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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 1998
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 1998
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 1998
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 1998
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 1998
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 1998
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 1998
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 1998
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 1998
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 1998
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 1998
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
Selecting the target year
Control of a CNC Machining Center Using the Indirect Measurement of the Cutting Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 9~20
In recent manufacturing process, the increase of productivity has been attempted by reducing machining time with the increase of cutting force. However, the excessive increase of cutting force can cause tool breakage and have a bad effect on both manufacturing machine and workpiece. Thus, it is necessary to estimate and control the cutting force in real time during the process. In this study, use of disturbance observer is proposed for the indirect cutting force estimation. The estimated cutting force is used for the real-time control of feedrate, making the actual cutting force follow the reference force command. Since the suggested method does not need an expensive sensor like a dynamometer, the method is expected to be used practically. Since the actual cutting force follow the reference force, resulting the reducing of the machining time the increase of productivity are also expected, and the quality of cutting surface has been improved due to the adjusted feedrate. Besides, an actual constant cutting force guarantees the prevention of tool breakage. To show the effectiveness of the suggested cutting force control method, an experimental setup has been made without sensor and applied to several workpieces. Experiments show that the suggested method is effective to cutting force control of a CNC machining center.
A Development of CAD Program for Forging Die Design of Gear Components
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 21~31
This study described computer aided die design system for cold forging of non-axisymmetric parts. To design the die of cold forging. an integrated approach based on a rule-base system and commercial F. E. code were adopted. This system is implemented on the personal computer and its environment is a commercial CAD package named as AutoCAD. The system includes four modules. In the initial data input module, the variables which are necessary to design of die are inputted by user and die material are selected from the database. In the analysis and redesign module, stress distrubution action on the designed die is analyzed by commercial FEM code NISA II. The designed die is modified to prevent failure in both states of stress free and pressurizing. The developed system provides powerful capabilities for die design of non-axisymmetric parts.
Monitoring of Tool Wear Condition by Cutting Resistance and AE Signal in Drilling ADI Material.
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 32~38
For the purpose of monitoring the abnormal state in proportion to cutting in automatic production process, the 3 kinds of specimens different from mechanical properties by austempering through temperature variation were manufactured, and the effects of tool wear on thrust and AE RMS was analyzed with sequential drilling in in-process. When the ADI specimens were drilled, the relationship of thrust and AE RMS with flank wear was studied through experiments, and it is confirmed that the reliable wear state is able to be monitored by using these signals. It was shown that thrust and AE RMS increased slowly till flank wear reached to V
= 0.25mm, and they increased steeply over the value. The effective tool exchange time was able to be pre-estimated by using this fact. It was validated that the tool breakage was able to be detected on the real time by monitoring in in-process.s.
A Study on the Optimal Design of Gas Spring for Vehicle
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 39~45
Gas springs have been widely used in motor vehicles as well as in most areas of industry. Instead of coil springs, these gas springs are easily opreated to open(extension process) or close (compression process) the doors because
gas with high pressure and oil are charged in tube. Most of manufacturers are using the trial ＆ error method in order to decide its specification(reaction force, damping force), which tends to waste time and money. Therefore, gas springs have been improved by properly changing the control pressure of
Gas with its mounting location and weight to maximize its effect and to minimize its space. Although it has been researched on damping structure to minimize impact which is applied to vehicle when its back door is fully opened, the characteristics of damping structure are not known clearly. There(ore, this paper will not only clearly define the effect of important factors(open ＆ close force)for gas springs through theoretical analysis but also provide optimum design specification through development of program to avoid traditional method of specification determination such as the trail It error method which is widely used in whole industries including automotive industry.
A Study on the Process Planning for Secondary Operations on Features of Deep Drawing Cup and the Development of the Expert System-Based CAPP
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 46~57
Even though there are some studies on the deep drawing process and process planning, little study has been done on the methodology of process planning of secondary operations of deep drawing such as 'piercins'. In this paper, first, we systematized the methodology of the process planning of secondary operations on axisymmetric cup. Second we described the development of the expert system for their CAPP For these studies, we extracted the knowledge of their process planning from experts and analysed and systemized them. To develop the expert system, rule-based reasoning paradigm is used. The shape information of manufacturing features of secondary operations are manually input to the system through SUI. The process planning results are automatically connected to AutoCAD. We believe that the systematized process knowledge and the development of the expert system for its CAPP could give lots of aids to the associated field.
A Study on a Laser Scanning Vibrometer Using a Magnetostrictive Resonant Device
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 58~66
A low power consuming laser scanning vibrometer is studied for its development. For its optical system, a laser interferometer is constructed to use the Doppler effect. In order to reduce the driving power of the scanning system, a small displacement of the scanning system is produced, which is achieved by using a magnetostrictive actuator. A sufficient rotating angle of the scanning system is obtained by using an amplified displacement from the resonant phenomena of a second order mechanical system composed of a mass and spring. The control of the magnetostrictive actuator using a Terfenol-D is performed without using a feedback system to help reduce the power consumption. The vibration analysis is made for the sinusoidal scanning input to have the space domain information from the time domain of the velocity of a vibration object. As a partial work of development of a tow power consuming laser scanning vibrometer, in this work, a scanning system which has the above features is developed and experimentally investigated. For the purpose of the optical system calibration, the vibration measurement for one axis is presented and the future works are discussed.
Sensitivity Analysis and Confidence Evaluation for Planar Errors of a Vertical Turning Center
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 67~75
Geometric and thermal errors are key contributors to the errors of a computer numerically controlled turning center. A planar error synthesis model is obtained by synthesizing 11 geometric and thermal error components of a turning center with homogeneous coordinate transformation method. This paper shows the sensitivity analysis on the temperature change, the confidence evaluation on the uncertainty Of measurement systems, and the error contribution analysis from the planar error synthesis model. Planar error in the z direction was very sensitive to the temperature change. and planar errors in the x and z directions were not affected by the uncertainty of measurement systems. The error contribution analysis ,which is applicable to designing a new turning center, was helpful to find the large error components which affect planar errors of the turning center.
High Speed Tool Feed System by the Mechanism of Ball Screw and Servo Motor
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 76~82
In this study, the Ball screw and Servo motor Mechanism is considered as a High Speed Tool Feed System for the machining of a piston of a reciprocating engine. For the machining of a piston, that shapes oval, high speed servo mechanism is needed as a positioning of a cutting tool, and the stroke of tool is 0.1 mm ~ 1 mm. Ball screw and servo motor Mechanism is available very much because this mechanism is used widely in general machine. This Mechanism has been designed with the use of the decrease in mass and partial wear of the ball screw for high speed positioning of tool. Also the periodic learning control method with the inverse transfer function compensation has been applied to the positioning control for the high accuracy positioning of tool. These applications lead the achievement of the machining of a piston with an accuracy of 5
at 2500 rpm in CNC turning.
An Experimental Study on the Manufacturing Technology of an Engine Piston
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 83~92
In this paper, an experimental study has been carried out to develop an aluminum forged piston which has good mechanical properties. Through the experiment, the cavity filling, microstructure and mechanical properties of the final product are investigated with respect to chosen process parameters, which are die shape, heat-treatment condition and preform shape. The mechanical properties of the forged piston are compared with these of the cast piston. As the results, an appropriate die-shape is obtained to produce a perfect piston. The suitable heat-treatment condition and preform-shape are found to good hardness and minute microstructure in the forged piston. And we could obtain the mechanical properties(tensile strength, elongation and hardness) of the forged piston are superior to these of the cast piston.
MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) Micropump Using Lorentz Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 93~99
We present a novel micropump of which pumping mechanism is based upon MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) principle. The MHD micropump uses Lorentz force as pumping source. In the MHD micropump, Lorentz force is applied into initially stagnant conducting fluid to drive it in magnetic and electric field to flow in both directions. The performance of the MHD micropump is obtained by measuring the pressure head difference and flow rate as applied voltage changes from 10 to 60 V DC at 0.19 and 0.44 Tesla. The pressure head difference is 18 mm at 38 mA and the flow rate is 63
/min at 1.8 mA when the inside diameter of inlet/outlet tube is 2 mm and the magnetic flux density is 0.44 Tesla.
A Study on Rigid body Placement Task of based on Robot Vision System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 100~107
This paper presents the development of estimation model and control method based on the new robot vision. This proposed control method is accomplished using the sequential estimation scheme that permits placement of the rigid body in each of the two-dimensional image planes of monitoring cameras. Estimation model with six parameters is developed based on the model that generalizes known 4-axis scara robot kinematics to accommodate unknown relative camera position and orientation, etc. Based on the estimated parameters, depending on each camera the joint angle of robot is estimated by the iteration method. The method is experimentally tested in two ways, the estimation model test and a three-dimensional rigid body placement task. Three results show that control scheme used is precise and robust. This feature can open the door to a range of application of multi-axis robot such as assembly and welding.
Eigenstructure Assignment Methodology with LQR Characteristics and Application to an Automotive Active Suspension Control
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 108~120
In this paper, a new control system design algorithm, which has the advantages of the existing LQR and eigenstrcture assignment methods, is proposed. The method of the transformation matrix via block controller is utilized to develop the scheme. Using the proposed algorithm, LQR weighting matrices q and R, which satisfy the desired closed-loop eigenvalues and eigenvectors, can be achieved using only simple matrix computations. The usefulness of the proposed scheme is verified by applying to a numerical example and an automotive active suspension control system design.
A Study on Measurement and Analysis of In-Plane Deformations by Using Laser Speckle Interferometry (I)
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 121~129
In-plane ESPI(Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry) was devised to measure in-plane deformations and rotation of a specimen with laser in this study. ESPI is a optical measuring method to be able to measure the deformations of engineering components and materials in industrial fields. The conventional measuring methods of surface deformations such as the strain gauge have many demerits because they are contact and point-to-point measuring ones. But that ESPI is noncontact, nondestructive and whole field measuring method can overcome previous disadvantages. We used ESPI which is sensitive to in-plane displacement for measuring in-plane deformations of a disk. And the 4-frame phase shifting method was used for the quantitative analysis. First of all, the system calibration was done due to an in-plane rotation before getting deformations of a disk. Finally we showed good agreement between the experiment results and those of the FEA(Finite Element Analysis).
Development of an Efficient Algorithm for the Minimum Distance Calculation between two Polyhedra in Three-Dimensional Space
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 130~136
This paper develops an efficient algorithm for the minimum distance calculation between two general polyhedra(convex and/or concave) in three-dimensional space. The polyhedra approximate objects using flat polygons which composed of more than three vertices. The algorithm developed in this paper basically computes minimum distance between two polygons(one polygon per object) and finds a set of two polygons which makes a global minimum distance. The advantage of the algorithm is that the global minimum distance can be computed in any cases. But the big disadvantage is that the minimum distance computing time is rapidly increased with the number of polygons which used to approximate an object. This paper develops a method to eliminate sets of two polygons which have no possibility of minimum distance occurrence, and an efficient algorithm to compute a minimum distance between two polygons in order to compensate the inherent disadvantage of the algorithm. The correctness of the algorithm is verified not only comparing analytically calculated exact minimum distance with one calculated using the developed algorithm but also watching a line which connects two points making a global minimum distance of a convex object and/or a concave object. The algorithm efficiently finds minimum distance between two convex objects made of 224 polygons respectively with a computation time of about 0.1 second.
A Study on the Compensation of Milling Errors by Regenerating of Tool Trajectory
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 137~144
In this paper we present our research dealing with the problem of tool deflection during the milling. We try to compensate the errors by considering a new tool trajectory. In order to determine the compensated tool trajectory, the problem is divided in three steps : cutting forces model, tool deflection model and trajectory compensation. Starting from experimental data, we determine a cutting forces model., which allows us to anticipate the tool deflection along one nominal path. In order to determine the compensated tool trajectory, we propose in this paper a method of path compensation, called “mirror method”. This method of tool path optimization allows to minimize errors due to tool deflection. Several examples are processed in simulations and validated experimentally.
A Study on the Drawing Process of Square Rod from Round Bar by Using the Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 145~151
Unlike the drawing of round section from round bar, the shaped drawing like polygonal section is known to have influence not only drawing stress but also corner filling. Therefore. this study analyze the drawing process of suqare rod from round bar using nonsteady state rigid-plastic FEM. To investigate effects of process variables of the drawing process of square rod from round bar, FE-simulations with variety of reduction in area and semi-die angle for a given frictional condition have been conducted. By this results, it has to suggest optimal process condition on the drawing stress and the corner filling. In addition, it has determined forming limit considering necking and bulging.
Construction of Chaoral Post-Process System for Integrity Evaluation of Weld Zone
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 152~165
This study proposes the analysis and evaluation method of time series ultrasonic signal using the chaoral post-process system for precision rate enhancement of ultrasonic pattern recognition. Chaos features extracted from time series data for analysis quantitatively weld defects For this purpose, feature extraction objectives in this study are fractal dimension, Lyapunov exponent, shape of strange attrator. Trajectory changes in the strange attractor indicated that even same type of defects carried substantial difference in chaoticity resulting from distance shifts such as nearby 0.5, 1.0 skip distance. Such difference in chaoticity enables the evaluation of unique features of defects in the weld zone. In quantitative chaos fenture extraction, feature values of 0.835 and 0.823 in the case of slag inclusion and 0.609 and 0.573 in the case of crack were suggested on the basis of fractal dimension and Lyapunov exponent. Proposed chaoral post-process system in this study can enhances precision rate of ultrasonic pattern recognition results from defect signals of weld zone, such as slag inclusion and crack.
A Study on the Numerical Technique for the Nonlinear Deformation Analysis of Solid Structures(2) -Application to a Simple Solid Structure-
Youngjoo Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 166~171
System Identification of a Plate with Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 172~179
This paper proposes an identification method for modes of a thin plate where multiple actuators and sensors are bonded. When a natural frequency of a mode is decoupled from all other natural frequencies, the mode can be identified separatedly with a bandpass filter. Since a thin plate has resonant peaks at natural frequencies, the bandpass filter can be designed to extract the signal of the mode to be identified. Parameters of the second order linear differential equation of the mode can be obtained to apply the Least square method to the extract the modal signal. The proposed identification method is applied to an all-clamped plate with two pairs of piezoelectric actuators and sensors. The outputs of the identified model match with the experimental data well.
Precision Shape Modeling by Z-Map Model
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 180~188
Z-map is a special form of discrete nonparametric representation in which the height values at grid points on the xy-plane are stored as a 2D array z[i.j]. While z-map is the simplest form of representing sculptured surfaces and it is the most versatile scheme for modeling nonparametric objects, its practical application in industry (eg, tool-path generation) aroused much controversy over its weaknesses ; accuracy, singularity (eg, vertical wall), and some excessive storage needs. Although z-map has such limitations, much research on the application of z-map can be found in various articles. However, research on the systematic analysis of sculptured surface shape representation via z-map model is rather rare. Presented in this paper are the following: shape modeling power of the simple z-map model, exact (within tolerance) B-map representation of sculptured surfaces which have some feature-shapes such as vertical-walls and real sharp-edges by adopting some complementary B-map models, and some application examples.
Monitoring of Tool Life through AR Model and Correlation Dimension Analysis
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 189~198
Recently, monitoring of tool life is a matter of common interesting because tool life affects precision, productivity and cost in machining process. Especially flank wear has a direct effect on cutting mechanism, so the various pattern of cutting force is obtained experimentally according to variation of wear condition. By investigating cutting force signal, AR(Autoregressive) modeling and correlation dimension analysis is conducted in turning operation. In this modeling and analysis, we extract features through 6th AR model, correlation integral and normalized correlation integral. After the back-propagation model of the neural network is utilized to monitor tool life according to flank wear. As a result. a very reliable classification of tool life was obtained.
A Study on Three Degree-of-Freedom Fine Positioning Device Based on Electromagnetic Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 199~207
This paper presents the design and the control of three degree-of-freedom(DOF) fine positioning device based on an electro-magnetic force. The device is designed by use of a magnetic circuit theory and it is capable of fine motion due to the electro-magnetic force. The device consists of permanent magnets, yokes and coils. The magnetic fluxes generated from the permanent magnets constitute magnetic paths through steel, whereas the coils are arranged into the gap between two surfaces of the yokes. Therefore, by supplying current to the coils, the coils are capable of some motions due to Lorentz forces. For the optimal design of the actuating system, the system parameters are defined and investigated under the given constraints. From the system modeling in small displacement, three decoupled equations of motion are obtained. To get better performance of the system, a PID controller is implemented. Experimental results are presented in terms of time response and accuracy.
Position Tracking Control of a Moving Table Using ER Brake/Clutch
S. B. Choi ; H. G. Lee ; S. L. Kim ; C. C. Cheong ; M. S. Han ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 208~217
Development of Diagnostic Expert System for Rotating Machinery Failure Diagnosis
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 218~226
In this study a neural network based expert system designed to diagnose operating status of a rotating spindle system supported by ball bearings was introduced. In order to facilitate practical failure situations, five exemplary abnormal status was fabricated. Out of several possible data source locations, seven most effective spots were chosen and proven to be the most successful in predicting single and multiple abnormalities. Increased signal strength was measured around where abnormality was embedded. Signal mea-surement locations producing high prediction rate were also classified. Even though multiple abnormalities were hard to be decoupled into their individual causes, proposed diagnostic system was somewhat effective in predicting such cases under certain combination of sensor locations. Among several abnormal operating conditions, highest prediction rate can be expected when signal is spoiled by the failure or damage in outer race. Proposed diagnostic system was again proven to be the most effective system in analyzing and ranking the importance of data sources.
A Study on the Thermal Stress Analysis of Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Coating
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 227~232
The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical method for analyzing the transient heat transfer and evaluating the residual stress. The analysis of heat transfer and thermal stress are carried out by three-dimensional finite element method. Thermal spraying is one of the most common surface coating techniques to be used for many applications. In order to improve the mechanical properties of flame-sprayed ceramic coating layer, the accurate and effective analysis of heat transfer and thermal stress is essentially required.
Design of a Magnetic Bearing System for a High Speed Grinding Spindle
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 233~243
The demand of high speed machining is increasing due to the high speed cutting and grinding provides high efficiency of process, short process time, improved metal removal capacity and better surface finish. Active magnetic bearings allow much high surface speed than conventional ball bearings and therefore greatly suitable for high speed cutting or grinding. This paper describes a design process of an active magnetic bearing system for a high speed grinding spindle with power 5.5kW and maximum speed 60,000rpm. Magnetic actuators are designed by the magnetic circuit theory considering static load condition, and examined with FEM analysis. Dynamic characteristics are also considered, such as bandwidth, stiffness, natural frequency and static deflection. System characteristics are simulated with a rigid rotor model.
Determination of Compound Stress Intensity Factor by Superposition Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 244~250
In this study, the stress intensity factors of center crack are analyzed when it is surrounded by symmetrically distributed small cracks. The values of stress intensity factors of the center crack are greatly influenced by the locations of distributed small cracks. When small cracks overlap or approach near the tip of a center crack, the effect of interaction arisen by these cracks becomes noticeable. In case of multiple distributed small cracks, the stress intensity factor of a center crack is found to be efficiently determined by the superposition method.
Dynamic Stress Intensity Factor and Dynamic Crack Propagation Velocity in Nuclear Pressure Vessel Steels
O. S. Lee ; M. K. Han ; M. S. Han ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 11, 1998, Pages 251~257