok ; Chang, Byung-Soo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 87~93
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.087
In this study, fine structures of silica, titanium dioxide, talc and kaolin used in decorative cosmetics and the mixture extracted from BB cream cosmetics were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Kaolin had plate like shape structures of polygon with smooth surface and edge of kaolin had a relatively smooth appearance in comparison with talc. Also, thickness of each layer was estimated to about
in the lump formed in stratum of several layers. Talc was observed by lumps shape phase of layering very thin flake. Boundary of thin flake was sharp or angular phase and thickness of flake was approximately 600 nm in diameter. When comparing the thickness of kaolin and talc, we was confirmed that kaolin was thicker than talc. Diameter of titanium dioxide was estimated to 0.2~0.3
and surface of particle was a soft cubic form. Silica was confirmed that variety of size from 200 nm to
of globular shape was measured. From the observation of inorganic pigments, silica was homogeneous dispersed in the BB cream cosmetics and among each other was filled with relatively small size like talc, kaolin, titanium dioxide and iron oxide. In conclusion, we suggest that silica at decorative cosmetics were formed in cosmetic coat at the skin as the minimum thickness.
Epidermal Features of the Nelumbo nucifera Tissues and Lotus Effect
Kim, In-Sun ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 95~103
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.095
The cell surface sculpture of the plant epidermis has received great interest recently. It has also been an active area of research, as the biological microstructures of the surface, such as papillae and waxes, exhibit several unique properties, including self-cleaning character; namely the "Lotus effect" first described in the leaves of the lotus, Nelumbo nucifera. The Lotus effect is the phenomenon in which the super-hydrophobic and water-repellent nature of lotus leaves allow water drops to run off easily on the surface in a rolling and sliding motion thereby facilitating the removal of dirt particles. It is well-known that surface roughness on the micro- and nanoscale is a primary characteristic allowing for the Lotus effect. This effect is common among plants and is of great technological importance, since it can be applied industrially in numerous fields. In the present study, Nelumbo nucifera leaf and stem epidermal surfaces have been examined with a focus on the features of papillae and wax crystalloids. Both young and mature Nelumbo nucifera leaf epidermis demonstrated the Lotus effect on their entire epidermal surface. The central area of the upper epidermis, in particular, formed extremely papillose surfaces, with an additional wax layer, enabling greater water repellency. Despite the presence of wax crystalloids, epidermal surfaces of the lower leaf and stem lacking papillae, were much more easily wetted.
Application of the Band-pass Filtering for Improving 3D Tomogram of Micron-thick Sections of Biological Specimens
Ryu, Keun-Yong ; Kim, Mi-Jeong ; Choi, Ki-Joo ; Je, A-Reum ; Kim, Soo-Jin ; Lee, Chul-hyun ; Jung, Hyun-Suk ; Park, Jong-Won ; Kweon, Hee-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 105~109
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.105
Electron tomography (ET) of biological specimens is performed from a series of images obtained over a range of tilt angles in a transmission electron microscope. When using the high voltage electron microscope (HVEM), various noises appear in EM images acquired from thick sections by high voltage electron beam. In order to obtain an adequate result in electron tomograms that allow visualization of rather complex and mega-cellular structure such as brain tissue, it is necessary to remove the noise in each original tilt images of thick section. Using band-pass filtering of original tilt images, the filtered images are obtained and used to assemble a reconstructed tomogram. The qualified 3D tomogram from filtered images results in a considerable reduction of the noises compared to conventional tomogram. In conclusion, this study suggests that band-pass filtering is effective to improve the brightness and intensity of HVEM produced tomograms acquired from micron-thick sections of biological specimens.
Cryo-SEM Methodology of Arabidopsis thaliana Stem Using High-Pressure Freezing
Choi, Yun-Joung ; Lee, Kyung-Hwan ; Je, A-Reum ; Chae, Hee-Su ; Jang, Ji-Hoon ; Lee, Eun-Ji ; Kweon, Hee-Seok ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 42, issue 2, 2012, Pages 111~114
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2012.42.2.111
The scanning electron microscopy is an ideal technique for examining plant surface at high resolution. Most hydrate samples, however, must be fix and dehydrate for observation in the scanning electron microscope. Because the microscopes operate under high vacuum, most specimens, especially biological samples, cannot withstand water removal by the vacuum system without morphological distortion. Cryo-techniques can observe in their original morphology and structure without various artifacts from conventional sample preparation. Rapid cooling is the method of choice for preparing plant samples for scanning electron microscopy in a defined physiological state. As one of cryo-technique, high-pressure freezing allows for fixation of native non-pretreated samples up to
thick and 2 mm wide with minimal or no ice crystal damage for the freezing procedure. In this study, we could design to optimize structural preservation and imaging by comparing cryo-SEM and convention SEM preparation, and observe a fine, well preserved Arabidopsis stem`s inner ultrastructure using HPF and cryo-SEM. These results would suggest a useful method of cryo-preparation and cryo-SEM for plant tissues, especially intratubule and vacuole rich structure.