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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Development of Solder Sphere Manufacturing Equipment Controller
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 5~11
Development of 3-D Inspection Technology for Solder Paste Using PMP method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 12~21
Design and Control of Dual Servo Mechanism for High Precision Position Control
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 22~30
Optimal Cutting Condition in Side Wall Milling Considering Form Accuracy
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 31~40
In this paper, optimal cutting condition to minimize the form error in side wall machining with a flat end mill is studied. Cutting forces and tool deflection are calculated considering surface shape generated by the previous cutting such as roughing. Using the form error prediction method from tool deflection, optimal cutting condition considering form accuracy is investigated. Also, the effects of tool teeth number, tool geometry and cutting conditions on form error are analyzed. The characteristics and the difference of generated surface shape in up and down milling are discussed and over-cut free condition in up milling is presented. Form error reduction method through successive up and down milling is also suggested. The effectiveness and usefulness of the presented method are verified from a series of cutting experiments under various cutting conditions. It is confirmed that form error prediction from tool deflection in side wall machining can be used in optimal cutting condition selection and real time surface error simulation for CAD/CAM systems. This study also contributes to cutting process optimization for the improvement of form accuracy especially in precision die and mold manufacturing.
Feasibility Study on Monitoring of Small-Diameter Tap Breakage with AE Sensor in High-Speed Tapping
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 41~46
This paper deals with the possibility of tap breakage detection by AE sensor. AE signals in the tapping were not seldom generated in low speed but reflected the tapping process exactly in high speed. Using AE raw signals sampled in 500kHz, AE RMS and AE count rate was computed in software. When the converting time of AE RMS is less than 10ms, we could distinguish between normal cutting and tap breakage. And AE count rate was more exact when the converting time is greater than 1ms. When two methods were compared to each other, AE count rate was more accurate.
Switched Reluctance Contact-Free Linear Actuator Using Attractive Magnetic Forces
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 47~55
In the development of positioning device for precision manufacturing and measuring, the friction from mechanical contact causes serious decrease of performance. In this study, we studied about variable reluctance type contact-free linear actuator to overcome drawbacks from friction. In the view of electromagnetics, we analyzed and derived theoretical magnetic force equation and designed structure for generating suspension and propulsion force simultaneously. In the view of dynamics, we derived equation of motion and identified the stability of the system. Finally, we verified the feasibility of the proposed system.
Tool-Wear Characteristics in Turning of STS 304
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 56~64
The effect of tool geometry on the tool wear in turning the austenitic stainless steel, STS 304 was investigated. The wear of TiN-TiCN-TiC-TiAlN coated tungsten carbide tool was the smallest, showing larger wear in the order of Si-Al-O-N ceramic, TiN coated tungsten carbide, TiN- TiCN- TiN coated tungsten carbide, TiC-TiN cermet and M20 tungsten carbide tools at the same cutting conditions. The S-type tool of M20 with the larger side cutting edge angle showed the smallest tool wear in all tests due to preventing the groove wear of the side cutting edge. The wear of the S-type tool with the rake angle of
became smaller than with that of
, but the tool with the nose radius of 0.8mm did not perform much better with increasing the rake angle.
Decrease of Porosity and Cracking in the cw Nd:YAG Laser Welding of SM45C
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 65~73
The effect of pre-heating on the mechanical properties of laser welding joints has been investigated for the case of SM45C carbon steel welded by a cw Nd:Y AG laser. The occurrence of porosity and cracking was inspected in various welding conditions to find the optimal welding parameters. The results of laser welding experiment with pre-heating technique showed that porosity and cracking can be reduced significantly in most of welding conditions and the welded joints have improved mechanical properties, such as higher tensile strength and better durability.
Study on Cutting Characteristics of WC-Co with Micro Cutting in SEM
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 74~81
This paper describes that the micro-cutting of WC-Co using PCD (Polycrystalline Diamond) and PcBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride) cutting tools are performed with SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) direct observation method. The purpose of this study is to present reasonable cutting conditions to obtain precise finished surface and machining efficiency. Summary of the results are shown below: (1) The thrust cutting forces tend to increase more than the principal forces as the depth of cut and the cuttlllg speed are increased preferably on orthogonal microcutting. (2) The tool wear in the flank face was formed larger than that in the rake face on orthogonal micro cutting. (3) The wear appearance for PCD tools is abraded by hard WC particles of the work materials, which lead diamond grain to be detached from the bond.
A Stability Study on Visual Servoing using Dynamic Calibration
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 82~88
Many visual servoing algorithms have been recently developed by the robot vision researchers. They do not, however, consider the stability of servoing system. The camera calibration is the most important factor to the control stability and performance of position based visual servoing. In this article we describe the ECL(End Point Closed Loop) servoing can make no steady state error for the control of 6-DOF robot of which accuracy is dependent on the camera calibration and kinematics. And we propose a dynamic calibration algorithm, which can improve stability and performance of ECL visual servoing. To verify the potential of our approach, we run assembly experiments and present our finding.
CNC Implemented Fault Diagnosis and Remote-Service System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 89~97
The faults diagnosis of machine tool, which is controlled by CNC(Computer Numerical Control) and PLC(Programmable Logic Controller), is generally based on ladder diagram of PLC because sequential controls for CNC and servo motor are mostly processed in PLC. However, when fault is occurred, a searching of logical relationship for fault reasons is required a lot of diagnosis experiences and times because PLC program has step structure. In this paper, FDS(Fault Diagnosis System) is developed and implemented to machine tool with open architecture controller in order to find the reason of fault fast and correctly. The diagnosed reasons for fault are remote serviced on web through developed RSS(Remote Service System). The operationability and usefulness of developed system are evaluated on specially manufactured machine tool with open architecture CNC. The results of this research can be the model of remote monitoring and fault diagnosis system of machine tool with open architecture CNC.
Modeling and Parameter Estimation of Solenoid Valve in Automatic Transmission by the Least Square Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 98~104
Model structure of solenoid valve in the automatic transmission is determined as 5th order system by the signal error test. For determining parameter of the solenoid valve, parameters in time discrete model are searched by the least square method. By bilinear transform, we have found the model of solenoid valve in s domain. Afterward, experimental output data is compared with simulated output data by MATLAB having identified parameter. As the result, experimental data is agreed with simulated data very well.
An Analytical Investigation on Fluid Dynamics of Filler Neck Check Valve for On-board Refueling Vapor Recovery
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 105~111
ORVR filler neck check valve, which is one of the essential components of the vapor fuel control system, should diminish the evaporation by maintaining laminar fluid flow on refueling process. This study presents numerical. results of pressure and velocity distributions of the fluid flow in a ORVR filler neck check valve on refueling process. CFD-ACE+ has been employed for numerical analysis based on the information of experimental results of valve position as a function of inlet flow rate. No abrupt pressure change, which may causes vaporization of fuel, has been confirmed to take place on the concave surface of the valve spool. However, it is clear that some possibility exist at the mid-position of surface of valve spool and downstream according to the opening of valve.
Real-time Compensation of Motion Errors Using Extended Twyman-Green Interferometry
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 112~119
This paper presents an extended Twyman-Green interferometry that enables simultaneous and real-time measurement of 5-DOF motion errors of the translational moving stage. This method uses a null balancing technique in which two plane mirrors are used as target mirrors to generate an interferometric fringe utilizing the optical principles of Twyman-Green interferometry. Fringe is detected by 2D photodiode array for high-speed measurement. Errors are then independently suppressed by activation of piezoelectric actuators through real-time feedback control while the machine axis is moving. Experimental results demonstrate that a machine axis can be controlled with motion errors about 10 nm in linear displacement, 0.15 arcsec in angular displacement.
Development of the Roughing Path Measurement System for Footwear
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 120~129
For successful establishment of the roughing CAM system based on reverse engineering, it is necessary to develop the measurement method for generation of roughing path from a physical footwear model. In this study, the development of the roughing path measurement system is presented. It consists of 3 CCD cameras, image acquisition board and the roughing path measurement algorithm. The 3 CCD cameras capture images of the sidewall and the bottom of the footwear and, from two images, the outer and inner lines are extracted using image-processing algorithm. The roughing path measurement algorithm generates the roughing path which is reflected on the change of resolution according to the distance between the CCD camera and the measured point. The experimental results show that the developed system can measure the roughing path within the allowable roughing error range.
Robust Trajectory Control of a Hydraulic Excavator using Disturbance Observer in
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 130~140
This paper presents an
controller synthesis based on disturbance observer for the trajectory control of a hydraulic excavator. Compared to conventional robot manipulators driven by electrical motors, hydraulic excavator have more nonlinear and coupled dynamics. In particular, the interactions between an excavation tool and the materials being excavated are unstructured and complex. In addition, its operating modes depend on working conditions, which make it difficult to not only derive the exact mathematical model but also design a controller systematically. In this study, the approximated linear model obtained through off-line system identification is used as nominal plant model for a disturbance observer. A disturbance observer based tracking controller which considers the effect of disturbance and model uncertainty is synthesized in
frameworks. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed control scheme.
Absolute Positioning System of Mobile Robot using Light Navigation Path
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 141~147
This paper represents an absolute positioning system using a light navigation path for mobile robot. The absolute positioning system is composed of the projector unit which generates a laser beam using laser diode and mobile robot with the optical detector which has some optical sensors. The projector unit is fixed over the navigating plane of mobile robot to generate the light navigation path, and the optical detector located upper part of mobile robot detects the generated laser beam from the projector. The navigation of mobile robot is controlled by the micro-processor which compares the detected present position from the detector with the previously programmed navigation path. And experimental results show that our sensor system can be used for the absolute positioning system of the mobile robot.
Channel Design of Decanter-Type Centrifuge (I) - Particles′ Suspension and the Channel Size
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 148~155
In this paper, based on the concept of solid particles' hovering problem the working formula for the channel design of a Decanter-type centrifuge were derived. The Shields' diagram and its curve-fitting formula were used in determining the criterion of particle size for the sediment. By using these formula the designer can determine the sectional configuration of the channel, such as the liquid depth, the normal pitch of the screw-blade arrangement and the bowl diameter.
Modeling of Functional Surface using Modified B-spline
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 156~163
This research presents modeling of a functional surface which is a constructed free-formed surface. The modeling introduced in this paper adopts modified B-spline that is utilizing approximating technique. The modified B-Spline is constructed with altered control vertices. It is applied to measure points on a surface of an impeller blade. This research builds a surface-modeler accepting inputs of measured points. Generation of cutter-paths for NC machining employs the model of the constructed surfaces. The machined surfaces which is generated in several cases are compared in the aspect of machining accuracy.
Design of a Wheel Bearing Unit Using Taguchi Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 164~168
An automotive wheel bearing is one of the most important components to guarantee the service life of a passenger car. The endurance life of a bearing is affected by many parameters such as material properties, heat treatment, lubrication conditions, operating temperature, loading conditions, bearing geometry, the internal clearance of bearing and so on. In this paper, we analyze the relation between loads and deformations of wheel bearing units for optimal bearing unit design. On the basis of it, we calculate the endurance life of w heel bearing units and analyze the contribution of bearing geometric parameters on the endurance life by using Taguchi method.
A Study on Computational Efficiency Enhancement by Using Full Gray Code Genetic Algorithm
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 169~176
Genetic algorithm (GA), which has a powerful searching ability and is comparatively easy to use and also to apply, is in the spotlight in the field of the optimization for mechanical systems these days. However, it also contains some problems of slow convergence and low efficiency caused by a huge amount of repetitive computation. To improve the processing efficiency of repetitive computation, some papers have proposed paralleled GA these days. There are some cases that mention the use of gray code or suggest using gray code partially in GA to raise its slow convergence. Gray code is an encoding of numbers so that adjacent numbers have a single digit differing by 1. A binary gray code with n digits corresponds to a hamiltonian path on an n-dimensional hypercube (including direction reversals). The term gray code is open used to refer to a reflected code, or more specifically still, the binary reflected gray code. However, according to proposed reports, gray code GA has lower convergence about 10-20% comparing with binary code GA without presenting any results. This study proposes new Full gray code GA (FGGA) applying a gray code throughout all basic operation fields of GA, which has a good data processing ability to improve the slow convergence of binary code GA.
Energy Absorbing Characteristics of Thin-Walled Members for Vehicles Having Various Section Shapes
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 177~182
The front-end side members of automobiles absorb most of the energy in a case of front-end collision. The front-end side members are required to have a high stiffness together with easiness to collapse sequentially to absorb more impact energy. The axial static collapse test (5mm/min) was conducted by using UTM for form different types of members which have different cross section shapes; single hat, single cap, double cap, and double hat. The single hat shaped section member has the typical standard section, which the double hat shape section has a symmetry in the center to have more stiffness. As a result of the test, the energy absorbing characteristic was analyzed for different section shapes. It turned out that the change of section shape influence the absorbing energy, the mean collapse load and the maximum collapse load, and the relation between the change of section shape and the collapse mode.
Thermo-Mechanical Interaction of Flip Chip Package Constituents
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 183~190
Major device failures such as die cracking, interfacial delamination and warpage in flip chip packages are due to excessive heat and thermal gradients- There have been significant researches toward understanding the thermal performance of electronic packages, but the majority of these studies do not take into account the combined effects of thermo-mechanical interactions of the different package constituents. This paper investigates the thermo-mechanical performance of flip chip package constituents based on the finite element method with thermo-mechanically coupled elements. Delaminations with different lengths between the silicon die and underfill resin interfaces were introduced to simulate the defects induced during the assembly processes. The temperature gradient fields and the corresponding stress distributions were analyzed and the results were compared with isothermal case. Parametric studies have been conducted with varying thermal conductivities of the package components, substrate board configurations. Compared with the uniform temperature distribution model, the model considering the temperature gradients provided more accurate stress profiles in the solder interconnections and underfill fillet. The packages with prescribed delaminations resulted in significant changes in stress in the solder. From the parametric study, the coefficients of thermal expansion and the package configurations played significant roles in determining the stress level over the entire package, although they showed little influence on stresses profile within the individual components. These observations have been implemented to the multi-board layer chip scale packages (CSP), and its results are discussed.
Design of Spherical Aberration Free Aspherical Lens by Use of Ray Reverse Tracing Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 191~198
In this study, aberration free aspherical lens design method named ray reverse tracing method is introduced. Differently from the traditional design method, the ray reverse tracing method traces the shape and location of a real object by use of its virtual image. From the result, especially spherical aberration free aspherical lens could be designed by use of the ray reverse tracing method. Furthermore, it could reduce the degree of dependence of optical characteristics on designer's ability, because deformation terms and optimization can be eliminated, which has been performed in conventional lens design process.
Error Analysis and Improvement of the Timoshenko Beam based Finite Element Model for Multi-Stepped Beam Structures
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 199~207
The Timoshenko beam model has been known as the most accurate model for representing beam structures. However, the Timoshenko beam model may give rise to a significant error when it is applied to multi-stepped beam structures. This paper is intended to demonstrate the modeling error of Timoshenko beam based finite element model for multi-stepped beam structures and to suggest a new modeling method to improve the accuracy. A tentative bending spring is introduced into the stepped section to represent the softening effect due to the presence of step. This paper also proposes a finite element modeling method in the light with the tentative bending spring model for the step softening effect. The proposed method rigorously adapts computation results from a commercial finite element code. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated through a series of simulation and experiment.
Investigation on the Automatic Surface Generation for Extrusion Die of T-shaped Section using NURBS Surface and Area Mapping Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 208~217
In order to construct the extrusion die surface of T -shaped sections, an automatic surface construction method based on NURBS surface and area mapping method is proposed in the present work. In the present study, a center point for area mapping is determined by introducing the mapping concept based on constant area proportionality between original billet and final product. The characteristic points of inlet profile are determined using the traditional area mapping method and the root finding numerical method. The inlet and outlet profiles are precisely described with NURBS curves using the characteristic points of entry and exit sections. For the construction of NURBS surface, an interpolation method for the pre-determined two section curves has been developed to be used in the generation of interior control points and weights. To show the validity of the proposed method, automatic die surface generation is carried out for the T-shaped section and T-shaped section with rounded corners.
Diagnostic System of Modeling Errors Generated from IGES CAD Data Exchange
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 218~225
A diagnostic system has been developed which reports modeling errors generated when exchanging CAD data using IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) format. The system determines whether the CAD data contains errors. It also helps to define the criteria for determining the integrity and interoperability of CAD data with downstream applications of another CAD/CAM/CAE/PDM systems. The methodology of our algorithms is to analyze IGES model data by identifying errors and anomalies with respect to the diagnosis of geometry and topology. The GUI (Graphic User Interface) of the developed system helps users to input values and to visualize diagnostic results at real time.
Application of Stiffness Matrix Element for Finite Element Analysis of Spine
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 226~232
Difficulties in the finite element modeling of human spine are evaded by using a stiffness matrix element whose properties can be characterized from experimentally measured stiffness of functional spinal units. Relative easiness is in that inter-vertebral discs, ligaments, and soft tissues connecting vertebrae do not need to be modeled as they are. The remarkable coupling effect between distinct degrees of freedom induced by the geometric complexity can be accommodated without much effort. An idealized block model with simple geometry for vertebra is employed to assess the feasibility of this method. Analyses are performed in both levels of motion segment and spinal column, and the result is compared with that from detail model. As far as the global behavior of spine is concerned, the simplification is found not to aggravate inaccuracy only if sufficient experimental data is provided and interpreted properly.
A Method to Describe and Analyze Human Knee Joint Motion
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 10, 2003, Pages 233~239
Three dimensional joint motion data were obtained using X-ray and precise magnetic sensors. Six metal markers were inserted on the femur and the tibia to set the coordinate system. Two magnetic position sensors were used to record motion data and these positions were transformed into the knee motion. The quadriceps muscle was extended in an automatic manner by an extraction machine. Results of the knee joint motion were the same as the clinical data. The proposed method is found to be reasonable in describing the knee motion so that these motion data can be used to simulate the normal knee joint.