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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 12, Issue 7 - Dec 2001
Volume 12, Issue 6 - Oct 2001
Volume 12, Issue 5 - Aug 2001
Volume 12, Issue 4 - Jun 2001
Volume 12, Issue 3 - Apr 2001
Volume 12, Issue 2 - Feb 2001
Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan 2001
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Performance Analysis of DS/CDMA Hierarchical Cellular System on Shadowing and Imperfect Power Control
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1037~1047
In this paper, the capacity for the reverse link of the imperfect power controlled DS/CDMA hierarchical cellular system is analyzed considering imperfect sectorization in shadowing environment. Unlike the theoretical assumption, the power control of the DS/CDMA hierarchical cellular system is not perfect. Therefore, we consider various parameters such as the imperfect power control, the imperfect sectorization, the processing gain and the number of microcell interferers, which cause the capacity variation of the DS/CDMA hierarchical cellular system. It is shown that the capacity of DS/CDMA hierarchical cellular system is decreased according to the increase of the deviation of the imperfect power control, the overlapped angle, the power ratio between macrocell and microcell and to the decrease of processing gain, the number of microcell interfering users. Also, it is observed that the hierarchical cellular system can increase the user capacity from 1.54 to 3.89 times compared to the homogeneous macro-cellular system.
Accurate SSN Analysis using Wideband Decoupling Capacitor Model
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1048~1056
Decoupling capacitors are commonly used to reduce the effect of SSN propagated through parallel power and ground planes in high-speed multilayer printed circuit boards (PCBs). In this paper, we introduced a simple high frequency measurement and proposed a wideband (50 MHz ∼3 GHz) equivalent circuit model for decoupling capacitor considering high frequency parasitic effects. The proposed model can be easily combined with the SPICE model of power supply planes far SSN analysis. The circuit simulations with the proposed model show good agreement with the measurement results. Also, we expect to accurately analyze the noise reduction effect as a function of value and location using the proposed model of decoupling capacitor.
Design for Linearly Polarized Microstrip Antenna using Electromagnetic-Coupled Dipoles
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1057~1066
This paper describes a design for linear polarization antenna using the EMCD (electromagnetically coupled dipole). The analysis and the design of model antennas are conducted by FDTD method. Vertical and horizontal linear polarizations are easily obtained by variation of dipole position. In 1-element antenna design, mutual coupling between microstrip feed line and radiator is considered. Design parameters of each 1-element antenna with vertical and horizontal polarization are used for array design. Radiation power and main beam tilting angle can be controlled by the offset and the distance between radiating elements in an array, respectively. 5-element array antennas are fabricated and measured to prove the design validity. The results of FDTD simulation and measurement show the reasonable agreement.
Analysis of Annular Corrugated Horn using FDTD
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1067~1075
The fields at the aperture of conical horn antenna with corrugations parallel to the axis have been analyzed using FDTD(Finite Difference Time Domain). Easy calculation depending on the change of the structure of antenna and time reduction can be achieved by 2-D FDTD coding with the first-order Mur ABC(absorbing boundary condition). It is confirmed that the corrugation can reduce phase difference of field on aperture. also it is investigated that the directivity is increased by 6.1 %, 12.9%, and 28.4% with one corrugation, two corrugations, three corrugations, respectively. It is also found that the improvement of the characteristics of the antenna is not proportional to the number of the corrugation but more dependent on the location of the corrugation near the aperture than that far the aperture.
Paratic Impedance Extraction of FC-PGA Package Pin using the Static Fast Multipole Method
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1076~1085
In this paper, the FMM(Fast Multipole Method) combined with GMRES(Generalized Minimal RESidual Method) matrix solver is used to extract the parasitic impedance for complicated 3-D structures in uniform dielectric materials which limit the use of MoM(Method of Moment) due to its large computation time and memory requirement. This algorithm is a fast multipole-accelerated method based on quasistatic analysis and is very efficient for computing impedance between conductors. This paper proved the accuracy and efficiency of the FMM by comparing with MoM in simple examples. Finally the parasitic impedance of FC-PGA(Flip Chip Pin Grid Array) Package pins has been extracted by this algorithm and we have considered the possibility of the EMI/EMC problem caused by the signal interference.
Design of Postdistortion Linearizer using Complex Envelope Transfer Characteristics of Power Amplifier
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1086~1093
A new linearization technique for RF high-power amplifiers(HPAs) using n-th order error signal generator (ESGn) is proposed. The n-th order ESG generates an error signal based on the complex envelope transfer characteristics of the HPA, which is combined at the output of the HPA. Therefore, the higher-order nonlinearlities are not affected by the ESG
n/ and the stability of the linearized system is guaranteed due to the inherent open-loop configuration. Moreover, the output delay loss can be avoided, because the error signal is generated with the input signal of the HPA. The IMD(intermodulation distortion) improvement obtained applying the ESG
7/ to 5 W class A HPA in cellular band demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed postdistortion system.
A Compact Folded Patch Antenna for Omni-Directional Radiation Patterns
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1094~1101
The design of a compact folded patch antenna with moderately broad bandwidth is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna has radiation characteristics that are similar to the conventional monopole antenna. However, since this antenna is designed in a planar form, it has smaller size than that of a conventional monopole antenna. We have investigated the resonance frequency and bandwidth characteristics of the proposed antenna by changing the antenna design parameters. The proposed planar form of a monopole antenna in this paper has 1.17 GHz bandwidth with a matching circuit at the center frequency of 6.05 GHz.
Power Amplifier Linearization using the Polynomial Type Predistorter
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1102~1109
This paper presents the new architecture of an adaptive predistortion linearizer using the polynomial type predistorter. In the proposed linearizer, most of the processes, including the predistortion, are performed with a digital signal processor(DSP). The recursive least squares(RLS) algorithm is employed for the optimization process to minimize the errors between the predistorter and postdistorter output signals. Simulation results demonstrate that the adjacent channel power ratio(ACPR) is improved by greater than 40 dB at the band edge with linearization. The convergence and reconvergence performance of the linearizer is also satisfactory.
An Application of k-domain Discrete Wavelet Transform for the Efficient Representation of Green Function
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1110~1114
The discrete wavelet concept in the k-domain is applied to efficiently represent Green function of integral equations. Application of discrete wavelet concept to Green function in the k-domain can be implemented equivalently by using spatial domain variable-sized windows. The proposed method consists of constant Q-filtering, changing the center of coordinates, and transforming spatially filtered Green functions into those in the k-domain. A mathematical expression of Green function based on the discrete wavelet concept is derived and its characteristics are discussed.
Performance Analysis of GFSK Systems by Impulsive Electromagnetic Noise in Indoor Radio Fading Channel Environment
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1115~1121
In this paper, we analyzed the performance of GFSK system that presence fading effect in indoor radio communication environments and impulsive electromagnetic noise from electronic equipments then we applied the Truncated Type- II Hybrid ARQ scheme to make satisfied in data transmission service. As a result, the system was influenced by fading and impulsive electromagnetic noise. Especially, the system was much degraded by high occurrence frequency and amplitude of impulsive electromagnetic noise than fading which has direct frequency. By adopting the Truncated Type-II hybrid ARQ technique we can also obtained the performance improvement in the low signal power(20 dB) arid over 24 dB in strong impulsive electromagnetic noise environment which is occurred error floor and terribly influenced by the system.
Fast Scattered-Field Calculation using Windowed Green Functions
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1122~1130
In this paper, by applying the spectral domain wavelet concept to Green function, a fast spectral domain calculation of scattered fields is proposed to get the solution for the radiation integral. The spectral domain wavelet transform to represent Green function is implemented equivalently in space via the constant-Q windowing technique. The radiation integral can be calculated efficiently in the spectral domain using the windowed Green function expanded by its eigen functions around the observation region. Finally, the same formulation as that of the conventional fast multipole method (FMM) is obtained through the windowed Green function and the spectral domain calculation of the radiation integral.
Haar-Wavelet-Based Compact 2D MRTD for the Efficient Dispersion Analysis of the Waveguide Structures
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1131~1138
This paper presents the new Compact 2D Haar-wavelet-based MultiResolution Time-Domain method (MRTD) as an accelerating algorithm for the conventional Compact BD Finite-Difference Time-Domain method (FDTD). To validate this algorithm, we analyzed the dispersion characteristics of the hollow rectangular waveguide and dielectric slab-loaded rectangular waveguide. The results of the proposed method are very weal agreed with those of both the conventional analytic method and the Compact 2D FDTD method. The CPU time for analysis of this method is reduced to about a half of the conventional Compact 2D FDTD method. The proposed method is valuable as a fast algorithm in the research of dispersion characteristics of waveguide structures.
Application of the Inverse Scattering Theory to the Design of the Tapered Impedance-Matching Line
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1139~1146
A tapered impedance-matching line is designed by an inverse scattering method for the one-dimensional medium. The phase compensation factor(PCF) is introduced in order to reduce the error in the inverse scattering process to reconstruct the permittivity profile. By estimating the permittivity profile of the virtual one-dimensional dielectric medium whose reflection characteristic is the same as that of the specified matching line, the matching line is synthesized. The method can be used to design impedance-matching lines with arbitrary passband characteristics without any equivalent circuit analysis. The inevitable errors in the method using the time-domain reflection coefficient can be avoided by using the frequency-domain reflection coefficient.
Realization of the Pulse Doppler Radar Signal Processor with an Expandable Feature using the Multi-DSP Based Morocco-2 Board
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1147~1156
In this paper, a new design architecture of radar signal processor in real time is proposed. It has been designed and implemented under the consideration to minimize the inter-processor communication overhead and to maintain the coherence in Doppler pulse domain and in range domain. Its structure can be easily reconfigured and reprogrammed in accordance with an addition of function algorithm or a modification of operational scenario. As we designed a task configuration for parallel processing from measures of computation time for function algorithms and transmission time for results by signal processing, data exchange between processors for performing of function algorithms could be fully removed. Morocco-2 board equipped ADSP-21060 processor of Analog Devices inc. and APEX-3.2 developed for SHARC DSP were used to construct the radar signal processor.
Wideband WDM Transmission through the Power Symmetry Method in the Mid-Span Spectral Inversion
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1157~1166
In this paper, we investigated the degree of compensation for optical pulse shape distortion due to both chromatic dispersion and SPM(self phase modulation) in high speed optical transmission system with dispersion shift fiber. We adopted the power symmetric MSSI(mid-span spectral inversion) as compensation method. We used EOP(eye-opening penalty) parameter in order to evaluate the compensation efficiency of distorted optical pulse. We evaluated input signal power range being able to maintain stable reception performance in the case of various chirp parameter of modulated optical pulse. And, in order to verify the applicable to wideband WDM system, we evaluated the wavelength range being able to maintain stable reception performance through the EOP calculation of various dispersion coefficient of first fiber D
11/. We showed that proposed MSSI is effective compensation method to down chirped optical pulse transmission rather than up chirped optical pulse transmission in anomalous dispersion range. And we showed that this method have possibility of relative high power transmission and wideband transmission in WDM system.
A Study on the Antenna PIM Measurement in Anechoic Chamber
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1167~1174
Antenna PIM(Passive Intermodulation) level measurement results are rarely credited due to the external signal receiving characteristics of antenna, and seriously affected by the external PIM sources such as anechoic chamber absorber and antenna tower. In this paper, antenna PIM model for the Reflect PIM measurement method is presented. Through the null point phenomena of the PIM level obtained by antenna PIM model simulations and experimental results, we concluded that antenna PIM level measurements are greatly affected by the PIM level generated on the anechoic chamber absorber and the path differences of PIM signal reflected to the antenna.
A Study on the Efficient IFEM for Analyzing an Arbitrary-shaped Iris in Rectangular Waveguide
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1175~1181
An efficient hybrid method is proposed to analyze discontinuities in a rectangular waveguide. Only with a small number of meshes around a discontinuity, the typical finite element method is shown to give an exact solution through several iterative updates of the boundary conditions. To show the validity of the proposed method, a simple circular aperture in a rectangular waveguide is analyzed and its result is compared with FEBIM.
A Study on the Improvement of Efficiency and Linearity of Power Amplifier using PBG Structure
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1182~1190
In this paper, microstrip photonic bandgap (PBG) structure with special perforation patterns etched on the line itself is analyzed and optimized in shape, then used for harmonic tuning of power amplifier. This PBG has an advantage in being fabricated and grounded. The dimension of unit lattice is enlarged vertically, but its input and output line maintain 50 Ω using tapered line. This modification from original structure can lessen possible error in etching PCB. The analysis and design of PBG structure are acquired from using EM simulation. The measured insertion loss of the final structure is 0.3 ∼0.4 dB, and its bandwidth of stopband is 6∼7 GHz. Measured results of improved characteristics by using PBG structure at the output of the power amplifier are 0.72∼0.99 dB in output power, 1.14∼7.8 % in PAE, and 1 dBc in the third IMD.
MMIC Low Noise Amplifier Design for Millimeter-wave Application
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1191~1198
MMIC low noise amplifiers for millimeter-wave application using 0.15
m pHEMT have been presented in this paper. The design emphasis is on active device model and EM simulation. The deficiency of conventional device models is identified. A distributed device model has been adapted to circumvent the scaling problems and, thus, to predict small signal and noise parameters accurately. Two single-ended low noise amplifier are designed using distributed active device model for Q-band(40 ∼ 44 GHz) and V-band(58 ∼65 GHz) application. The Q-band amplifier achieved a average noise figure of 2.2 dB with 18.3 dB average gain. The V-band amplifier achieved a average noise figure of 2.9 dB with 14.7 dB average gain. The design technique and model employed provides good agreement between measured and predicted results. Compared with the published data, this work also represents state-of-the-art performance in terms of gain and noise figure.
SAR Analysis for Test Positions of Mobile Phone
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 12, issue 7, 2001, Pages 1199~1205
There has been an increase in the public concern about possible health risks by electromagnetic exposure from mobile phones. Recently, several SAR measurement procedures have been proposed to demonstrate the compliance of mobile phone with safety limits. To determine the maximum localized SAR of a test mobile phone, the electric field distribution is measured in the head phantom with simulated tissue liquid using the probe The important parameters in SAR measurement are the E-field probe, the shape and size of phantom, the electrical parameters of simulated tissue liquid, and test position, etc. Therefore, in order to setup the measurement standard, the studies on these factors are required. In this paper, the effects of the maximum localized SAR on the test positions of mobile phones were analyzed by the numerical computation and the SAR measurement. From the results, the worst condition of commonly used positions was determined and the touch and tilted positions were adopted as test positions of the domestic SAR measurement standard.