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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 1998
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 1998
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 1998
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 1998
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 1998
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 1998
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 1998
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 1998
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 1998
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 1998
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 1998
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
Nanotronics-The Role of the Engineer in Nano-Technology.
K.J.Stout ; A.Jihnson ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 15~26
The role of the Engineer in the era of nano-technology is explored, a trend in manufacture which is expected to yield a ＄20-30 billion per annum business throughout the world by the year 2020. The engineers who will be working in this subject will be required to have broadly based experience, over a range of traditional disciplines, such as physics. electronics, software engineering, control and mechanical engineering. As well as having an appreciation of other disciplines such as air conditioning, vibration analysis and its minimisation, the selection of materials for maximum stability and minimal thermal distortion as well as an understanding of ultra precision design and nano tribology. In other words the engineer who is to be successful in this new and emerging field, will have to be broader based than engineers of the past, where it was traditional to break up the elements of a discipline to smaller subsets. But as nano-technology advances and the subject brings about the evolution of nanotronics to provide a successful solution to emerging problems, it will be essential for a breed of engineers to develop who can consider the subject in a holistic manner. This paper therefore considers the emergence of nano-technology, predicts the subsets of the development and places them in context of the new engineer which will be required in increasing numbers. The paper summarises the skills of the proposed nanotronics engineer and provides a basis for their training and development.
An Expert System of Grid Die Auto Design for Electron Gun
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 27~33
Due to the requirement of high precision and complexity during the die design for electron gun elements, it sometimes causes human-errors. In addition, in the case of beginners, they have more trial and error than skilled engineers. To remove these problems and increase the productivity in the practice field, it needs the development of CAD system for electron gun element progressive die. Through this study, a CAD system of electron gun element progressive die, which is used, by knowledge base system including expert's technology in the practice, has been developed. To develop this system, it has used C-language under HP-UNIX system and CIS customer language of the EXCESS CAD/CAM system. An application of this system will provide effective aids to the designer in this field.
A Study on the Minimum Scheme of Burr Generation on Working Condition and Specimen Shape for in the Pure Aluminium(A1050)
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 34~40
The burr produced on piece part edges in machining operations must be removed for most parts to function effectively. Although considerable cost have been expended in improving deburring methods, little energy has been applied toward minimizing burrs. This study has been carried out to prevent the burrs produced on pure aluminium under various working condition and specimen shape in turning operations. The computer image processing system was used for measurement of size of burr, such as burr length, burr depth and burr area. The size of burr showed a decreasing tendency with the increase of rake angle and side cutting angle but it increased rapidly with the increase of depth of cut and the cutting speed has no effect on size of burrs. The size of burr rapidly decreased with the increase of edge angle and burrs are not occurred if edge angle is over 80
A Study on Optimal Design of Automotive Hydraulic Control System for Slip Ratio Control
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 41~50
In this study, to investigate a characteristics of slip ratio control of H.C.U for ABS, half car model tester were developed and a new H.C.U. was compactly designed comparing to the commercical H.C.U. for ABS. In half car model tester, variable inertia wheel has been used to load the car weights and braking forces according to the road surface conditions which were realized by pneumatic cylinder. And solenoid valves using P.W.M. (Pulse Width Modulation) method were installed in the new H.C.U The slip ratio characteristics of tire had been measured using half car model tester and the results were used in the control simulation for a new H.C.U.
Computer Aided Process Design in Cold-Former Forging
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 51~57
In this paper, a computer aided process design technique, utilizing a forging simulator and a commercial CAD software, is presented together with its related design system for cold-former forging of ball joints. The forging sequence design is carried out through user-computer interaction by using design templates, design database, experience or knowledge-based rules and some basic laws found in the literature. The forging simulation technique is used to verify the process design. The detail designs including die set drawings and die manufacturing information are automatically generated. It has been shown that the engineer ing and design productivity is much improved by the presented approach in the practical standpoint of process design engineers.
Development of Shear Type Rubber Isolator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 58~64
Rubber isolator has many advantages compared with steel spring mount. Rubber has high internal damping and can be formed various shape depending on specific purpose. On the contrary, low modulus of elasticity of rubber results the instability of rubber isolator by buckling phenomenon. This paper presents the development of shear type rubber isolator for industrial application by using shear rigidity property of rubber. The static load-deflection characteristics of developed isolator has been analyzed by the FEM. Consequently, the static load testing and a measure of the effectiveness of a vibration isolator in terms of force transmissibility for developed isolator have been carried out.
A Study on Cutting Performance of the BTA Drilling
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 65~72
The BTA drilling chip is better for deep hole drilling than other self-piloting with pad drilling chips because the large length to diameter ratio allows a unique cutting force dispersion and better supplies the high pressure fluid. Therefore the BTA is useful for many tasks, such as coolant hole drilling of large scale dies, as well as tube seat drilling, which is essential for the heat exchanger, and variable component drilling for automobiles. Deep hole drilling has several significant problems, such as hole deviation, hole over-size, circularity, straightness, and surface roughness. The reasons for these problems, which often result in quality short comings, are an alignment of the BTA drilling system and the unbalance of cutting force by work piece and tool shape. This paper analyzes the properties through an experiment which com¬pared single-edge BTA drills with multiple-edge BTA drills, as well as the shapes of the tools to cause an unbalance of cutting force, and its effect on the precision of the worked hole. Conclusions are as follows. 1) In SMSSC drilling, 60m/min of BTA with single and multi-edged tools proved the best cutting condition and the lowest wear character. 2) The roundness got a little worse as cutting speed was increased, but surface roughness was hot affected. 3) It was proved that the burnishing torque of both drills approached 26%. which is almost the same as the 24% insisted on by Griffiths, and the dispersion characteristic of the multi-edged BTA drill proved better than the single-edge BTA drill.
Development of a Brushless Linear DC Motor for High Speed and Precise Position Control
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 73~80
Recently, we have developed a linear brushless DC motor(LBLDCM) with high speed and precise position control performance to apply it to the semiconductor assembly and inspection machinery. It is composed of double side alignment by two armature-stator pairs and each pair is consist of a moving armature with 8 poles by 3 phase coils and a stator with rare earth permanent magnet (Nd-Fe-B) arrays. Through the thrust force analysis on a simplified and whole model of the suggested LBLDCM by an Electromagnetic FEM solver, skew angle of magnet arrays to reduce the thrust force ripple and the winding conditions of the armature is designed. From experimental results, the user's requirements was satisfied and we confirmed distinctly that the repeatable accuracy less than a micron of the linear motion can be obtained at high speed by the developed LBLDCM. This is owing to directly drive the work without the gear train.
A Study on Torque Transmission Using Electro-Rheological Fluid
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 81~87
This paper provides an investigation of torque transmission system using ERF (Electro-Rheological Fluid). The torque transmission system using ERF is a new conception device because an apparent viscosity of ERF can be changed by applying an electric field, We use the coaxial cylinder type in which the ERF fills the annular space between a pair of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and experiment results show that the measured torque was increased with the increase of the electric field. These are analyzed to provide guidelines to assist in the development of practical ER devices.
A Study on the Prediction of the Fatigue Life of a Lug through the Finite Element Analysis
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 88~95
The purpose of this study is to predict the life of a Lug under the real service load history. The techniques of predicting a fatigue life under load spectrum are discussed and some are developed. The stress is calculated by multiplying the stress under unit force with the Finite Element Analysis. The cycles are counted by the Rainflow counting method and then the mean stress effect is considered by the suggested conversion function. The Manson's Double Linear Damage Rule is used as the cummulative damage method.
A Study on the Improvement of Accuracy of Surface Measurement in the Phase-Shifting Shadow Moir
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 96~102
In this study, the theory and application of phase-shifting shadow moire topography is focused on the non-contact measurement of object surfaces for practical use in the field of production engineering. Shadow moire topography has been studied during last few decades in the area of the optical physics, and now its mathmatical theory has been established. Generally, in case of the classical shadow moire topography, the sensitivity is a few tenths of millimeter in best cases. Here we tried the application of phase-shifting method to the conventional shadow moire topography. But the reference grating and the deformed grating are mutually dependent because it is impossible to obtain uniform phase shifts on the whole Held. Therefore it is difficult to use a phase-shifting method in shadow moire topography. However, it was shown that constant phase-shifting was able to be measured by moving both the grating and light source. Finally we obtained a better result by using this procedure and applied the phase-shifting shadow moire to three dimensional object measurement.
Applying Expert System to Statistical Process Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 103~112
The evolution of semiconductor manufacturing technology has accelerated the reduction of device dimensions and the increase of integrated circuit density. In order to improve yield within a short turn around time and maintain it at high level, a system that can rapidly determine problematic processing steps is needed. The statistical process control detects abnormal process variation of key parameters. Expert systems in SPC can serve as a valuable tool to automate the analysis and interpretation of control charts. A set of IF-THEN rules was used to formalize knowledge base of special causes. This research proposes a strategy to apply expert system to SPC in semiconductor manufacturing. In analysis, the expert system accomplishes the instability detection of process parameter, In diagnosis, an engineer is supported by process analyzer program. An example has been used to demonstrate the expert system and the process analyzer.
Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life under Constant Amplitude and Overloading Condition
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 113~119
Ship structures and aircraft structures are consisted of thin sheet alloy, so it is very important to understand the characteristics of fatigue crack propagation of that material and to establish the data base. The data for fatigue crack propagation behavior scatter very much even under identical experimental conditions with constant loading. The behavior of fatigue crack propagation under regular and irregular cyclic loadings is known to be highly affected by complicated factors such as plastic zone developed at the vicinity of crack tip and reduction of cross sectional area. In this paper, the controlled stress amplitude and overload fatigue crack propagation tests have been conducted to investigate the effect of varying factors such as plastic zone size near the crack tip and area reduction factor (AF) on the fatigue crack propagation behavior A better simulation of fatigue crack propagation behavior is found to be obtainable by using Wheeler and Willenborg models with AF effect.
Dynamic Characteristics of Automatic Transmission System Due to the Change of Planetary Gear Ratio
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 120~127
In this study the dynamic characteristics of automatic transmission system due to the change of the planetary gear ratio is studied. To study the power flow and shift quality for power transmission the simulation program is developed using the modeling and analysis technique. The results from this study will be used in designing the basic structure of automatic transmission using planetary gear system.
A Finite Element Analysis for the Characteristics of Temperature and Stress in Micro-machining Considering the Size Effect
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 128~139
In this paper, a finite element method for predicting the temperature and stress distributions in micro-machining is presented. The work material is oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper(OFHC copper) and its flow stress is taken as a function of strain, strain rate and temperature in order to reflect realistic behavior in machining process. From the simulation, a lot of information on the micro-machining process can be obtained; cutting force, cutting temperature, chip shape, distributions of temperature and stress, etc. The calculated cutting force was found to agree with the experiment result with the consideration of friction characteristics on chip-tool contact region. Because of considering the tool edge radius, this cutting model using the finite element method can analyze the micro-machining with the very small depth of cut, almost the same size of tool edge radius, and can observe the 'size effect' characteristic. Also the effects of temperature and friction on micro-machining were investigated.
Dynamic Instability of Elastically Restrained Beams under Distributed Tangential Forces
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 140~147
The dynamic behavior of elastically restrained beams under the action of distributed tangential forces is investigated in this paper. The beam, which is fixed at one end, is assumed to rest on an intermediate spring support. The governing equations of motion are derived from the energy expressions, and the finite element formulation is employed to calculate the critical distributed tangential force. Jump phenomena for the critical distributed tangential force and instability types are presented for various spring stiffnesses and support positions. Stability maps are generated by performing parametric studies to show how the distributed tangential forces affect the frequencies and the stability of the system considered. Through the numerical simulations, the following conclusioils are obtained: (i) Only flutter type instability exists for the dimensionless spring stiffness K
97, regardless of the position of the spring support. (ii) For the dimensionless spring stiffness K
98, the transition from flutter to divergence occurs at a certain position of the spring support, and the transition position moves from the free end to the free end of the beam as the spring stiffness increases. (iii) For K
the support condition can be regarded as a rigid support condition.
Blending Surface with Parameter Control in Compound Surface
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 148~155
For products of various shapes, compound surfaces are used. Blending surfaces are essential to the products of the compound surfaces. In this paper a method of making shape of blending surface flexible with parameter control is discussed. The parameter has quantitative control of shape of the blend. The blending surface is applied to NURBS and simple primitives in solid model. Intersection curves of surfaces is used to provide the blend with generality. Rail curve are found with the intersection curves. The blend is generated by rail curves and parameter control. Also, In strict constraint condition, blending surface with flexible shapes is discussed, keeping ;
continuity between free-formed surfaces and solids. Joining blending ,bridge blending and blending surface at corner are generated.
A Study on Shape Measurement by Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 156~164
Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry(ESPI) has been used to measure surface deformations of engineering components and materials in industrial areas. ESPI, a non-contact and non-destructive technique, is capable of providing full-field results with high spatial resolution and high speed. One of the important application using electronic speckle pattern interferometry is electronic speckle contouring of a diffused object for 3-D shape analysis and topography measurement. Generally the electronic speckle contouring is suitable for providing measurement range from millimeters to several centimeters. In this study, we introduce the contouring method by modified dual-beam speckle pattern interferometer and the shift of the two illumination beams through optical fiber in order to obtain the contour fringe patterns. We also describe formation process of depth contour fringes and grid contour fringes by shifting direction of the two illumination beams. Before the experiments, we performed the geometric analysis for dual-beam-shifted ESPI contouring, and then, the electronic speckle contouring experiment with various specimens. For quantitative analysis of the contour fringes, we used 4-frame phase shifting method with PZT Finally, good agreement between the geometric analysis and experimetal results is obtained.
Nonlinear Sliding Mode Control of an Axial Electromagnetic Levitation System by Attractive Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 165~171
An axial electromagnetic levitation system using attractive force is a highly nonlinear system due to the nonlinearity of materials, variable air gap and flux density. To control the levitating system with large air gap, a conventional PID control based on the linear model is not satisfactory to obtain the desired performance and the position tracking control of the sinusoidal motion by simulation results. Thus, sliding mode control(SMC) based on the input-output linearization is suggested and evaluated by simulation and experimental approaches. Usefulness of the SMC to this system is conformed experimentally. If the expected variation of added mass can be included in the gain conditions and the model, the position control performance of the electromagnetic levitation system with large air gap will be improved with robustness.
Development of a Geometric Error Analysis and Virtual Manufacturing System for Gantry-Type 5-Axis Machining Centers
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 172~179
To quickly determine the effect of the substitute component on the machine's performance is very important in the design and manufacturing processes. And minimizing machine cost and maximizing machine quality mandate predictability of machine accuracy. In this study, in order to evaluate the effects of the component's geometric errors and dimensions on the machining accuracy of gantry-type 5-axis machining centers, a geometric error analysis and virtual manufacturing system are developed based on the mathematical model for the shape generation motion of machine tool considering the component's geometric errors and dimensions, the solid modeling techniques and so on.
Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller for CNC Feed Drive Systems with Large Disturbances
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 180~192
This paper introduces a new self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) for precision contour machining in the presence of large disturbances which adjusts both input and output membership functions simultaneously. The parameters of the proposed controller are self-tuned in real-time according to a continuous measurement of the performance of the controller itself and estimated disturbance values. The proposed controller as well as a conventional fuzzy logic controller and a PID controller were simulated and implemented on a 3-axis milling machine in contour milling. Both the simulations and experiments show that the self-organizing fuzzy logic controller has superior performance in terms of contour tracking accuracy compared with the other two controllers.
A Study on the Numerical Technique for the Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of Solid Structures(1) -General Theory Development-
Youngjoo Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 193~202
A Study on Precise Drilling Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Epoxy Composite Materials
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 10, 1998, Pages 203~208
Carbon fiber epoxy composite materials are widely used in the structures of aircrafts, robots and other machines because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness and high damping. In order for the composite materials to be used in the aircraft structures or machine elements, accurate surfaces for bearing mounting or joints must be provided, which require precise machining. In this paper, the machinability characterisitcs of the drilling operation of the carbon fiber epoxy composite materials was experimentally investigated. The experimental results are as follows 1.The entrance of hole is very good manufacturing existing, but exit come to occur sever surface exfoliation. 2. The cutting force in drilling of the carbon fiber epoxy composite materials is decreased as the drilling speed increased. 3.The hole of the carbon fiber epoxy composite materials is not good manufacturing by use of the standard twist, therefore, the new drill designed in order to accurate hole.