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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 7 - Dec 1999
Volume 10, Issue 6 - Oct 1999
Volume 10, Issue 5 - Sep 1999
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Analysis of the Sleeve Dipole Array Antennas Using the Moment Method
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 973~984
This paper presents a method of moments with the transmission line theory to analyze the sleeve dipole array antennas and analyses characteristics of that. There were several considerations for analysis of the method of moments. First, the method of moments were applied at both of the sleeve dipole elements and the coaxial line because the current flows on both of them. Second, the feed voltages of each sleeve dipole element were obtained by using a transmission line theory because the feeding structure is fed by coaxial line in series. Third, the series reactance between the coaxial line and the open side of the sleeve was considered as impedance loading on the antenna. The radiation patterns and current distributions from the numerical results were considered as variation of the feed distances and frequencies. To verify the validity of our method, 4 elements sleeve dipole array antennas with 1 λg distance were fabricated and measured, and then the measured radiation patterns were compared with the numerical results. The measured results were confirmed a good agreement with the numerical results.
Analysis of SAR on Human Head Caused by Antenna of PCS Handheld Telephone
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 985~997
In this paper, the detection of 1 g and 10 g averaged SAR on human head caused by PCS handheld phones is analyzed and discussed. Conventional monopole antenna and planar structured PIFA are used in the computational model to apply to the antennas mounted on handheld phone. These antennas are designed to operate in the near of frequency 1.8 GHz, human head model is sampled to have cell size 1.5 mm and sloped to front direction by 30
. It is found that, when monopole antenna is applied, 1 g averaged SAR is 1.4 W/kg, 10 g averaged SAR is 0.7 W/kg, when PIFA is applied, for each case, SARs are 1.143 W/kg, 0.4866 W/kg. While the radiation pattern of the monopole antenna is symmetrical, that of planar structured antenna is asymmetrical and SAR caused by PIFA is less than SAR by the monopole antenna. The radiation efficiency of PIFA is 62.6%, which is higher than that of monopole, 53%.
Design of Singly Fed Microstrip Antennas Having Circular Polarization
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 998~1009
In this paper, a microstrip aperture-patch antenna and a microstrip ring antenna, which have single microstrip line feeding systems for the circular polarization, are designed, and experimental results are presented at X-band. The microstrip aperture-patch antenna is characterized by its wide operating frequency range, and the microstrip ring antenna is suitable for a basic radiator in the large array antenna due to its small size. Several design parameters for these antennas are considered and analyzed to improve antenna characteristics such as VSWR bandwidth and axial ratio. Initially, the sizes of the aperture and ring radiator are determined on a basis of the cavity model, then shapes of the patch within the aperture and the inner stub of the ring are optimized using Ensemble software. Measurement results show that the aperture-patch antenna has 25% of VSWR bandwidth and 1.2dB of axial ratio at the boresight, and the ring antenna has 6.7% of VSWR bandwidth and 1.6dB of axial ratio at the boresight.
Performance Analysis of DS/CDMA Communication System with MRC Diversity and CCI Canceller in Nakagami Fading Environment
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1010~1021
In this paper, error performance of DS/CDMA GMSK system has been analyzed in a radio channel which is characterized by multi-user interference(MUI) and Nakagami fading. The DS/CDMA GMSK system adopts Maximum Ratio Combining(MRC) diversity and co-channel interference (CCI) to enhance system performance. Using the derived error probability equation, the error performance of DS/CDMA GMSK system has been evaluated and shown in figures to discuss as a function of PN code length(N), number of multi-user(K), number of diversity branch(L), and bit energy per noise power ratio (
), fading index(m). The results show that there is a substantial enhancement in performance by employing an MRC diversity or a CCI canceller. Additional improvement can be obtained when the MRC diversity and the CCI canceller are adopted in cascade form. Consequently, we expected that proposed system structure is reliable to the voice communication system in Nakagami fading, multi-user interferences and multipath channel.
Characteristics of a Microstrip Circularly-Polarized Aperture-Patch
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1022~1032
The radiation characteristics of a microstrip circularly-polarized aperture-patch
array antenna are investigated at X-band. The radiator consists of a truncated square aperture on the ground plane with an inclined rectangular patch inside, and it is coupled by a microstrip line on the opposite side of the ground. The element spacing of the array was chosen as
so as to minimize the mutual coupling and maximize the gain. A corporate feed network was employed to distribute the power to each element through four Wilkinson and two T-junction dividers. Measurement results for the
array at 10 GHz showed a directivity of 26.3 dBi, a gain of 22.2 dBi, an axial ratio of 2.97 dB, and a side lobe level of -12.7dB. It was observed that when the array size increases, the directivity increases while the efficiency decreases.
Performance of an Orthogonal Multicarrier CDMA System over Rayleigh/Rician Fading Channels
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1033~1043
We consider an improved multicarrier(MC) CDMA system that combines both DS-CDMA with a concatenated orthogonal/PN spreading sequence and MC modulation. This system incorporates the advantages of DS-CDMA with a concatenated sequence to achieve large user capacity and MC modulation technique to combat the effects of a multipath fading channel and intersymbol interference(ISI). Considering voice activity and imperfect sectorization, the system performance is analysed for the maximal ratio combiner(MRC) under a multicell, multiuser, and multipath Rayleigh/Rician fading channels. The performance of the system is improved much more for the single path fading channel compared to the multipath fading channel. Also the system is shown to have the more improved average bit error rate(BER) over the orthogonal MC-CDMA with the conventional PN sequence.
A 20 GHz Band 1 Watt MMIC Power Amplifier
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1044~1052
A 2-stage 1 watt MMIC(Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits) HPA(High Power Amplifiers) at 20 GHz band has been designed and fabricated. The
with the width of
for single device pHEMT technology was used for the fabrication of this MMIC HPA. Due to the series feedback technique from source to ground, bias circuits and stabilization circuits on the main microstrip line, the stability factors(Ks) are more than one at full frequency. The independent operation for each stage and excellent S11, S22 less than -20 dB have been obtained by using lange couplers. For beginning the easy design, linear S-parameters have been extracted from the nonlinear equivalent circuit in foundry library, and equivalent circuits of devices at in/output ports were calculated from this S-parameters. The measured performances, which are in well agreement with the predicted ones, showed the MMIC HPA in this paper has the minimum 15 dB of linear gain, -20 dB of reflection coefficients and 31 dBm of output power over 17~25 GHz.
A Study of Microstrip Patch Array Antenna Element for Both Transmitting and Receiving of the Satellite Communications
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1053~1064
In this paper, to transmit and receive the differently polarized signals simultaneously with a single antenna system, the dual-frequency microstrip array antenna with dual-polarization is proposed and designed. This antenna operates simultaneously at 14.25 GHz and 12.50 GHz. To extend to two dimensional array, microstrip feed line and coaxial probe through via-hole used.
Analysis of the Ground Bounce in Power Planes of PCB Using the Haar-Wavelet MRTD
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1065~1073
This paper analyzed the ground bounce caused by the power plane resonance in the multilayered printed circuit board(PCB) using the Haar-wavelet-based Multiresolution Time-Domain (MRTD). In conventional Finite-Difference Time-Domain(FDTD), the highly fine vertical cell is needed to represent the distance between
plane and ground plane since the two planes are very close. Therefore the time step
must be very small to satisfy the stability condition. As a result, a large number of iterations are needed to obtain the response in wanted time. For this problem, this paper showed that the computation time can be reduced by application of the MRTD method. The results obtained by the MRTD agree very well with those by FDTD method and analytic solutions. In conclusion, this paper proved the efficiency and accuracy of MRTD method for analyzing the EMI/EMC problems in PCB.
Performance Analysis of M-ary System in Nakagami Fading Channel
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1074~1084
In this paper the bit error probability of noncoherent M-ary FSK system is derived from the probability density function of the envelope of the received signal over a frequency-nonselective slowly m-distributed Nakagami fading channel. Also, the performance of coherent M-ray FSK system is theoretically analyzed, using union bound over the similar fading channel. Then we compare uncoded performance results for M-ary FSK and DPSK signals in Nakagami fading channel.
Performance Analysis of Fast Start-Up Equalization Using Binary Codes with specific Autocorrelation Functions
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1085~1094
In the global system for the mobile communication (GSM) system, the class of training sequences used in a TDMA frame is a preamble sequence with a period of 16 bits for the channel impulse response measurement and the start up equalization during the training period. If the transmitted preamble sequence and the binary sequence in the receiver properly satisfy a condition, this training sequences used for fastly adjusting the tap coefficients and impulse response can be measured by calculating the crosscorrelation function. In this paper, it is used that training sequences have zero values of the autocorrelation at all delays except zero and middle shifts. A comparison of convergence rate, a mathematical approach for fast start-up equalization and correctly channel impulse response measurement are proposed.
SAR in a Human Head Depending on the Arrangement of Antenna of Mobile Phone
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1095~1103
Presently, the retractable phone with a whip antenna composed of a helix and a monopole is most widely used for cellular mobile communications. However, since the length of the monopole is usually about λ/4, the strong radiated electric fields are produced in the region where the auricle of a head is contacted directly. This field distribution results in high specific absorption rates(SAR's) in the head. In this paper, SAR distributions and local SAR values for the inversely shaped phone(ISP) whose antenna arrangement is opposite to the original retractable phone(ORP) are compared with those for the ORP. This phone is accomplished by mounting the
/4-whip antenna on the bottom, not on the top of the handset. The time-averaged field distribution in a computational space including a human model and a phone model is computed using the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method. SAR distributions and local SAR values for these phones are calculated with the field distributions. An anatomical head model and an approximate hand model were used to consider a real situation. From the analyzed data, it is shown that this arrangement of the antenna considerably reduces the spatial peak SAR in a human head.
VCO Nonlinearity Correction Scheme for a FM-CW Radar using a Reference Signal
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1104~1110
When a FM-CW radar is used to measure the target distance, the nonlinearity relationship between the VCO control voltage and the output frequency makes an adverse effect on the measurement accuracy. Recently, many nonlinearity correction schemes using signal processing techniques and dedicated hardwares have been studied. This paper presents a signal processing technique to compensate for the VCO nonlinearity using a reference signal. To demonstrate the validity of the presented technique, several experiments were conducted and the results show reduction of the distortion in the range profile and the resolution improvement.
An Analysis of Optimized Position of the Fiber Optic Sensor Istalled near the Bridge Wire of Electro-explosive Device
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1111~1117
In order to measure the temperature of bridge wire, the explosive material is removed from EED and a fiber optic temperature sensor is installed near the bridge wire. Using the heat transfer theory, the optimum position of the fiber optic sensor in the EED is determined and the temperature-distance equation is derived from test result. The measuring technique can be utilized to the real electromagnetic radiation hazard test.
Performance Analysis of Hybrid DS/FH-CDMA over Nakagami Fading Channels with Near-Far Problem
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1118~1130
In this paper, error performance of DS/FH CDMA system has been analyzed in a radio channel which is characterized by near-far problem and multi-path fading. The DS/FH CDMA system adopts Maximum Ratio Combining(MRC) diversity and BCH(Bose-Chau dhuri-Hocquenghem) coding techniques to enhance system performance. Using the derived error probability equation, the error performance of DS/FH CDMA system has been evaluated and shown in figures to discuss as a function of PN code length(N), hopping rate(q), number of diversity branch(M), coding rate(
) and bit energy per noise power ratio
. The results show that DS/FH system is more effective to restrain the affection of near-far problem and multi-path fading than DS system. And there is a substantial enhancement in performance by employing an MRC diversity or BCH coding techniques. Consequently, we expected that proposed system structure is reliable to the voice communication system in near-far problem and multi-path fading channel.
Design of a Dual-Frequency Microstrip Patch Antenna
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1131~1137
In this paper, a novel design method of an apertured coupled microstrip patch antenna with the single feeding structure is proposed for dual resonance frequencies with mutually perpendicular polarizations. The characteristics of this antenna are experimentally investigated. In order to achieve this goal, a new type of square patch with double notches is used as a radiator and the crossed slot and the bended mictrostrip feeder are adopted for the dual polarizations in the aperture-coupled structure. For the application of the proposed antenna, a Ku-band Tx/Rx
subarray antenna is designed and manufactured. Also, the applicability of the antenna as a ground terminal is examined through performance analysis. According to the measurement, the gain of the antenna is 10dBi at the center frequencies of Tx and Rx, the side lobe level is lower than -13dB, and the cross polarization lebel is below 17 dB.
Design of Ku-Band Tx/Rx Microstrip Patch Antenna for Satellite Communications
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 10, issue 7, 1999, Pages 1138~1147
In this paper, two types of
Rx/Tx microstrip patch antenna are proposed to implement Ku-band satellite communications. The single-fed dual resonance patch antenna as the first type derives perpendicular polarizations at two resonant frequencies from a single patch radiator, using aperture coupling via a bended single-feeding line and a cross-shaped slot. The double-fed dual resonance patch antenna as the second type implements dual resonance with mutually orthogonal polarizations by mixing the two feeding mechanisms of the microstrip line and the aperture coupling. Especially, in the double-fed dual resonance antenna case, air-gap is introduced to broaden the bandwidth. Through measurement, each of the two types of antenna was verified to function properly both Rx and Tx. The double-fed dual resonance antenna shows excellent performance in the bandwidth and the crosspolarization characteristics.