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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 12 - Dec 2012
Volume 23, Issue 11 - Nov 2012
Volume 23, Issue 10 - Oct 2012
Volume 23, Issue 9 - Sep 2012
Volume 23, Issue 8 - Aug 2012
Volume 23, Issue 7 - Jul 2012
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Jun 2012
Volume 23, Issue 5 - May 2012
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Apr 2012
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Mar 2012
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Feb 2012
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Jan 2012
Selecting the target year
Antenna Gain Measurement in Time Domain
Park, Jungkuy ; Kim, Woo-Nyun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1217~1227
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1217
There are several antenna calibration methods, so-called 3-Antenna Method, Standard Site Method, and Standard Antenna Method which measure the antenna gains or antenna factors. These methods yield the free space or quasi free space antenna gains in only the frequency domain. In this paper, an antenna calibration method using the time domain in the open area test site is discussed. The reflected waves due to the ground are traced in the time domain. After they are removed by the time gating function of network analyzer, the free space transmission coefficient
is extracted. Such a way is applied to the broad band horn antenna ranging 1 GHz to 18 GHz, and the free space gains are obtained by Friis transmission equation. The method is checked by Standard Site Method in open area test site. The results show comparatively good agreement except for 18 GHz.
Fabrication of High-Frequency Packages for K-Band CMOS FMCW Radar Chips Using RF Via Structures
Shin, Im-Hyu ; Park, Yong-Min ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1228~1238
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1228
In this paper, we design, fabricate and measure two kinds of high-frequency packages for K-band CMOS FMCW radar chips using RF via structures. The packages are fabricated with the conventional PCB process and LTCC process. The design centering of the packages is performed at 24 GHz and impedance variation caused by the wire bonding and RF via structure is fully evaluated using 3D electromagnetic simulation. The RF via structure with characteristic impedance of
is used to reduce impedance mismatch loss. Two kinds of test packages with back-to-back connected RF paths are fabricated and measured for the design verification of the PCB-based package and LTCC package. Their measured results show an insertion loss of less than 0.4 dB at 24 GHz and less than 0.5 dB for 20~29 GHz. The measured return loss is less than -13 dB for the PCB-based package and less than -15 dB for the LTCC package in the frequency band, but the return loss of the package itself is predicted to be better than that of the test package by about 5 dB, because the ripples of the back-to-back connection typically degrade the return loss by 5 dB or more.
Design and Fabrication of X-Band GaN HEMT SSPA for Marin Radar System
Heo, John ; Jin, Hyeong-Seok ; Jang, Ho-Ki ; Kim, Bo-Kyun ; Cho, Sookhee ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1239~1247
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1239
In this paper, design and fabrication of solid state power amplifier(SSPA) using GaN HEMT chip for X-band frequency are presented. The SSPA consists of the power supply for stable power and the control unit for communication and controlling the internal module, the RF Part to amplify RF signal, In particular the adopted active device for the RF Parts is GaN HEMT Bare chip of TriQuint company, the RF parts consists of pre-stage, drive-stage, main power-stage and each amplifier is designed with input and out matching circuit. The developed power amplifier demonstrated more than 300 W peak output power in condition of 26 % duty, max. pulse width 100us for the X-band frequency( 500 MHz bandwidth) and can apply to marine radar systems.
A FPGA Design of High Speed LDPC Decoder Based on HSS
Kim, Min-Hyuk ; Park, Tae-Doo ; Jung, Ji-Won ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1248~1255
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1248
LDPC decoder architectures are generally classified into serial, parallel and partially parallel architectures. Conventional method of LDPC decoding in general give rise to a large number of computation operations, mass power consumption, and decoding delay. It is necessary to reduce the iteration numbers and computation operations without performance degradation. This paper studies horizontal shuffle scheduling(HSS) algorithm and self-correction normalized min-sum(SC-NMS) algorithm. In the result, number of iteration is half than conventional algorithm and performance is almost same between sum-product(SP) and SC-NMS. Finally, This paper implements high-speed LDPC decoder based on FPGA. Decoding throughput is 816 Mbps.
Performance of 3-Dimensional Frequency Reuse Patterns and Their Application to Carrier-Aggregated Systems
Sung, Jihoon ; Sung, Wonjin ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1256~1263
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1256
Assigning different frequency resources among adjacent cells, namely the frequency reuse technique can be utilized to mitigate intercell interference, which is a major cause of performance degradation in cellular systems. Since most of conventional frequency reuse patterns are limited to the two-dimensional environment, the research for the three-dimensional frequency reuse would be beneficial especially for the implementation of femto cells in downtown office buildings. We propose frequency reuse patterns in three-dimensional space and evaluate their performance of each pattern in terms of channel capacity. In particular, we show that the proposed three-dimensional frequency reuse patterns can be applied for carrier-aggregated transmission of LTE-Advanced systems. The performance of the proposed patterns is evaluated using computer simulation.
Analysis of Performance of Digital Retrodirective Antenna Technology in High-Speed Rail
Bok, Junyeong ; Lee, Seung Hwan ; Shin, Dong Jin ; Ryu, Heung-Gyoon ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1264~1271
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1264
Fast tracking is important for high-speed data transmission in high-speed mobile environment such as high speed rail and vehicular. Digital retrodirective array antenna is possible to do automatically beam tracking because it can control the phase information of the output signal toward opposite direction to input signal without no a priori knowledge of the arrival direction. Also, Digital retrodirective array antennas has merit that it is easy to upgrade and modify compare with analogue retrodirective array antennas. In this paper, we analyze the BER performance of digital retrodirective array antenna under AWGN environment and multipath signal. Simulation results show correct phase estimation and conjugation of retrodirective array antenna by using phase detector block. Also, phase conjugation technique has better BER performance about 1 dB at source than that of without phase conjugation when phase lag is
in AWGN environment. This paper also discusses effect of the presence of multipath signal. Phase and amplitude error about direction of direct signal occurs when retrodirective array system is affected by interference and multipath signal in the presence of multipath signal.
Regional Characteristics of the Average-Year and the Worst-Month Rain Rate Distribution in Domestic Environment
Kang, Woo-Geun ; Kim, In-Kyum ; Kim, Su-Il ; Pack, Jeong-Ki ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1272~1279
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1272
In this paper, models for the average-year rain rate distribution and the correlation between the worst-month and the average-year rain rate distribution in domestic environment were proposed, using the rainfall measurement data with 1-minute integration time of Korea Meteorological Administration. Comparison of the proposed model with the existing ITU-R model showed that the average rain rate of the proposed model for the exceed time rate of 0.01 % is about 28 % higher than that of the ITU-R recommendation. In addition, the correlation model between the worst-month and the average-year rain rate distribution was quite different from the ITU-R model. It is recommended that the domestic rain rate distribution model should be used for calculation of the statistical characteristics of rain attenuation(exceeded-time-rate distribution of rain attenuation) which is essential for the design of wireless communication systems in domestic environment.
Design and Fabrication of YTO Module for Wideband Frequency Synthesizer
Chae, Myeong-Ho ; Hong, Sung-Yong ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1280~1287
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1280
The 3.2~6.5 GHz wideband YTO(YIG Tuned Oscillator) module is designed, fabricated and measured. To improve the phase noise characteristic of the YTO module, offset PLL(Phase Locked Loop) structure with sampling mixer is applied. This YTO module is composed of sampling mixer, phase detector, loop filter, current driver, and YTO. The phase noise of the fabricated YTO module is measured as -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency, which approximates the predicted result at the center frequency of 4.5 GHz. This YTO module presents over 10 dB improved phase noise compared to conventional PLL module from operating frequency.
Analysis of Adjacent Channel Interference for WCDMA ATC Service Frequency Allocation Operating in MSS Band
Kang, Young-Heung ; Jeong, Nam-Ho ; Oh, Dae-Sub ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1288~1296
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1288
A candidate hybrid satellite and terrestrial network architecture, MSS/ATC(Mobile Satellite Service/Ancillary Terrestrial Component), is proposed for utilizing efficiently the exist MSS bands. Studies on the adjacent channel interference from the existing terrestrial mobile services and MSS/ATC itself are important to allocate a new ATC service frequency in MSS band. In this paper, we have analyzed the minimum permission power of terrestrial base station and the capacity loss with parameters of ACIR, number of MS(mobile Station) and MES(Mobile Earth Station) in uplink, and also, the capacity performance based on 1 beam and 1 cell assumption for MSS/ATC in downlink. The ACIR requirements are estimated in two MSS/ATC frequency allocation scenarios for 5 MHz and 10 MHz guard band to share spectrum with adjacent systems, and according to these ACIR requirements the service coverage and the receiver filter for ATC system should be designed in near future.
Design of 77 GHz Radar Transmitter Using 13 GHz CMOS Frequency Synthesizer and Multiplier
Song, Ui-Jong ; Kang, Hyun-Sang ; Choi, Kyu-Jin ; Cui, Chenglin ; Kim, Seong-Kyun ; Kim, Byung-Sung ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1297~1306
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1297
This work presents a 77 GHz radar transmitter for the automotive radar system. An integrated 13 GHz frequency synthesizer fabricated using 130 nm RF CMOS process drives a commercial W-band compound semiconductor monolithic multifunction amplifier(MPA), which includes a frequency multiplier by six to generate 77 GHz transmitting signal. The 13 GHz frequency synthesizer includes a high efficiency injection buffer of 4 dBm output power to drive the MPA. The output power of 77 GHz radar transmitter is higher than 13.99 dBm and the magnitude of the reference spur relative to the carrier is -36.45 dBc. The phase noise is -81 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency from the carrier.
Eigenimage-Based Signal Processing for Subsurface Inhomogeneous Clutter Reduction in Ground-Penetrating Radar Images
Hyun, Seung-Yeup ; Kim, Se-Yun ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1307~1314
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1307
To reduce the effects of clutters with subsurface inhomogenities in ground-penetrating radar(GPR) images, an eigenimage based signal-processing technique is presented. If the conventional eigenimage filtering technique is applied to B-scan images of a GPR survey, relatively homogeneous clutters such as antenna ringing, direct coupling between transmitting and receiving antennas, and soil-surface reflection, can be removed sufficiently. However, since random clutters of subsurface inhomogenities still remain in the images, target signals are distorted and obscured by the clutters. According to a comparison of the eigenimage filtering results, there is different coherency between subsurface clutters and target signals. To reinforce the pixels with high coherency and reduce the pixels with low coherency, the pixel-by-pixel geometric-mean process after the eigenimage filtering is proposed here. For the validity of the proposed approach, GPR survey for detection of a metal target in a randomly inhomogeneous soil is numerically simulated by using a random media generation technique and the finite-difference time-domain(FDTD) method. And the proposed signal processing is applied to the B-scan data of the GPR survey. We show that the proposed approach provides sufficient enhancement of target signals as well as remarkable reduction of subsurface inhomogeneous clutters in comparison with the conventional eigenimage filtering.
Accuracy Improvement of Time Domain Impedance Measurement Using Error Calibration Method
Roh, Hyun-Seung ; Cui, Chenglin ; Kim, Yang-Seok ; Chae, Jang-Bum ; Kim, Byung-Sung ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1315~1322
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1315
Frequency domain reflectometry diagnoses faults on electric cables by measuring the cable impedance. Time domain impedance measurement technique using an oscilloscope instead of a network analyzer is widely used for electric power cables under harsh environment or powered condition. However, impedance measurement in the time domain shows inaccuracy as the frequency increases due to several parasitic impedances, which results in the poor resolution of fault points. This paper presents the accuracy enhancement technique using a module with an operational amplifier and an error calibration method in the time domain impedance measurements, which is confirmed by comparing the cable impedance measurement results.
Time Synchronization Using Mutual Interference in Two FMCW Radars
Cho, Byung-Lae ; Lee, Jung-Soo ; Lee, Jong-Min ; Sun, Sun-Gu ;
The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, volume 23, issue 11, 2012, Pages 1323~1326
DOI : 10.5515/KJKIEES.2012.23.11.1326
In military applications, many radar systems are simultaneously operated at a close range. In particular, the frequency allocation must be executed for operating the homogeneous radar systems at the same time. As many radar systems are simultaneously operated with overlapping frequency bands, interference between systems inevitably occurs. Because interference can degrade radar performance, suppression of interference is a critical issue in radar systems. In this letter, we analyze the interference between two FMCW radars. In addition, time synchronization method between radars using mutual interference is proposed. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is suitable for real radar systems.