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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2000
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2000
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2000
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2000
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2000
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2000
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2000
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2000
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2000
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2000
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2000
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2000
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Semi-Solid Forming, Casting and Forging Technologies of Lightweight Materials
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 7~21
This paper describes an overview of the thixoforming and thixomolding processes. Semi-solid metalworking (SSM), which is called the thixoforming process of aluminium materials, incorporates the elements of both casting and for the manufacture of near net shape parts. The SSM has some advantages such as net shape or near net shape manufacturing, the ability to form thin walls, excellent surface finish, tight tolerance, and excellent dimensional precision. The thixomolding process of Mg alloy (AZ9l) is a combination of two technologies both conventional die casting and plastic injection molding. The feed material used is a machined chip with a geometry of approximately 1 mm square and a length of 2~3 mm. The semi-solid forming (SSF) of high quality aluminium and magnesium parts will be established in the automotive and electronic industry, in the future. The hybrid method of casting/forging has been caused attention. This process uses a preformed material made by casting instead of the wrought material and finishes it by a single forging process. This process is expected to lower costs without sacrificing the mechanical and finishes it by a single forging process. The process is expected to lower costs without sacrificing the mechanical properties. The authors, intending that the casting/forging process contributes to a reduction in production cost of aluminum automotive parts in Korea, describes the feature of the casting/forging process, aluminum alloys suitable for the cast preform, microstructure and mechanical properties of the cast preform, application examples of cast/forging, and further study.
Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Approach to Hydroforming Process and Its Application
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 22~28
By using the finite element method, the Oyane's ductile fracture integral I was calculated from the histories of stress and strain according to every element and then the forming limit of hydroforming process could be evaluated. The fracture initiation site and the forming limit for two typical hydroforming processes, tee extrusion and bumper rail under different forming conditions are predicted in this study. For tee extrusion hydroforming process, the pressure level has significant influence on the forming limit. When the expansion area is backed by a supporter and bulged, the process would be more stable and the possibility of bursting failure is reduced. For bumper rail, the ductile fracture integral i is not only affected by the process parameters, but also by the shape of preforming blank. Due to no axial feeding on the end side of the blank, the possibility of cracking in hydroforming of the bumper rail is influenced by the friction condition more strongly than that of the tee extrusion. All the simulation results show reasonable plastic deformation, and the applications of the method could be extended to a wide range of hydroforming processes.
Study for Frictional Characteristics of graphite lubricants in hot. warm forging
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 29~37
At present there are many theories as to how various lubricants used in forging perform the role of reducing friction. Little work has been carried out to determine the validity of these theories for solid lubricants. This paper covers the development and preliminary results of the experiments devised to illustrate the movement of graphite at the workpiece/tool interface in the work forging temperature range. The paper describes the results obtained from upsetting of rings between two flat dies for measurement of lubricant thickness and compaction of graphite for density-pressure relationship. These allowed the lubricant to be exposed to forging conditions and by applying the principles of Male's ring test the simple generation of a value fur friction factor could also be determined. The experiments have been undertaken to examine the behavior of lubricant for shot blasted surface and change of surface roughness. A simple computer model of the interface has been constructed characterizing the graphite layer in an attempt to simulate the boundary mechanics.
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 38~47
Recently, finite element method has been used as an effective tool in the design process of sheet metal forming. In the present study, an implicit method and an explicit method have been developed for 2D analysis and 3D analysis, respectively, and applied to several processes including plane strain draw bending and TWB sqaure cup drawing. Also, commercial codes are used for geometrically complex problems, such as tube hydroforming, "L" cup deep drawing and side frame forming. In this paper, basic formulations used in the methods are introduced and results obtained from the applications are discussed.discussed.
Advanced Machining Technology for Die Manufacturing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 48~68
The high-speed machining technology of difficult-to-cut material is needed to achieve the high-efficiency of die manufacturing. The high-speed machining is applied in automobile, airplane and electricityㆍelectro industry etc, because it can improve machining efficiency and productivity with high speed, high power and high rotation. In this study, high speed machinability, tool wear characteristics and its monitoring, characteristics of damaged layer, machinability of difficult-to-cut material, characteristics of a free curved surface and method of CAD/CAM system were introduced to acquire the shortening of machining time, the improvement of machining efficiency and the high quality of machined surface. Therefore, we establish the stabilization condition of difficult-to-cut material machining and present the optimal cutting condition for high-efficiency cutting.
Development of Automatic System for Die Polishing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 69~80
Generally, die polishing is a lime consuming process, resulting in 30∼50％ of the whole die manufacturing time. However, die polishing has not been automated yet, since it needs a great deal of experience and skill. This paper describes a new development of automated system for die polishing and focuses on the successful achievements of the element techniques to realize from hand skill to automation, as followings: (1) The 5 axes polishing system by the aid of robot with 2 degrees of freedom, is developed for the application of curved surface die. (2) The CAM system realizes a 5 axes tool path control for polishing and measuring. (3) The conductive elastic tool is able to meet curved surfaces of die and gives a high efficient and quality polishing characteristics. (4) The surface roughness measurement device with noncontact laser is developed and has a high reliability without surface damage.
A Machine Vision Algorithm for Measuring the Diameter of Eggcrate Grid
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 85~96
An Eggcrate assembly is an important part to hold and support 16,000 tubes containing hot and contaminated water in the steam generator of nuclear power plant. As a great number of tubes should be inserted into the eggcrate assembly, the dimensions of each eggcrate grid are one of the critical factors to determine the availability of tube insertion. in this paper. we propose a machine vision algorithm for measuring the inner-circle diameter of each eggcrate grid whose shape is not exact quadrangular. The overall procedure of the algorithm is composed of camera calibration, eggcrate image preprocessing, grid height adjustment, and inner-circle diameter estimation. The algorithm is tested on real specimens and the results show that the algorithm works fairly well.
Application of Surface Area Calculating System for Design of Blank Shape of Deep Drawing Product
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 97~105
One of the most important steps to determine the blank shape and dimensions in deep drawing process is to calculate the surface area of the product. In general, the surface area of axisymmetric products is calculated by mathematical or graphical methods. However, in the case of non-axisymmetric products, it is difficult to calculate the exact surface area due to errors as separated components. Fortunately, it is possible for elliptical products to recognize the geometry of the product in the long side and short side by drafting in another two layers on AutoCAD software. So, in this study, a surface area calculating system is constructed for a design of blank shape of deep drawing products. This system consists of input geometry recognition module and three dimensional modeling module, respectively. The suitability of this system is verified by applying to a real deep drawing product. The system constructed in this study would be very useful to reduce lead time and cost for determining the blank shape and dimensions.
A Study on Slot Grinding for Lead Pin Punching Die
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 106~113
One of the recent changes in machining technology is rapid application of micro- and high precision grinding processes. A fine groove generation is necessary for the fabrication of optics, electronics and semiconductor parts. Slot grinding is very efficient for the generation of micro ordered groove with hard and brittle materials. In the process of slot grinding, chipping at the sharp edges and microcracks of the ground grooves are inevitable defects. Chipping should be reduced for the improvement of surface integrity. Mechanical contact with diamond grits causes microcracks at the grooves. This damage resides subsurface, and can be the cause of failure of the punch die. This paper deals with chipping generation at the sharp edges, surface integrity of side groove and fracture strength is related to the microcracks in the slot grinding.
The Automation of Brush Deburring Using IGES
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 114~120
Burr is an unavoidable and undesirable by-product of most metal cutting or shearing operations. This burr must be removed to improve the fit of machined parts and safety of workers, to improve the effectiveness of finishing operations. Despite the full or partial automation of FMC or FMS, deburring operations to obtain workpiece with fine surface quality are difficult to be automated since the occurrence and condition of burr are not constant. This study focused on developing a software for deburring automation, which includes automatic recognition of parts, generation of deburring tool path and NC code, by analyzing the IGES format file which contains information of part geometry. The successful performance of developed software was demonstrated by computer simulation and deburring experiment using miniature end brush. And, this research can provide a basis for further advanced studies for automated deburring applications.
A Path Tracking Control Algorithm for Autonomous Vehicles
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 121~128
In this paper, the control algorithm fur an autonomous vehicle is studied and applied to an actual 2 wheel-driven vehicle system. In order to control a nonholonomic system, the kinematic model for an autonomous vehicle is constructed by relative velocity relationship about the virtual point at distance from the vehicle's frame. And the optimal controller that based on the kinematic model is operated on purpose to track a reference vehicle's path. The actual system is designed with named 'HYAVI' and the system controller is applied. Because all the results of simulation don't satisfy the driving conditions of HYAVI, a reformed control algorithm that satisfies an actual autonomous vehicle is applied at HYAVI. At the results of actual experiments, the path tracking works very well by the reformed control algorithm. An autonomous vehicle that applied this control algorithm can be easily used for a path generation algorithm.
Ultra-Precision Machining Using Fast Tool Servo and On-Machine Form Measurement of Large Aspheric Mirrors
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 129~134
This paper presents the development of ultra-precision machining process of large aspheric aluminum mirrors with a maximum diameter of 620 mm. An ultra-precision machine, "Nanoturn60", developed by Daewoo Heavy Industries Ltd. is used for machining and motion errors of the machine are compensated by using the FTS developed by IAE(Institue for Advanced Engineering) during the machining process. To check the form accuracy of machined aspheric surfaces, on-machine form measurement system is developed. This measurement system consists of air bearing touch probe, straight edge, and laser sensor. With in-process error compensation by FTS(Fast Tool Servo), aspheric mirrors with the from accuracy of submicron order are obtained. obtained.
Fault Diagnosis and Recovery of a Thermal Error Compensation System in a CNC Machine Tool
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 135~141
The major role of temperature sensors in thermal error compensation system of machine tools is improving machining accuracy by supplying reliable temperature data on the machine structure. This paper presents a new method for fault diagnosis of temperature sensors and recovery of faulted data to establish the reliability of thermal error compensation system. The detection of fault and its location is based on the correlation coefficients among temperature data from the sensors. The multiple linear regression model which is prepared using complete normal data is also used fur the recovery of faulted data. The effectiveness of this method was tested by comparing the computer simulation results and measured data in a CNC machining center.
Development of the Position Control Algorithm for Nonlinear Overhead Crane Systems
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 142~147
An overhead crane system which transports an object by girder motion, trolley motion, and hoist motion becomes a nonlinear system because the length of a rope changes. To develope the position control algorithm for the nonlinear crane systems, we apply a nonlinear optimal control method which uses forward and backward difference methods and obtain optimal inputs. This method is suitable for the overhead crane system which is characterized by the differential equation of higher degree and swing motion. From the results of computer simulation, it is founded that the position of the overhead crane system is controlled, and the swing of the object is suppressed.
A Study on the Characteristic Analysis of the Load-sensitive Hydraulic Pump Control System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 148~154
In this study, the static and the dynamic characteristics of the load-sensitive hydraulic pump control systems of a hydraulic excavator were analyzed using the developed analysis tool. The results were compared with the experimental ones. To improve the static performance of the system, the system parameter effects on the controllable region and the pump pressure variation were studied. The parameters enhancing dynamic characteristics were also considered.
Internal Cylindrical Grinding with Super Abrasive Wheel and Electrolytic In- process Dressing
Jun Qian ; Gyung Nyun Kim ; Hitoshi Ohmori ; Hae Do Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 155~162
Postbuckling and Damage Analysis of Composite Laminated Hollow Cylinder under Lateral Pressure
Chongdu Cho ; Guiping Zhao ; HeonJu Kin ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 163~172
The postbuckling behavior and progressive damage of composite laminated cylindrical shell under uniform external pressure were investigated by nonlinear finite element method programming. For the finite element analysis, nine-node 3-D degenerated elements were utilized, and arc-length method including line search was adopted for the iteration and load-increment along postbuckling equilibrium path. As results. buckling load, postbucking behavior, and progressive failure f3r various composite laminated cylindrical shells were discussed.
Optimum Positioning of Rests Considering Compliance of Grinding Machine, Workpiece and Rests in Cylindrical Traverse Grinding
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 173~180
In the process of grinding a long slender type workpiece, such as ballscrew, by the external cylindrical grinding machine, the cylindricity of the workpiece depends on the distance of rests, the stiffness of supports, the diameter and material of workpiece. Conventionally the process needs to be supported by one or more rests to prevent static deflection and vibration. In this paper, the optimal position of the rests was investigated in order to minimize the cylindricity due to the static deflection, by taking compliance of the workpiece and structure into account. In order to obtain the optimal position of rests, a new modeling that is considering the spring effect of all support elements was established. Since it is so complicated to obtain the optimal position analytically for various conditions due to discontinuity, a genetic algorithm u as utilized.
Reduction of Residual Vibration for 2 Axes Overhead Crane by Input Shaping
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 181~188
Input shaping is a method fur reducing residual vibration. Vibration is eliminated by convolving an input shaper, which is a sequence of impulses, with the desired system command. It has been applied to robot with a flexible manipulator. But it can be applied to the reduction of residual vibration far overhead crane. In this paper, input shaping shows good performance for anti-sway of overhead crane. In the z-domain, we designed an input shaper and calculated the sensitivity of it. If sensitivity is calculated in the z-domain, the shapes of sensitivity curves are expected easily. Accordingly, it is easy to design an input shaper in the z-domain. We compared the response of a system with shaper to it without that. Also, we compared El shaper to ZV shaper in view of robustness.
The Development of an Analysis Tool and the Performance Analysis of a Hydraulic Breaker System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 189~196
In this study, the hydraulic breaker system was analyzed and the analysis tool using GUI was developed. The analysis on the system with the accumulator was included. from the parametric analysis, the effects of each factor were revealed. Through the simulation with varying parameters, the method to improve the performance of the hydraulic breaker system was presented. The analysis tool will help a man without special knowledge about programming analyzse the hydraulic breaker system. The result of this study will help improve the hydraulic breaker system in sight of "Blow energy" and "Blows per minute".ws per minute".uot;.
Analysis of Crack Growth in the Stiffened Panels by using Finite Element Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 197~202
A simple numerical procedure is presented to determine the stress intensity factors for crack in a stiffened panel subjected to a uniaxial uniform stress normal to the crack. Two types of stiffened panels are analyzed by the finite element method for various values of crack lengths, stiffness ratios, and stiffener spacings. From the finite element solution, the stress intensity factors were determined by using hybrid extrapolation method. Results are presented in graphical forms for upper mentioned parameters.
An Inverse Kinematic Analysis of a Binary Robot Manipulator using Genetic Algorithms
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 203~208
Evaluation and Optimization of Machining Process Considering Environmental Effects
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 209~219
A method is developed to evaluate machining process and to determine the optimal machining conditions considering the environmental effects. The method Is based on the evaluation attributes from the general LCA programs and the analysis technique of AHP from HHS. To assist the analysis. the mass models of cutting energy, tools, and fluids are developed. The models may be used for both quantitative prediction of the uses and disposed masses of materials and optimization of the machining conditions. The algorithm with the mass models is applied to the milling process planning. The process to survey the environmental data, calculate the used mass, and evaluate the alternatives is demonstrated. This demonstration illustrates the of the change of process conditions of the decision making.
Development of a Finite Element Model for Studying the Occupant Behavior of a Mid-Size Truck with a Driver Side Airbag
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 220~225
This paper develops a finite element model for studying occupant behavior of a mid-size truck equipped with a driver side airbag. The developed model simulates an occupant behavior using PAM-CRASH/PAM-SAFE in super computer SP2. The model is developed based on a sled test. A 50% hybrid dummy III is used for measuring head and chest accelerations and femur loads, and major injury coefficients such as HIC, CA and femur load. Inferior components such as foot rest, seat, kneebolster, crash pad, etc. are roughly modeled and defined by a rigid material model. And contact type II is used for detecting a contact with dummy. Contact type II definition uses force-deflection relationship of each body Such components as steering column which directly affect on the occupant injuy are modeled in detail and defined by an elastic-plastic material model. Airbag cushion is modeled using rivet elements. Airbag cover groove is modeled using rivet elements. Airbag tether is modeled as nonlinear bar elements. Airbag model has two vent holes to ventilating the exploded gas. Airbag is folded close to the real airbag folding procedure, and folded cautiously in order not to have initial penetration. A vehicle pulse acquired from 31mph frontal barrier test is used as input signal for the simulation. The simulation conditions are tuned to the sled test ones. The measured dummy accelerations and major injury coefficients, and filmed dummy behavior and airbag inflation process using high speed camera are compared to the simulation results to verify the developed finite element model.
Development of a Finite Element Model for Frontal Crash Analysis of a Mid-Size Truck
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 226~232
This paper develops a finite element model for studying the crashworthiness analysis of a mid-size truck. A simulation for a truck frontal crash to a rigid barrier using the model is performed with PAM-CRASH installed in super computer SP2. Full vehicle model is composed of 86467 shell elements, 165 beam elements and 98 bar elements, and 86769 nodes. The model uses four material model such as elastic, elastic-plastic(steel), rigid and elastic-plastic(rubber) material model which are in PAM-CRASH. Frame and suspension system are modeled with 28774 shell elements and 31412 nodes. Cab is modeled with 34680 shell elements and 57 beam elements, and 36254 nodes. Bumper is modeled with 2262 shell elements, and 2508 nodes. Axle, steering shaft, etc are modeled using beam or bar elements. Mounting parts are modeled using rigid bodies. Bodies are interconnected using nodal constrains or joint options. To verify the developed model, frontal crash test with 30mph velocity to a rigid barrier is carried out. In the crash test, vehicle pulse at lower part of b-pillar is measured, and deformed shapes of frame and driver seat area are photographed. Those measured vehicle pulse and photographed pictures are compared those from the simulation to verify the developed finite element model.
A Study on the Shaft End Displacement of the Centrifugal Pump under Nozzle Loads using Compliance Coefficients
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 233~239
Investigation results are presented fur the shaft end displacements due to the elastic deformation of the casing and support in double suction centrifugal pump. Suction and discharge nozzles of the pump are subject to external piping loads and, in API 610, maximum values of their components are specified. This means that each nozzle can be subject to various combinations of loading conditions. Considering upper and lower criteria of each load, we must perform for the 4,096 load cases, and assign the direction and range of the loads. So, this paper develops an efficient procedure(Compliance Coefficient Method) to calculate the shaft end displacements(＠ coupling) to determine whether satisfying the pump's standard. Also, we analyzed the effects of the casing and support thickness on shaft end displacements.
Estimation of the Ground Surface Roughness Applied by Acoustic Emission Signal
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2000, Pages 240~246
An in-process estimation of the ground surface roughness is a bottle-neck and an essential field in conventional grinding operation. We defined the dimensionless average roughness factor (D.A.R.F) that exhibits a roughness characteristics of ground surface. The D.A.R.F was composed easily of the absolute average and the standard deviation values which were the analytic parameters of the acoustic emission (AE) signal generated during the machining process. The theoretical equation between the surface roughness and the D.A.R.F has been derived from the linear regressive analysis and verified its availability through the experimentation on the surface grinding machine.