Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Brain Computer Interface Technology
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 7~13
The Convertible Wheelchair System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 14~18
A Denture Type Electrolarynx
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 19~24
An Experimental Study on Injection Molding of Etched Surface Pattern
Jing Chung Huang ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 25~32
Molding properties of etched surface pattern are presented. Injection molding has given attention on improving dimensional accuracy and productivity. However, the molding of etched surface pattern on plastic parts is not researched relatively for its additional values, which can meet design function and customer's attraction. Specimens, whose surface patterns are made by print-type etching, are investigated. The molding properties of surface pattern are estimated with roughness deviation of surface pattern on part and mold. The etching properties are related to physical properties of plastic materials and surface roughness of etched pattern. Also, flow mark and gate location can give influence on surface pattern molding. The experimental result can contribute to good molding of surface pattern in injection molding.
Microlens Fabrication by Using Excimer Laser
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 33~39
A new microlens fabrication technique, the excimer laser lithography is developed. This bases on the pulsed laser irradiation and the transfer of a chromium-on-quartz reticle on to the polymer surface with a proper projection optics system. An excimer laser lithography system with 1/4 and 1/20 demagnification ratios was constructed first, and the photoablation characteristics of the PMMA and Polyimide were experimentally examined using this system. For two different shapes of microlenses, a spherical lens and a cylindrical lens, fabrication techniques were investigated. One for the spherical lens is a combination of the mask pattern projection and fraction effect. The other for the cylindrical lens is a combination of the mask pattern projection and the relative movement of a specimen. The result shows that various shapes of micro optical components can be easily fabricated by the excimer laser lithography.
A Study on the Chucking of Ferrule using Cone-type Centers and Ball-type Centers in Co-Axial Grinding - Chucking Error Analysis
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 40~49
Ferrule is widely used as fiber optic connecters. In fiber-optic communications. the shape accuracy such as coaxiality and cylindricity of ferrule affects insertion loss. When coaxial grinding of ferrule supported by two pin. pin alignment and chucking accuracy are very important. In this research, the kinematic behavior of the ferrule centers are investigated in the case where the ferrule is chucked with the cone-shaped center pins and bail centers, With homogeneous coordinate transformation and numerical analysis, the obtained results are as follows: In the case of cone-type center, the alignment errors between center pins alone do not affect the rotation accuracy of ferrule. The alignment errors between center holes cause sinusoidal displacement of ferrule. And the maximum displacement of ferrule centers is proportional to the center pin angle. In the case of ball-type center, the displacements of ferrule centers has similar pattern as cone-type center, and the alignment errors art proportional to ball diameters.
A Study on the Environmentally Conscious Machining Technology Cutting Fluid Atomization and Environmental Impact through Spin-Off Mechanism in fuming Operation(II)
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 50~57
This paper presents the experimental results to verify the atomization characteristics and environmental impact of cutting fluid. Even though cutting fluid improves the productivity through the cooling, Lubricating effects, environmental impact due to cutting fluid usage is also increased on factory shop floor Cutting fluid's aerosol via atomization process can be affected human health risk such as lung cancer and skin diseases. Experimental results show that the generated fine aerosol which particle size less than 10 micron appears near working tone under typical operational conditions. The aerosol concentration also exceeds NIOSH regulations. This research can be provided a basis of environmental impact analysis fur environmental consciousness.
Mechanical Characteristics Evaluation of Metal Matrix Composites Cylinder Linear Fabricated by Thixoforging Process
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 58~65
The conventional forming process such as squeeze casting or die casting for fabricating metal matrix composites products have a disadvantage such as non homogenous distribution of reinforcement, weak bonding between matrix and reinforcement and cost increase in parts fabrication. Thixoforming process has been accepted as a new method for fabricating the net shaped metal matrix composites with lightweight and wear resistance. In this paper, the effect of volume fraction and reinforcement sizes on mechanical properties in cylinder liner part of metal matrix composites has been investigated with processes parameters such as pressure and velocity. Moreover, the methods to obtain the thixoforged composites cylinder liner with high quality has been proposed. To evaluate the composites cylinder linear fabricated at the conditions proposed in this study, mechanical properties of fabricated composites cylinder linear were compared with those of commercial composites cylinder linear.
Life Estimation of Hot Forging Die by Plastic Deformation and Wear
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 66~75
This paper describes about the estimation method of die lift by wear and plastic deformation in hot forging process. The thermal load and the thermal softening are happened by the high temperature in hot forging process. Tool lift decreases considerably due to the softening of the surface layer of a tool caused by high thermal load and long contact time between tool and billet. Also, tool life is to a large extent limited by wear, heat crack and plastic deformation in hot forging process. Above all, the main factors which affects die accuracy and tool lift are wear and the plastic deformation of a die. The new developed technique for predicting tool life applied to estimate the production quantity for a spindle component and these techniques assist to improve the tool life in hot forging process.
Cure Properties in Photopolymer for Stereolithography according to Variance of Laser Beam Size
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 76~84
Stereolithography is the technique using a laser beam to cure a liquid resin, a photopolymer, with three dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) data. The build parameters of stereolithography such as beam size, scan velocity. hatch spacing, layer thickness and etc. are determined by the accuracy of prototype, the build time and the cured properties of the resin. In particular, beam size is important processing parameter fur the other parameters. Therefore, this study observed the cured property to beam size. For this purpose, according to hatch spacing and beam size, the cure width and depth were measured on single cured line. Also, the cure width and depth were measured at single cured layer As a result of experiments. cure depth which varied from 0.23mm to 0.34mm was directly proportioned to beam radius. on the other hand, cure width which varied from 0.42mm to 1.07mm was inversely proportioned to beam radius. Surface roughness varied from 1.12 to 2.23 m for the ratio of hatch spacing to beam radius.
Optimal Neural Network Controller Design using Jacobian
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 85~93
Generally, it is very difficult to get a modeling equation because multi-variable system has coupling relations between its inputs and outputs. To design an optimal controller without the modeling equation, this paper proposes a neural-network (NN) controller being learned by Jacobian matrix. Another major characteristic is that the controller consists of two separated NN controllers, namely, proportional control part and derivative control part. Simulation results for a catamaran system show that the proposed NN controller is superior to LQR in the regulation and tracking problems.
A Study on Multi-Vehicle Control of Electro Active Polymer Actuator based on Embedded System using Adaptive Fuzzy Controller
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 94~103
In case of environment requiring safety such as human body and requiring flexible shape, a conventional mechanical actuator system does not satisfy requirements. Therefore, in order to solve these problems. a research of various smart material such as EAP (Electro Active Polymer), EAC (Electro Active Ceramic) and SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) is in progress. Recently, the highest preferring material among various smart material is EP (Electrostictive Polymer), because it has very fast response time, powerful force and large displacement. The previous researches have been studied properties of polymer and simple control, but present researches are studied a polymer actuator. An EP (Electostrictive Polymer) actuator has properties which change variably ils shape and environmental condition. Therefore, in order to coincide with a user's purpose, it is important not only to decide a shape of actuator and mechanical design but also to investigate a efficient controller. In this paper, we constructed the control logic with an adaptive fuzzy algorithm which depends on the physical properties of EP that has a dielectric constant depending on time. It caused for a sub-actuator to operate at the same time that a sub-actuator system operation increase with a functional improvement and control efficiency improvement in each actuator, hence it becomes very important to manage it effectively and to control the sub-system which Is operated effectively. There is a limitation on the management of Main-host system which has multiple sub-system, hence it brings out the Multi-Vehicle Control process that disperse the task efficiently. Controlling the multi-dispersion system efficiently, it needs the research of Main-host system's scheduling, data interchange between sub-actuators, data interchange between Main-host system and sub-actuator system, and data communication process. Therefore in this papers, we compared the fuzzy controller with the adaptive fuzzy controller. also, we applied the scheduling method for efficient multi-control in EP Actuator and the algorithm with interchanging data, protocol design.
Double Electro-Magnetic Force Compensation Method for the Micro Force Measurement
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 104~111
Micro force measurement is required more frequently for a precision manufacturing and investment in fields of precision industries such as semiconductor, chemistry and biology, and so forth. Null balance method has been introduced as an alternative of a loadcell. Loadcells have advantages in aspects of low cost and easy manufacturing, but have also the limitation in resolution and sensitivity to environment variations. In this paper, null balance method is explained and the dominant parameters related to system performances are mentioned. Null position sensor, electromagnetic system and controller are investigated. Also, the characteristic experiment is carried out in order to estimate the resolution and the measurement range. In order to overcome the limitation by the drift of position sensor and the performance of controller, double electromagnetic force compensation method is proposed and experimented. After controlling and filtering, the resolution under
1mg and measurement range over 300g could be obtained.
A Learning Method of PID Controller by Jacobian in Multi Variable System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 112~119
Generally, PID controller is not suitable to control multi variable system because it is very difficult to tune the PID gains. However, this paper shows that it is not hard to tune the PID gains if we can find a Jacobian matrix of the system. The Jacobian matrix expresses the ratio of output variations according to input variations. It is possible to adjust the input values in order to reduce the output error using the Jacobian. When the colt function is composed of error related terms, the gradient approach can tune the PID gains to minimize the function. In simulation, a hydrofoil catamaran with two inputs and two outputs is applied as a multi variable system. We can easily get the multi variable PID controller by the proposed teaming method. When the controller is compared with LQR controller, the performance is as good as that of LQR controller with a modeling equation.
RP Preprocessor Based on Distributed Objects
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 120~128
When considering the use of rapid prototyping (RP), there are many issues a designer has to address for handling an STL model, the de facto standard fur RP. Today designers can skip all these issues by visiting web-based service bureaus that readily supply needed information for the RP services. Since orders are taken for RP parts through the web page of service providers designers are now asked to upload their STL files to the company server either by direct upload, ftp file transfer, or as an e-mail attachment. If the service bureau, however, fixes or edits an STL filceto optimize the RP process but neglects to tell its customer about the rework in detail, it may cause problems down the line in processing of the original CAD data for other applications. In this paper, we propose a framework for a collaborative virtual environment between CAD designers and RP processes on the internet which directly provides designers with an advanced preprocessor functionality, design visualization, as well as model display, repair, and slicing over the network. This can help smooth data transfer from CAD to RP process with minimum inconsistency in CAD.
A Study on the Prediction of Fatigue Crack Initiation Life of Hole Expansion Plate
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 129~135
The fatigue life of a structure can be enhanced by improving the mechanical and metallurgical aspects to strengthen the material around regions of high stress. Coldworking of holes in structures is one of the mechanical methods of strengthening material. The material for this research is A12024-T351 which is used for the primary member or aircraft. Specimens were tested under constant amplitude loading and residual stresses measured by X-ray diffraction technique. Fatigue crack initiation life was evaluated by a strain-life equation which was considered initial residual stress and residual stress relaxation exponent as a function of the strain amplitude. The predictions on fatigue crack initiation life were compared with experimental results. A wide range of discrepancies between them was found.
Effect of Stringers in Stiffened Panel under Varying Fatigue Load
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 136~145
The integrity of stiffened panels with stringers in airplane structure is generally enhanced by investigating the fatigue crack propagation behavior in detail and providing the technical methodology to deal with the propagating crack. This paper attempts to clarify the effect of load-ratio on the fatigue crack propagation rate and the fatigue life for the thin aluminum 2024-T3. Both the variable and the constant fatigue loading conditions are considered for the fatigue crack propagation behavior in stiffened panels with stringers.
A Study on the Pattern Recognition of Hole Defect using Neural Networks
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 146~153
Ultrasonic inspection of defects has been focused on the existence of defect in structural material and need has much time and expenses in inspecting all the coordinates (x, y) on material surface. Neural networks can have an application to coordinates (x, y) of defects by multi-point inspection method. Ultrasonic inspection modeling is optimized by neural networks Neural networks has trained training example of absolute and relative coordinate of defects, and defect pattern. This method can predict coordinates (x, y) of defects within engineering estimated mean error
The Effects of CCT Specimen Geometry and Loading Condition on the J-Integral
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 154~161
The effects of specimen geometry, and loading conditions on the J-integral fur CCT (center cracked tension) specimens are investigated by using FEM. It is found that the J-integral tends to decrease according to the parallel tensile loading to crack line. Furthermore, it is verified that the compressive parallel loading to crack line is likely to increase the J-integral. A stress ratio of length to width of the center CCT specimen is confirmed to affect the J-integral significantly.
Stress Analysis for Tooth Modification
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 162~167
This paper is the study on stress analysis for tooth modification of high speed gear using a finite element method. Gear drives constitute very important mechanisms in transmitting mechanical power processes which compromise several cost effective and engineering advantages. The load transmission which occurred by the contacting surfaces arises variable elastic deformations evaluated through finite element analysis. The automatic gear design program was developed to model gear shape precisely. This developed gear design system was used by pre-processor of FEM packages. The distribution of stresses at contacting surfaces was examined when gear tooth contacts. And this paper proposes a method for the tooth modification after carrying out stress analysis using a finite element method.
Optimization of a Piezoelectric Actuator using Bridge-Type Hinge Mechanism
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 168~175
In this research, a bridge-type flexure hinge mechanism is developed and optimized to amplify the displacement of a multilayer piezostack. Developed hinge mechanism has three-dimensional structure to reduce link size, so it have high amplification ratio with respect to small size. A flexure hinge is assumed to be 6 degree-of-freedom spring elements and matrix methods are used to model a hinge mechanism. To verify derived matrix model, a displacement and frequency experiments are performed. The analysis result shows that the displacemental error between matrix model and experiments is below 10 percents and the deformation of hinge in parasitic direction should be considered In hinge modeling. Using developed matrix model, an optimal design is performed to maximize the performance of hinge mechanism.
Feature Recognition and Segmentation via Z-map in Reverse Engineering
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 176~183
The paper presents a feature recognition and segmentation method for surface approximation in reverse engineering. Efficient digitizing plays an important role in constructing a computational surface model from a physical part-surface without its CAD model on hand. Depending on its measuring source (e.g., touch probe or structured light), each digitizing method has its own strengths and weaknesses in terms of speed and accuracy. The final goal of the research focuses on an integration of two different digitizing methods: measuring by the structured light and that by the touch probe. Gathering bulk of digitized points (j.e., cloud-of-points) by use of a laser scanning system, we construct a coarse surface model directly from the cloud-of-points, followed by the segmentation process where we utilize the z-map filleting & differencing to trace out feature boundary curves. The feature boundary curves and the approximate surface model could be inputs to further digitizing by a scanning touch probe. Finally, more accurate measuring points within the boundary curves can be obtained to construct a finer surface model.
Installation Error Calibration by Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method on a Cubic Parallel Manipulator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 184~191
A parallel manipulator has high stiffness and all the joint errors on the device are not accumulated at the end -effector unlike a serial manipulator. These are the reasons why the parallel manipulator has been widely used in many fields of industry. In the parallel manipulator, it is very important to predict the exact pose of the end-effector when we want to control the end-effector motion. Installation errors have to be determined in order to predict and control the actual position and pose of the end-effector. This paper presents an algorithm to find the whole 36 joint error components with joint clearance errors and measurement errors considered, when a link length measurement sensor is used and data more than 36 times are acquired for 36 different configurations. A simulation test using this algorithm is performed with a Matlab program which uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method that is known to be efficient for non-linear optimization.
Nonlinear Analysis of End-to-End Anastomosis Using Sub-modeling
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 192~198
A finite element analysis of end-to-end artery/PTFE anastomosis has been presented in this study to evaluate the distribution of compliance and stresses in the vicinity of the anastomosis due to any mismatch in compliance characteristics. The artery wall was assumed to be made of linear isotropic material in this simplified model and a nonlinear analysis and convergency study with respect to increasing meshed element numbers were performed with a mean artery pressure loading of the artery-PTFE model. Also, sub-modeling method was Introduced to progress the accuracy of the finite element analysis. The results are as follow : 1. A hypercompliant zone on the artery side was observed around 4.Omm from the anastomosis and a high hoop stresses in the wall of artery and PTFE was dominant. 2. An artery displays large deformation so that nonlinear analysis and sub-modeling method was used. 3. An anastomosis with the thinner thickness and larger diameter PTFE (B type) could reduce the compliance disagreement.
Performance of CVTs Composed of a Differential Gear Unit and a V-belt Drive
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 199~208
Continuously variable transmission (CVT) mechanisms considered here combine the functions of a K-H-V type differential gear unit and a V-belt type continuously variable unit (CVU). As combining the functions of a K-H-V type differential gear unit and a V-belt type CVU, 24 different mechanisms are presented. Some useful theoretical formula related to speed ratio, power flow and efficiency are derived and analyzed. These mechanisms have many advantages which are the decrease of CVT size, the increase of overall efficiency, the extension of speed ratio range, and the generation of geared neutral.
3-Dimensional Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis for Vibration Reduction of the Spin-Coater System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 209~217
In this paper, the dynamic system modeling and the state sensitivity analysis of the spin-coater system are proposed for the reduction of the vibration. In the respect of modeling, the spin-coater system is considered to be composed of servomotor, spindle, supporting base and so on. Each component of model is combined and derived to 3 dimensional equations. The combined model is verified by experimental values of actual system in the frequency domain. By direct differentiation of the constraint equations with respect to kinematic design variables, such as eccentricity of spindle, moment of inertia, rotational stiffness and damping of supported base, sensitivity equations are derived to the verified state equations. Sensitivity of design variables could be used for vibration reduction and natural frequency shift in the frequency domain. Finally, dominant design variables are selected from the sensitivity analysis.
The Parameter Determination of a Scribing Machine for Semiconductor Wafer
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 2, 2003, Pages 218~225
The general dicing process cuts a semiconductor wafer to lengthwise and crosswise direction by using a rotating circular diamond blade. However, inferior goods may be made under the influence of several parameters in dicing process such as blade, wafer, cutting water and cutting conditions. Moreover we can not apply this dicing method to a GaN wafer, because the GaN wafer is harder than other wafers such as SiO
, GaAs, GaAsP, and AlGaAs. In order to overcome this problem, development of a new dicing process and determination of dicing parameters are necessary. This paper describes determination of several parameters - scribing depth, scribing force, scriber inclined angle, scribing speed, and factor for scriber replacement - for a new dicing machine using a scriber.