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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 1998
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 1998
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 1998
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 1998
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 1998
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 1998
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 1998
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 1998
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 1998
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 1998
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 1998
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 1998
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A Study on the Vision-Based Inspection System for Ball-Stud
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 7~13
In this paper, an automatic ball-stud inspection system has been developed using the computer-aided vision system. Index table has been used to get the rapid measurement and multi-camera has been used to get the high resolution in physical system. Camera calibration was suggested to perform the reliable inspection. Image processing and data analysis algorithms for ball stud inspection system have been investigated and were performed quickly with high accuracy. As a result, inspection system of a ball stud could be used with a high resolution in real time.
Optimization of Milling Process Considering the Environmental Impact of Cutting Fluids
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 14~20
Cutting fluid is a factor which has big effects on both machinability and environment in machining process. The loss of cutting fluids may be reduced by the optimization of machining parameters in process planning. In this study, the environmental impact of fluid loss is analyzed. The fluid loss models in milling process are constructed with the machining parameters. The models are utilized to obtain the optimal machining parameters to minimize the fluid loss. The factors with significant effects on the fluid loss are analyzed by ANOVA test. Finally, optimal parameters are suggested considering both machining economics and environmental impact. This study is expected to be used as a part of a framework for the environmental impact assessment of machining process.
A Study on DB Construction for Error Modification of STL Format and Efficiency by Shape Restoration
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 21~27
This paper recommends the database construction for STL data and the new method of Delaunay's triangulation method in order to decrease volume errors by verifying STL file errors and modifying hole errors. Each vertex for the boundary coordinates of the verified hole errors was analyzed according to the following cases: planes or slow curves, edges, apexes, and rapid curves. In each case, a different modification process was adopted. With this method, most errors resulting from the conversion into the STL data as well as lots of volume errors arising from error modification were decreased.
A Study on the Structural Analysis and Test of an Electric Car-Body
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 28~36
This investigation is the result of a structural analysis by the finite element method and static loading test for the optimal structural design of an electric railway vehicle made of stainless 301L materials. We analyzed the stress and displacement of the existing electric car-body structure for predicting the position of concentrated stress, the flow of stress, rigidity to be occurred in the car-body structure when it is subjected to the vertical load. It was exposed that the side sills and window corners around the bolsters are the weak parts of the electric car-body structure because the bolsters of the electric car-body structure were subjected to the vertical load and dynamic load to be occurred during running. The flow of stress and the cause of stress concentration in the weak zone were studied in order to prevent the concentration of stress and buckling. The rearrangement of the structure and the selection of the beam elements were also carried out for optimum design of the structure.
A Study on Feed Dog Motion of a Lock Stitch Sewing Machine
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 37~47
This study discusses the feed dog feeding mechanism of an industrial lock stitch sewing machine, which is a good example to study a machine kinematics. The feed dog feeding mechanism makes the fabrics directly be fed by an elliptic motion of the feed dog that is moved by a rotation of the top shaft and controlled by the feeding control mechanism. This study makes mathematical expressions of machine's motion in the feed dog feeding mechanism. Thus, the motions of this mechanism are characterized, namely how an elliptic motion of the feed dog is affected by the feeding control mechanism. Therefore, the above mathematical expressions may be a basis for the new design of the feed dog feeding mechanism and may be adapted to analysis. Development of the similar feed dog feeding mechanism can be applied to other type sewing machine.
A Study on Kinematic Analysis of Feeding Control Mechanism of a Lock Stitch Sewing Machine
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 48~54
In sewing, fabrics is fed by an elliptic motion of the feed dog. The feeding control mechanism controls an elliptic motion of the feed dog, finally, controls stitch spacings and feeding directions of fabrics. This study discusses the feeding control mechanism of an industrial lock stitch sewing machine, which is a good example to study a machine kinematics. This study makes mathematical expressions of machine's motion in the feeding control mechanism. Thus, the motions of this mechanism are characterized, which will be used for kinematic analysis of the feed dog later. Also, the above mathematical expressions may be a basis for the new design of the feeding control mechanism and may be applied to development of the similar feeding control mechanism of other type sewing machine.
Development of Micro-EDM Machine for Microshaft and Microhole Machining
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 55~61
Recently, the needs of machining technologies of very small parts have been increasing with advent of micro-revolution. These technologies have mostly used the method applied to semi-conductor production process such as LIGA, etc. But they have serious difficulties to settle down in terms of workpiece materials, machining thickness, 3-dimensional structure. Therefore. mciro-machining technology using EDM(Electrical Discharge Machining) was proposed. It is very difficult to machine the micro-parts (microshaft, microhole) using conventional machining. Micro-machining using BDM can machine the micro-parts easily because it requires little machining force. This MEDM(Micro-EDM) need the capabilities to move a electrode and control a discharge energy precisely, and the gap control strategy to maintain the optimal discharge condition is necessary. Therefore, in this study, the new EDM machine with high precision motion stage and high-performance EDM device was developed. Using this MEDM machine, we have machined microshaft and microhole with various shapes and sizes.
The Basic Study on the Casting/Forging Technology of Aluminum Alloy
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 62~67
An experimental study has been carried out to investigate casting process parameters which influence on the microstructures of cast preforms in casting/forging process of aluminum alloy. In the casting process, pouring temperature, pouring time, mold temperature, mold material, and, cooling method are selected as process parameters. With the cast preform, a forging test has been performed to compare mechanical properties of final products between casting/forging process and forging process. From the experimental results, low mold temperature and water cooling method are favorable for obtaining minute microstructures of cast preforms. Casting defects included in cast preforms. such as pores and shrinkage cavity, are eliminated by the forging process. And comparing cast/forged products with conventionally forged products, the former are almost as same as the latter in mechanical characteristics.
Experimental Determination of the Optimum Blank Shape in Rectangular Cup Drawing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 68~71
Rectangular deep drawing process is widely used in sheet metal forming. But there are various defects such as earring, wrinkling, tearing, etc. In order to avoid the defects, an optimum blank shape is required. But it has not been generalized to determine the optimum blank shape because deep drawing processes are involved in complex process parameters. So, it is very necessary to do research systematically about determining the optimum blank shape of deep drawing process. In this study a rectangular cup drawing test has been carried out to determine the optimum blank shape for various stainless steel sheets. From the test, a new blank model, which has no earring, is proposed.
Design of Manufacturing Cell based on Genetic Algorithm
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 72~80
In this study, a design approach based on genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the manufacturing cell design problem considering alternative process plans and alternative machines. The problem is formulated as a 0-1 integer programming model which considers several manufacturing parameters, such as demand and processing time of part, machine capacity, manufacturing cell size, and the number of machines in a machine cell. A genetic algorithm is used to determine process plan for each part, part family and machine cell simultaneously.
System Synthesis for On-the-Machine Measuring and Inspection of Freeform Surfaces
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 81~88
Measurement and inspection of freeform surfaces are required in reverse design processes. In the case of surface measurement using a touch probe, probe radius compensation affects measuring accuracy. But current industrial practice depends upon an operator's experience to compensate for probe radius. In this paper, an on-the-machine measuring and inspection system for freeform surfaces is studied. Probe radius compensation methodology is investigated by modeling of B-spline surfaces based on digitized data. The accuracy and reliability of the developed system is verified through various kinds of numerical simulations and on-the-machine experiments.
Dimensional Error Analysis of Products from LOM Process
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 89~96
LOM (Laminated Object Manufacturing) process is one of rapid prototyping processes, where shapes are formed by accumulating cross sections of laser-cut paper. The process expects wide popularity since it is simple and the material is familiar to conventional mockup makers. However the dimensional accuracy of LOM parts is not so good as that of traditional wooden mockups, since the stack of adhesive-spread papers causes significant dimensional error. Also it is unclear how the other unknown environmental effects cause the errors as well. In this work the dimensional errors of LOM parts are measured and analysed. Experiments with test parts were performed in order to see the effects of part shape, moist, and sealer on dimensional variations. The characteristic of the paper is also analysed. Re-heating LOM parts, which is shown to have the effect of recovering dimensional changes, is applied to an example part.
Accuracy of Intersection Counting Method in Measurement of Fiber Orientation Angle Distribution Using Image Processing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 97~105
The fiber oriented condition inside fiber reinforced composite material is a basic factor of mechanical properties of composite materials. It is very important to meausure the fiber orientation angle for the determination of molding conditions, mechanical characteristics, and the design of composite materials. In the work, the fiber orientation distribution of simulation figure plotted by PC is measured using image processing in order to examine the accuracy of intersection counting method. The fiber orientation function measured by intersection counting method using image processing is compared with the calculated fiber orientation function. The results show that the measured value of fiber orientation function using intersection counting method is lower than the calculated value, because the number of intersection between the scanning line and the fiber with smaller fiber aspect ratio is counted less than with larger fiber aspect ratio.
Identification of the Chip Form Using Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 106~112
A major problem in automation of turning operations is the difficulty in obtaining a sufficient and reliable chip control. The chip should be detected in order to provide a optimum chip control for unmanned turning operation. Using the difference of energy radiated from the chip, chip Patterns are estimated using pyrometer. From the initial output from the pyrometer, chips are identified according to the backpropagation algorithm developed in the research. The learning system developed in this work can be applied in real-time control of turning process with minor modification in drive system.
A Study on Measurement and Analysis of In-Plane Deformations by Using Laser Speckle Interferometry (II)
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 113~119
Recently Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry(ESPI) has been studied because it has the advantages to be able to measure the whole-field surface deformations of engineering components and materials in industrial areas with noncontact. The speckle patterns to be formed with interference phenomena of scattering light from rough surfaces illuminated by laser light have phase informations of surface deformations. In this study we used this interference phenomena and the phase shifting method to measure the inplane deformations, together with the use of digital image equipment to process the informations contained in the speckle pattern and to display consequent interferograms on TV monitor. FEA was performed before experiments and we obtained good agreement between the experimental results and FEA.
Finite Element Analysis of the Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis Of
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 120~127
The finite element method has been used to model and analyze the heat transfer phenomena during manufacturing process of
by SHS(Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis). For this purpose nonlinear transient heat transfer analyses by using ANSYS have been performed to estimate the temperature distributions and the peak temperature in the test specimen. The effects of manufacturing process parameters such as pre-heating temperatures, the velocity of reaction zone have been investigated. The results of the analysis have been compared with the experimental results.
Robust Nonlinear Multivariable Control for the Hard Nonlinear System with Structured Uncertainty
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 128~141
We propose the robust nonlinear controller design methodology for the multivariable system which has hard nonlinearities (Coulomb friction, dead-zone, etc) and the structured real parameter uncertainty. The hard nonlinearity can be linearized by the RIDF technique and structured real parameter uncertainty can be modelled as the sense of Peterson-Hollot's quadratic Lyapunov bound. For this system, we apply the robust QLQG/H
control and then can obtain four Riccati equations. Because of the system's nonlinearity, however, one Riccati equation contains the nonlinear correction term that is very difficult to solve numerically, In order to treat this problem, using some transformations to Riccati equations, the nonlinear correction term can be eliminated. Then, only two Riccati equations need to design a controller. Finally, the robust nonlinear controller is synthesized via IRIDF techniques. To test this proposed control method, we consider the direct-drive robot manipulator system that has Coulomb frictions and varying inertia.
Design and Experiment of a Miniature 4/3-Way Proportional Valve for a Servo-Pneumatic Robot Hand
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 142~147
Developing robot hands with multi-degree-of-freedom is one of the topics that researchers have recently begun to improve the limitation by adding flexibility and dexterity. In this study, an articulated servo-pneumatic robot hand system with direct-drive joints has been developed whose main feature is the minimization of the dimension. The servo-pneumatic system is advantageous to fabricate a dexterous robot hand system due to the high torque-to-weight and torque-to-volume ratio. This enables the design of a finger joint with an integrated rotary vane type actuator which produces high output torque without reduction gears, being very robust. In order to control the servo-pneumatic finger joints, a miniature proportional valve that can be attached to the robot hand is required. In this paper, a flapper nozzle type 4/3-way proportional directional valve has been designed and tested. The experimental results show that the developed valve can control a finger joint satisfactorily without much vibratory joint movements and acoustic noises.
Development of Human Interface System for IMS : Dynamic Design of Master Robots
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 148~161
We investigate a design methodology for master arm which is employed in remote-site control. Though counter-balancing has been employed for the purpose of lessening the actuator loads, it results in the increase of dynamic load at the task position. Therefore, there exists a trade-off between counter-balancing and dynamic performance. The concept of a composite index is introduced to simultaneously consider those two effects in the design of master arms. Several alternative designs of master arms are suggested.
Kinematic Analysis of a Binary Robot Manipulator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 162~168
The traditional robot manipulators are actuated by continuous range of motion actuators such as motors or hydraulic cylinders. However, there are many applications of mechanisms and robotic manipulators where only a finite number of locations need to be reached, and the robot's trajectory is not important as long as it is bounded. Binary manipulator uses actuators which have only two stable states. As a result, binary manipulators have a finite number of states. The number of states of a binary manipulator grows exponentially with the number of actuators. This kind of robot manipulator has some advantage compared to a traditional one. Feedback control is not required, task repeatability can be very high, and finite state actuators are generally inexpensive. And this kind of robot manipulator has a fault tolerant mechanism because of kinematic redundancy. This paper develops algorithms for kinematics and workspace analysis of a binary manipulator.
Orthogonality Measurement of Square Plane Mirrors for Laser Interferometry
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 169~179
Plane mirror type laser interferometers are popularly being used in many modern ultraprecision machines, as they can perform simultaneous measurements of multiple axis positions with nanometer resolution capabilities. One important issue in this application of laser interferometers is to provide a good level of alignment between the reflecting mirrors and the laser beams so that measurement errors due to undesirable coupling effects can be avoided in multiple axis measurements In this investigation, a thorough metrological analysis is given to develop an suitable mathematical model for a precision x-y stage in which the orthogonality misalignment between the reflecting mirrors significantly affects overall x-y mea-surement results. Then a noble calibration method is suggested in which two-dimensional displacement sensors of moire gratings of concentric circles are used to realize the reversal principle of orthogonality evaluation in situ. Finally, actual experimental results are discussed to verify that the suggested method can effectively calibrate the orthogonality error with an uncertainty of 0.2667 arcsec.
On the Stability and Performance Limits of the Force Reflecting Haptic Manipulator
;Greg R. Luecke;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 180~187
The stability and theoretical performance limits of the feedback controlled force reflecting haptic manipulator have been discussed. All the virtual environment which interact physically with the haptic system have its own stable performance limit. Three different realization of the interfaces have been compared using the driving point admittance. The haptic system which is separated from the human hand or finger is superior to its stable interaction provided that there is a means to apply a direct damping between the haptic manipulator and the human finger Electro-magnetic force is used for its digital implementation of the simple separated type haptic device. The stable limits of a virtual wall is calculated and experimental results show that there is performance limits in this implementation.
Static and Dynamic Weak Point Analysis of Spindle Systems Using Bending Curve
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 188~193
This paper describes static and dynamic weak point analysis of spindle systems to eliminate high concentrated bending point on spindle and improve total stiffness of spindle systems. The weak point analysis is based on the evaluation of bending curves of spindles. For static weak point analysis the bending curve is derived from static deflection curve and for dynamic weak point analysis it is derived from the mode shape curves in consideration of the transfer function at exciting point. The validity of the weak point search methodology is verified by comparison of the static deflection, the natural frequency and the dynamic compliance between the original and the improved spindle.
Beam Rotator of Optical System Based on Multi-Beam
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 194~201
The beam rotating actuator has been developed. It can be utilized to improve the data transfer rate for the optical disk systems, Newly developed laser beam rotating actuator is applied to put multi-beam spots on more than one track on the optical disk simultaneously. The beam rotating actuator is made of piezoelectric ceramic bimorph as the form of cantilever, Piezoelectric actuators with high resolution, high stiffness and fast frequency response are widely assembled in micropositioning applications. Therefore, the actuator has above 50Hz natural frequency. Beam array is rotated using the dove prism in the end of beamrotator. The dynamic equation of beam rotating actuator is derived theoretically. The actuator is designed on the ground of this analysis. The performance of the beam rotating actuator is verified as the dynamics frequency performance is measured using the dynamic analyzer and sensor.
A Method for Determining Exact Modal Parameters of Non-Uniform, Continuous Beam Structures with Damping Elements
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 202~211
The present paper proposes a modal analysis procedure to obtain exact modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios, eigenvectors) for general, non-uniform beam-like structures. The proposed method includes a derivation of the system dynamic matrix for a Timoshenko beam element. The proposed method provides not only exact modal parameters but also exact frequency response functions (FRFs) for general beam structures. A time domain analysis method is also proposed. Two examples are provided for validating and illustrating the proposed method. The first numerical example compares the proposed method with FEM. The second example deals with a non-uniform beam structure supported in joints with damping property. The numerical study proves that the proposed method is useful for the dynamic analysis of continuous systems consisting of beam-like structures.
Mean Cutting Force Prediction in Ball-End Milling of Slanted Surface Using Force Map
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 212~219
During machining of dies and molds with sculptured surfaces. the cutter contact area changes continuously and results in cutting force variation. In order to implement cutting force prediction model into a CAM system, an effective and fast method is necessary. In this paper. a new method is proposed to predict mean cutting force. The cutter contact area in the spherical part of the cutter is obtained using Z-map, and expressed by the grids on the cutter plane orthogonal to the cutter axis. New empirical cutting parameters were defined to describe the cutting force in the spherical part of cutter. Before the mean cutting force calculation, the cutting force density in each grid is calculated and saved to force map on the cutter plane. The mean cutting force in an arbitrary cutter contact area can be easily calculated by summing up the cutting force density of the engaged grid of the force map. The proposed method was verifed through the slotting and slanted surface machining with various inclination angles. It was shown that the mean force can be calculated fast and effectively through the proposed method for any geometry including sculptured surfaces with cusp marks and holes.
A Closed Form Nonlinear Solution for Large Pure Bending Deformation of Solid Plate
Youngjoo Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 220~225
Chaotic Evaluation of Slag Inclusion Welding Defect Time Series Signals Considering the Hyperspace
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 226~235
This study proposes the analysis and evaluation of method of time series of ultrasonic signal using the chaotic feature extraction for ultrasonic pattern recognition. The features are extracted from time series data for analysis of weld defects quantitatively. For this purpose, analysis objectives in this study are fractal dimension, Lyapunov exponent, and strange attractor on hyperspace. The Lyapunov exponent is a measure of rate in which phase space diverges nearby trajectories. Chaotic trajectories have at least one positive Lyapunov exponent, and the fractal dimension appears as a metric space such as the phase space trajectory of a dynamical system. In experiment, fractal(correlation) dimensions and Lyapunov exponents show the mean value of 4.663, and 0.093 relatively in case of learning, while the mean value of 4.926, and 0.090 in case of testing in slag inclusion(weld defects) are shown. Therefore, the proposed chaotic feature extraction can be enhancement of precision rate for ultrasonic pattern recognition in defecting signals of weld zone, such as slag inclusion.
Automated Structural Design System Using Fuzzy Theory and Neural Network
Lee, Joon-Seong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 15, issue 12, 1998, Pages 236~243