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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Machining Characteristics according to the Chucking Pressure, Design, and Production for Developing Coaxial Grinding System of Light Communicative Ferrule
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 7~12
A Study on the Design and Analysis of High Speed ＆ Accuracy Air Spindle for Micro-Lens Grinding
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 13~19
A Study on Improving Design of Ferrule Grinding Spindle for Higher Stiffness and Accuracy
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 20~25
Die Life Estimation of Hot Forging for Surface Treatment and Lubricants
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 26~35
This study explains the effects of lubricant and surface treatment on hot forging die life. The mechanical and thermal load, and thermal softening which is happened by the high temperature of die, in hot and warm forging, cause die wear, heat checking and plastic deformation, etc. This study is fur the effects of solid lubricants and surface treatment condition for hot forging die. Because cooling effect and low friction are essential to the long life of dies, optimal surface treatment and lubricant are very important to improve die life for hot forging process. The main factors, which affect die hardness and heat transfer, are surface treatments and lubricants, which are related to thermal diffusion coefficient and heat transfer coefficient, etc. For verifying these effects, experiments are performed for hot ring compression test and heat transfer coefficient in various conditions as like different initial billet temperatures and different loads. The effects of lubricant and surface treatment for hot forging die life are explained by their thermal characteristics. The new developed technique in this study for predicting tool life can give more feasible means to improve the tool life in hot forging process.
Preform Design of the Bevel Gear for the Warm Forging using Artificial Neural Network
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 36~43
In this paper, the warm forging process sequence has been determined to manufacture the warm forged product for the precision bevel gear used as the differential gear unit of a commercial automobile. The preform shape of bevel gear influences the dimensional accuracy and stiffness of final product. So, the design parameters related preform shape such as aspect ratio and chamfer length having an influence the formability of forged product are analyzed. Then the optimal conditions of design parameters have been selected by artificial neural network (ANN). Finally, to verify the optimal preform shape, the experiments of the warm forging of the bevel gear have been executed. The proposed method can give more systematic and economically feasible means for designing preform shape in metal forming process.
Process Parameters of Butt Welding of SM45C using a Continuous Wave Nd:YAG Laser Beam
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 44~55
The Nd:YAG laser process is known to have high speed and deep penetration capability to become one of the most advanced welding technologies. This paper describes the machining characteristics of SM45C carbon steel welding by use of an Nd:YAG laser. In spite of its good mechanical characteristics, SM45C carbon steel has a high carbon contents and suffers a limitation in the industrial application due to the poor welding properties. The major process parameters studied in the present laser welding experiment were position of focus, travel speed and laser power. Optical microscope and SEM were used to investigate the microstructures of the welded zone. The experimental results showed that penetration depth of the welding process increases with laser power. Both the microstructural investigation and the theoretical calculations indicated that materials undergoes a very high heating and cooling cycle during welding process. It was also found that the austenite nucleation takes place at the initial stage and the completion temperature of austenite transformation is much higher than in the case of the arc welding.
A Study on the ELID Grinding Characteristics of SF-5 Glass and Quartz Glass for the Nano Surface Roughness
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 56~62
The precision fabrication of glass is increasingly demanded for the latest industrial applications of spherical lenses, micro-optical components, and so on. In many cases, the surface roughness of glass is required to be minute for improving the optical characteristics. In this paper, machining characteristics of SF-5 glass and quarts glass are studied by using the ELID grinding process to get mirror surface and productivity compared with a general lapping process. A rotary type grinder with air spindle was used for the experiments. Mitutoyo surface tester and AFM were also used to measure the grinded surface of glass. As the results of experiments, they showed that the surface roughness (Ra) of SF-5 glass was under 7.8 nm and that of quartz glass was under 3.0 m using the # 8000 grinder. So, the possibility of highly efficient and accurate surface for optical components can be achieved by the ELID grinding process.
A Study on the Dressing of Laminated Grinding Wheel and the Surface Roughness of Ground Parts
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 63~69
Through the previous works, it was found that the laminated grinding wheel is more efficient to generate smoother surface in short time than general grinding wheels. But, if the laminated grinding wheel is easily worn-out, it is impossible to apply this wheel in the real grinding process, because the periodic time for dressing is closely linked to the productivity of the process. So, it is required to investigate the wear of the laminated grinding wheel fer studying the periodic time for dressing. But it is difficult to analyze the dressing period quantitavely. Therefore, in this study, periodic times for dressing of the laminated grinding wheel and general grinding wheel are deduced from the relationship between the wear of grinding wheels and the surface roughness changes according to the number of traverse in cylindrical traverse grinding through experiments. This study shows that there are some differences in the wheel wear mechanisms between the general and laminated grinding wheels. As a result, it is also found that the periodic time for dressing of the laminated grinding wheel is longer than that of the general grinding wheel.
Improvement of the Tapering Error in the Centerless Through-feed Ground Parts Using a Work-rest Blade
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 70~77
The centerless through-feed grinding is performed by passing the workpiece between the grinding wheel and the regulating wheel. So, the amount of removed material around the leading end, of the workpiece is always more than that around the trailing end until the leading end leaves the grinding wheel. Because of this, there are differences in diameters along the workpiece axis during grinding, and workpiece axis is not parallel to the grinding wheel axis and the contact lines between the workpiece and wheels. Thus the ground workpiece shows tapering error inherently. To eliminate this error, the workpiece axis must be kept to be parallel to the grinding wheel axis. And, the direction of the workpiece axis can be controlled by the work-rest blade. Therefore, the effects of work-rest blade inclination angle on the through-feed centerless ground part are investigated in this study. As a result, it is found that there is a positive inclination angle of the work-rest blade for minimizing the tapering error of a ground workpiece.
Characterization of ultra Precision Grinding Plate for GMR Head Manufacturing by Measuring Frictional Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 78~83
Characterization of an ultra precision grinding plate for GMR head manufacturing is performed by measuring frictional forces between the grinding plate and the advanced ceramic Two kinds of methods of producing the precision grinding plates are presented: texturing and micro-channeling. Texturing is effective in terms of production time but micro-channeling excels in quality control. It is found that the frictional coefficient of a precision grinding plate decreases as the impregnation of diamond grain onto the precision-grinding plate progresses, and remains unchanged once the impregnation process is successfully completed, even after 100 revolutions of the precision-grinding plate against the advanced ceramic under 40 N of normal force. Therefore, the measurement of the frictional coefficient can replace costly and time-consuming process of estimating the level of impregnation of diamond grain on the precision-grinding plate, which has been performed by using scanning electron microscope, and be employed as an index to determine the level of impregnation of diamond grain.
The Precision Position Control of the Pneumatic Rodless Cylinder Using Recurrent Neural Networks
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 84~90
This paper develops a control method that is composed of the proportional control algorithm and the learning algorithm based on the recurrent neural networks (RNN) for the position control of a pneumatic rodless cylinder. The proportional control algorithm is suggested for the modeled pneumatic system, which is obtained easily simplifying the system, and the RNN is suggested for the compensation of the modeling errors and uncertainties of the pneumatic system. In the proportional control, two zones are suggested in the phase plane. One is the transient zone for the smooth tracking and the other is the small movement zone for the accurate position control with eliminating the stick-slip phenomenon. The RNN is connected in parallel with the proportional control for the compensation of modeling errors and frictions, compressibilities, and parameter uncertainties in the pneumatic control system. This paper experimentally verifies the feasibility of the proposed control algorithm for such pneumatic systems.
Contact-free Linear Actuator Using Active Magnetic Bearing
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 91~98
In the field of precision manufacturing demanding high positioning performance, the mechanical friction in positioning device deteriorates the quality of the product and increases the cost of production for positioning devices. Therefore, we propose a contract-free linear actuator using active magnetic bearing. The structure and operating principle of the proposed system are explained, and the magnetic forces are analyzed by magnetic circuit theory to design magnetic bearings and linear actuator. With the derived equation of motion, the stability is identified. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility.
Precision Displacement Measurement of Three-DOF Micro Motions Using Position Sensitive Detector and Spherical Reflector
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 99~104
A precision displacement measurement system of 3-DOF micro motions is proposed in this paper. The measurement system is composed of two diode lasers, two quadratic PSDs, two beam splitters and a sphere whose surface is highly reflective. In this measurement system, the sphere reflector is mounted on the platform of positioning devices whose 3-DOF translational motions are to be measured, and the sensitive areas of two PSDs are oriented toward the center point of the sphere reflector. Each laser beam emitted from two diode laser sources is reflected at the surface of sphere and arrives at two PSDs. Each PSD serves as a 2-dimensional sensor, providing the information on the 3-dimensional position of the sphere. In this paper, we model the relationship between the outputs of two PSDs and 3-DOF translational motions of the sphere mounted on the object. Based on a deduced measurement model, we perform measurement simulation and evaluate the performance of the proposed measurement system: linearity, sensitivity, and measurement error. The simulation results show that the proposed measurement system can be valid means of precision displacement measurement of 3-dimensional micro motions.
Development of a 6-axis Robot's Finger Force/Moment Sensor for Stably Grasping an Unknown Object
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 105~113
This paper describes the development of a 6-axis robot's finger force/moment sensor, which measures forces Fx, Fy, Fz, and moments Mx, My, Mz simultaneously, for stably grasping an unknown object. In order to safely grasp an unknown object using the robot's gripper, it should measure the force in the gripping direction and the force in the gravity direction, and perform the force control using the measured forces. Thus, the robot's gripper should be composed of 6-axis robot's finger force/moment sensor that can measure forces Fx, Fy, Fz, and moments Mx, My, Mz simultaneously. In this paper, the 6-axis robot's finger force/moment sensor for measuring forces Fx, Fy, Fz, and moments Mx, My, Mz simultaneously was newly modeled using several parallel-plate beams, designed, and fabricated. The characteristic test of made sensor was performed. and the result shows that interference errors of the developed sensor are less than 3%. Also, Robot's gripper with the 6-axis robot's finger force/moment sensor for the characteristic test of force control was manufactured, and the characteristic test for grasping an unknown object was performed using it. The fabricated gripper could grasp an unknown object stably. Thus, the developed 6-axis robot's finger force/moment sensor may be used for robot's gripper.
The Development of Punch-Die Aligning Algorithm in Micro Punch System with using the Total Capacitance
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 114~119
The aligning between the punch and die governs no only the burr formation characteristics but also the life time of the punch and die in the sheet metal blanking process. There are many ways to adjust the two elements in the general punching systems but in the case of micro punch system, the punch size is reduced to a few tenth of micrometer range and the general aligning methods are almost impossible to apply. The image processing is the most widely used method in micro punch aligning, but in order to apply the method, it needs quite a large space for visionary system to approach the punch-die aligning zone. In this paper, the new punch-die aligning method with using the total capacitance between the punch and die hole is proposed. In this method, the tip surface of the punch tool locates at the same plane of the die surface and the capacitance variation between the two elements are measured. When the center of the two elements are coincided, the capacitance is minimized, but when the align is changed to any direction, the capacitance between the two elements increase. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, the aligning and punching tests was performed.
A Novel Measuring Method of In-plane Position of Contact-Free Planar Actuator Using Binary Grid Pattern Image
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 120~127
A novel three degrees of freedom sensing method utilizing binary grid pattern image and vision camera is presented. The binary grid pattern image is designed by Pseudo-Random Binary Arrays and referenced to encode in-plane position of a moving stage of the contact-free planar actuator. First, the yaw motion of the stage is detected using fast image processing and then the other planar positions, x and y, are decoded with a sequence of images. This method can be applied to the system that needs feedback of in-plane position, with advantages of a good accuracy and high resolution comparable with the encoder, a relatively compact structure, no friction, and a low cost. In this paper, all the procedures of the above sensing mechanism are described in detail, including simulation and experiment results.
Analysis of Continuously Variable Damper Characteristics for Semi-Active Suspension Systems
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 128~137
Continuously variable damper can yield diverse damping forces for a single damping velocity. It is widely used in the semi-active suspension system since, with right control logics, it can enhance ride comfort compared to the passive damper while not degrading driving safety. A key to the successful design of the continuously variable damper is the knowledge of its complex and nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, research has been done for analyzing characteristics of the continuously variable damper. Various damper components have been investigated and their effects upon the force-velocity characteristics of the damper have been examined. The effects of the damper characteristics change upon ride comfort and driving safety have also been investigated by numerical simulations.
A Variable Window Method for Three-Dimensional Structure Reconstruction in Stereo Vision
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 138~146
A critical issue in area-based stereo matching lies in selecting a fixed rectangular window size. Previous stereo methods doesn't deal effectively with occluding boundary due to inevitable window-based problems, and so give inaccurate and noisy matching results in areas with steep disparity variations. In this paper, a variable window approach is presented to estimate accurate, detailed and smooth disparities for three-dimensional structure reconstruction. It makes the smoothing of depth discontinuity reduced by evaluating corresponding correlation values and intensity gradient-based similarity in the three-dimensional disparity space. In addition, it investigates maximum connected match candidate points and then devise the novel arbitrarily shaped variable window representative of a same disparity to treat with disparity variations of various structure shapes. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed variable window method with synthetic images, and show how our results improve on those of closely related techniques for accuracy, robustness, matching density and computing speed.
The Development of Automatic Tool Change System for Polishing Robot and Windows-Environment Integration Program for Application
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 147~154
An effective die-polishing robot system is developed. ATC (Automatic Tool Change), tool posture angle control, and robot program for polishing application are developed and integrated into a robotic system that consists of a robot, pneumatic grinding tool, and grinding abrasives (papers and special films). ATC is specifically designed to exchange whole grinding tool set for complete unmanned operation. A tool posture angle control system is developed for the tools to maintain a specified skew angle rather than right angle on the surface for best finishing results. A PC and the robot controller control ATC and tool posture angle. Also, there have been more considerations on enhancing the performance of the system. Elastic material is inserted between the grinding pad and the holder for better grinding contact. Robot path data are generated automatically from the NC data of previous machining process.
Real-Time Fuzzy Neural Network Control for Real-Time Autonomous Cruise of Mobile Robot
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 155~162
We propose a new technique far real-tine controller design of a autonomous cruise mobile robot with three drive wheels. The proposed control scheme uses a Caussian function as a unit function in the fuzzy neural network. and a back propagation algorithm to train the fuzzy neural network controller in the framework of the specialized learning architecture. It is proposed a learning controller consisting of two neural network-fuzzy based on independent reasoning and a connection net with fixed weights to simply the neural networks-foray. The control performance of the proposed controller is illustrated by performing the computer simulation for trajectory tracking of the speed and azimuth of a autonomous cruise mobile robot driven by three independent wheels.
A Study on the Production of the Back Beam for a Automotive Bumper by Roll Forming Process
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 163~170
The back beam for a automotive bumper was roll formed to improve performance, reduce weight and save cost. For the back beams produced by conventional stamping and roll forming, the crashworthiness analyses were carried out by numerical simulation and real impact test. The characteristic properties and applicability of the roll formed back beam are discussed from the results of the analyses.
Stress Analysis of Brazed Interface in Dissimilar Materials by BEM
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 171~176
In this study, stress analysis using Boundary Element Method (BEM) was carried to investigate stress distribution in the brazing joint between a Hardmetal and a HSS. The two models were proposed to analyze the stress singularity in the interfaces of the brazing joint. The material type, thickness of the filler metal and the length of the vertical brazing adhesive are considered in the BEM analysis. As results, the peak point of the stress is founded to be in the lower interface of the brazed joint. It should be noted that the maximum stress of the peak point is being affected by the thickness and length of the brazing joint.
Topology Optimal Design for Lightweight Shape of the Vehicle Mechanical Component
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 177~184
In this study we performed optimal design for the vehicle mechanical component which satisfies both a sufficient stiffness and a lightweight using topology optimization technique. The FEA for the initial model before optimal design is performed by ABAQUS/Standard. And, we suggest optimization model using the topology optimal design program Altair Optisturuct 3.6. The FEA of optimal design is performed under the same condition as the initial model. We performed the FEA fur the topology optimal design model and verified the validity of the present method.
Preliminary Mechanism Design of Multi-Stage Gear Drives by Using a Fuzzy Expert System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 185~192
This paper proposes an efficient mechanism design system of multi-stage gear drives including not only parallel shaft gears but also non-parallel gears such as bevel and worm gear drives. The system automatically generates three dimensional structures of specification-adjusted mechanisms, and shows the sorted list of the mechanisms according to the evaluation result by using a fuzzy expert system. The list can be used as reliable candidates of the spatial mechanism structures of multi-stage gear drives. Thus, it is expected that the system can increase the efficiency of design and cut off the expenses of preliminary design considerably.
A Study on Energy Release Rate for Interface Cracks in Pseudo-isotropic Dissimilar Materials
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 193~200
The energy release rate for an interface crack in pseudo-isotropic dissimilar materials was obtained by the eigenfunction expansion method using the two-term William's type complex stress function. The complex stress function for pseudo-isotropic materials must be different from that for anisotropic materials. The energy release rate for an interface crack in pseudo-isotropic dissimilar materials was analyzed numerically by RWCIM. The results obtained were verified by comparing the other worker's results and discussed.
Simulation-based Sensitivity Analysis of Suspension Elements of an Articulated Bogie
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 201~207
Sensitivity analysis of suspension elements of an articulated bogie for light railway vehicles is presented. The ride, stability and safety are used as dynamic performance indices. Suspension elements of 10 and a conicity of wheel are used as design variables. To analyze sensitivity of design variables. the railway vehicle dynamics analysis program AGEM is used. The results show that the secondary suspension elements have a strong effect on ride and the primary suspension elements have a moderate effect on ride. Conicity of wheel has a strong effect on the stability. The safety is not effected by all the design variables.
Weight Function Theory for Piezoelectric Materials with a Crack
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 208~216
In this paper, a two-dimensional electroelastic analysis is performed on a piezoelectric material with an open crack. The approach of Lekhnitskii's complex potential functions is used in the derivation and Bueckner's weight function theory is extended to piezoelectric materials. The stress intensity factors and the electric displacement intensity factor are calculated by the weight function theory.
A Study on Screw Design Parameters of Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 217~226
Twin screw extruders are the heart of the polymer processing industry. They are used at some stage in nearly all polymer processing operations. This paper is concerned with the basic elements of the extruder design. The proper design of the geometry of the extruder screw is of crucial importance to the proper functioning of the extruder. If the material transport instabilities occur as a result of improper screw geometry, even the most sophisticated computerized control system cannot solve the problem. For this purpose, a characteristic design on the screw flights shape of the closely intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. This paper presents design parameters of double flighted screw and triple flighted screw elements, and characteristics of various screw channel area versus screw diameter ratio, K value, in the barrel of screw extruder.
Micro-Hole Machining Using MEDM According to Machining Depth
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 227~232
In order to make a deep and precise micro-hole, electrode wear and clearance between the electrode and the workpiece are important parameters using micro-electrical discharge machining. In this study, experiments were carried out to show the characteristics of electrode wear and radial clearance with respect to the depth of machined hole. Electrode wear varied with respect to the depth of hole. With deeper machined hole, bigger clearance was observed. Also it was found that the diameter of electrode influences machining characteristics of deep holes.
Stability Analysis of a Micro Stage for Micro Cutting Machine with Various Hinge Type and Material Transformation
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 20, issue 7, 2003, Pages 233~240
Recently, the world are preparing for new revolution, called as If (Information Technology), NT (Nano-Technology), and BT (Bio-Technology). NT can be applied to various fields such as semiconductor-micro technology. Ultra precision processing is required for NT in the field of mechanical engineering. Recently, together with radical advancement of electronic and photonics industry, necessity of ultra precision processing is on the increase for the manufacture of various kernel parts. Therefore, in this paper, stability of ultra precision cutting unit is investigated, this unit is the kernel unit in ultra precision processing machine. According to alteration of shape and material about hinge, stability investigation is performed. In this paper, hinge shapes of micro stage in UPCU(Ultra Precision Cutting Unit) are designed as two types, where, hinge shapes are composed of round and rectangularity. Elasticity and strength are analyzed about micro stage, according to hinge shapes, by FE analysis. Micro stage in ultra precision processing machine has to keep hinge shape under cutting condition with 3-component force (cutting component, axial component, radial component) and to reduce modification against cutting force. Then we investigated its elasticity and its strength against these conditions. Material of micro stage is generally used to duralumin with small thermal deformation. But, stability of micro stage is investigated, according to elasticity and strength due to various materials, by FE analysis. Where, Used materials are composed of aluminum of low strength and cooper of medium strength and spring steel of high strength. Through this stability investigation, trial and error is reduced in design and manufacture, at the same time, we are accumulated foundation data for unit control.