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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Electron Microscopy
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Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Improvement of Alignment Accuracy in Electron Tomography
Jou, Hyeong-Tae ; Lee, Sujeong ; Kim, Han-Joon ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.1
We developed an improved method for tilt series alignment with fiducial markers in electron tomography. Based on previous works regarding alignment, we adapted the Levenberg-Marquardt method to solve the nonlinear least squares problem by incorporating a new formula for the alignment model. We also suggested a new method to estimate the initial value for inversion with higher accuracy. The proposed approach was applied to geopolymers. A better alignment of the tilt series was achieved than that by IMOD S/W. The initial value estimation provided both stability and a good rate of convergence since the new method uses all marker positions, including those partly covering the tilt images.
Biological Applications of Helium Ion Microscopy
Kim, Ki Woo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 9~13
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.9
The helium ion microscope (HIM) has recently emerged as a novel tool for imaging and analysis. Based on a bright ion source and small probe, the HIM offers advantages over the conventional field emission scanning electron microscope. The key features of the HIM include (1) high resolution (ca. 0.25 nm), (2) great surface sensitivity, (3) great contrast, (4) large depth-of-field, (5) efficient charge control, (6) reduced specimen damage, and (7) nanomachining capability. Due to the charge neutralization by flood electron beam, there is no need for conductive metal coating for the observation of insulating biological specimens by HIM. There is growing evidence that the HIM has substantial potential for high-resolution imaging of uncoated insulating biological specimens at the nanoscale.
Comparative Ultrastructures of the Fertilized Egg Envelopes in Danio rerio and Danio rerio var. frankei, Cyprinidae, Teleostei
Joo, Kyung Bok ; Kim, Dong Heui ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 14~20
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.14
The leopard danio, Danio rerio var. frankei is a spotted color morph of the zebrafish, Danio rerio caused by a pigment mutation. The structural differences of fertilized egg and egg envelope are poorly documented. To clarify this, we compared the fertilized egg morphology and ultrastructures of surface structures, the micropyle and the cross section of fertilized egg envelopes of zebrafish and leopard danio, variation species of zebrafish using a light and electron microscopes. Although the fertilized egg sizes were different, the external shapes of the fertilized eggs of two species couldn`t be differentiated under the light microscope. The characteristics of fertilized eggs, such as a spherical shape, a non-adhesive quality and a large perivitelline space, were shown to be related to spawning habit. In ultrastructure of fertilized egg envelope, there is no morphological difference of micropyle between two species. By contrast, the ultrastructure and the numbers of knob-like structures and semihemisphere-like structures per unit area on the outer surface, and the number of lamellae of inner layer on the fertilized egg envelope section displayed definite species specificity. Collectively, our data indicate that the ultrastructure of fertilized egg envelope in the zebrafish could be differentiated by species variation.
Morphological Differences between Larvae of the Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta Busck) and the Peach Fruit Moth (Carposina sasakii Matsumura) in Korea
Lee, Seung-Yeol ; Choi, Kwang-Shik ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ; Yoon, Tae-Myung ; Jung, Hee-Young ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 21~26
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.21
The oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta Busck) and the peach fruit moth (Carposina sasakii Matsumura) are the most severe insect pests affecting apple orchards in Korea. To prevent an outbreak of these two species and to control these agricultural insect pests, it is important to identify them accurately. However, it is hard to classify them when they were in the larval stage since they tunnel into the apple fruit. In this study, surface structures of the two species of larvae were observed using stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. Distinct differences between the two species of larvae were found. The prothorax spiracles of oriental fruit moth larvae were approximately twice as large as those of peach fruit moth larvae. The arrangements of subventral setae, located around the proleg, were different between oriental fruit moth and peach fruit moth larvae. Furthermore, subdorsal setae of oriental fruit moth were located next to the spiracle on the 8th abdominal segment, while that of peach fruit moth was located above the spiracle. The identification of the two species of larvae observed in this study was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Surface structural differences are intrinsic characteristics for each species of larvae and can easily be identified using stereo microscope. These specificities will be helpful where a large number of field-collected larvae need to be identified routinely in pest control research.
Increase of Grb2 and Ras Proteins and Expression of Growth Factors in LPS Stimulated Odontoblast-like Dental Pulp Cells
Jeong, Soon-Jeong ; Jeong, Moon-Jin ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 27~33
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.27
Inflammatory cells express the inflammatory cytokines and growth factors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Odontoblasts are located at the pulp-dentin interface and extend their cell processes far into the dentin where they are the first cells to encounter microorganisms or their products. Therefore, this study examined the expression of some growth factors related to the signal pathway, such as growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2)-Ras in odontoblast-like dental pulp cells, after a treatment with LPS. After 60 minutes, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Grb2 and Ras were higher in the LPS-treated cells than in the control cells. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA expression was increased significantly to a level similar to that of Grb2 and Ras at 60 minutes. The platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) mRNA level was expressed strongly in the odontoblast like dental pulp cells without an association with LPS stimulation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed many extensions of the cytoplasmic processes and the number of processes increased gradually at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after LPS stimulation. From these results VEGF and bFGF expression might be induced through the Grb2-Ras signal transduction pathway in LPS treated odontoblasts.
Ambient Variable Pressure Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy for Trichome Profiling of Plectranthus tomentosa by Secondary Electron Imaging
Kim, Ki Woo ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 34~39
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.34
Glandular and nonglandular trichomes on the leaf surface of Plectranthus tomentosa were investigated by variable pressure field emission scanning electron microscopy (VP-FESEM). The segments of the plant`s leaves were directly mounted without any specimen preparation, and examined at ambient temperature using a variable pressure secondary electron (SE) detector under ca. 15 Pa. Foliar trichomes maintained their shapes and structures without severe surface collapse or charging. The adaxial leaf surface was abundantly covered with different types of trichome. Nonglandular trichomes consisted of a basal cell and a long (up to ca.
) stalk. Meanwhile, capitate glandular trichomes had a secretory head and a short or long stalk. Peltate glandular trichomes with globose secretory heads were observed in close contact with the leaf epidermis. Spherical projections on the secretory head showed the secretion process of glandular trichomes. In addition to the trichomes, oval stomata were distributed on the abaxial leaf surface. These results suggest that ambient VP-FESEM can be used to classify the dehydration-sensitive foliar trichomes of succulent plants by SE imaging. At the FESEM resolution, this approach facilitates the rapid and detailed morphological analysis of a variety of trichomes in diverse plant taxa with reduced labor and preparation.
Mn-deprived Phase Transformation in High-Mn Steel during the Dew-point Control Process
Hong, Woong-Pyo ; Baik, Sung-Il ; Kim, Gyo-Sung ; Jeon, Sun-Ho ; Chin, Kwang-Guen ; Oh, Chang-Seok ; Kim, Young-Woon ;
Applied Microscopy, volume 43, issue 1, 2013, Pages 40~45
DOI : 10.9729/AM.2013.43.1.40
Phase transformation by the Mn-deprivation was observed in the high-Mn twinning-induced plasticity-aided steel. Mn-depletion was induced by the formation of Mn-O oxide during the dew-point control process at temperature above
, which changed austenitic parent phase to multi-grained ferrite. Mixture of Al-O, Al-Mn-Si-O oxides were observed at the grain boundaries of transformed ferrite.