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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Silver Engineering Technology
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 11~16
Physical Restoring and Recovering Technology for The Elderly
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 17~25
A Novel Mobility Aid for Independent Daily Living of Elderly people
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 26~31
A Study on Die Forging of a Hollow T-shaped Part
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 32~39
Traditional forging of a hollow T-shaped part has been applied to forge a solid T-shaped product from a solid billet and then to machine the hollow in that. In a case, a hollow T-shaped part can be forged by backward-extruding from a solid billet. In this study, four types of forging were suggested for manufacture of hollow T-shaped parts. Forging simulations for each of these forging methods were carried out to investigate folding defect, metal flow pattern, effective strain, and forging loads. Experimental works were carried out to be compared with the simulation results. Here, the ratio of the thickness of the hollow tube to that of the flange was selected to investigate a forging defect like folding.
A Study on a Hartmann Test of Optical Mirror for On-Machine Measurement of Polishing machine
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 40~45
Recently, aspheric optical lenses and mirrors, which are harder to manufacture and measure than the conventional spherical ones, are widely used, particularly in electronic fabrication process. Generally, interferometric optical method is used for the measurement of spherical optical surface. However, the interferometric method for aspheric surface measurement is difficult because it needs a precise null corrector and strict environmental conditions such as constant temperature, humidity and vibrations. We have been studied on the manufacturing of aspheric optics to improve the surface profile accuracy and productivity using a corrective polishing process. For the corrective polishing, a practical method of On-Machine Measurement (OMM) is required. For this purpose, an optical OMM system has been studied using the Shach-Hartmann test, which is very robust to the practical polishing environment. The wavefront has been reconstructed from the measured data using the primary aberration polynomial function by the least squares fitting. The measured result of the OMM system shows that the maximum deviation is less than 200 nm for the one of commercial Fizeau interferometer Wyko 6000.
Shape accuracy and curing characteristics of photopolymer during fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures using microstereolithography
Jung, Dae-Jun ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Jeong, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 46~50
The curing characteristics of a liquid photopolymer during microstereolithography and the shape accuracy of thereby fabricated microstructures were investigated experimentally. A He-Cd laser with a wavelength of 442nm and a photopolymer consisted of a commercial resin from SK chemical and a photoinitiat or were used for the experiment. By varying the laser beam power and scanning speed of the focused laser beam, minimum curing thickness of 50
was obtained. The distortion of solidified structure due to adhesion force was measured and the optimum fabrication conditions were determined. Also, the feasibility of direct fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by Super IH process was examined.
Analysis of Machined Surfaces by Ball-end Milling using the Ridge Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 51~60
Ball-end milling is one of the most common manufacturing processes for the parts with sculptured surface. However, the conventional roughness model is not suitable for the evaluation of surface texture and roughness under highly efficient machining conditions. Therefore, a different approach is needed for the accurate evaluation of machined surface. In this study, a new method, named ‘Ridge method’, is proposed for the effective prediction of the geometrical roughness and the surface topology in ball-end milling. Theoretical analysis of a machined surface texture was performed considering the actual trochoidal trajectories of cutting edge. The characteristic lines of cut remainder are defined as three-types of ‘Ridges’ and their mathematical equations are derived from the surface generation mechanism of ball-end milling process. The predicted results are compared with the results of conventional method. The agreement between the results predicted by the proposed method and the values calculated by the simulation method shows that the analytic equations presented in this paper are useful for evaluating a geometrical surface roughness of ball -end milling process.
Evaluation of R-curve Behavior Analysis and Machinability of
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~70
Generally, ceramics are very difficult-to-cut materials because of its high strength and hardness. The machining process of ceramics can be characterized by cracking and brittle fracture. In the machining of ceramics, edge chipping and crack propagation are the principal reasons to cause surface integrity deterioration. Such phenomenon can cause not only poor dimensional and geometric accuracy, but also possible failure of the ceramic parts. Ceramics can be machined with traditional method such as grinding and polishing. However, such processes are generally cost-expensive and have low material removal rate. Thus, in this paper, to overcome these problems. BN powder, which gives good cutting property, is added for the fabrication of machinable ceramics by volume of 5,10,15,20,25 and 30%. And, mechanical properties, R-curve behavior and machining tests are carried out to evaluate the machining properties of the manufactured machinable ceramics.
A Study on the Mechanical Properties and Deformed Layer of STS 316L and 316LN Stainless Steels
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 71~79
The deformed layers generated in face milling works were comparatively investigated to type 316L and nitrogen(N)-added type 316LN stainless steels. In order to characterize mechanical properties between type 316L and type 316LN, high-temperature tensile tests were conducted with different temperatures: R.T to
. The cutting forces of three components, Fx, Fy and Fz were measured using a tool dynamometer through the face milling cutting tests. The deformed layers were measured by micro-hardness tests along deformed layers. The results of mechanical properties showed that type 316LN was superior to type 316L. The deformed layers of two steels were generated in the 1501m-3001m ranges, and type 316L was higher than type 316LN. The reason for this is due to the high strength properties by nitrogen effect. It was found that deformed structures were well observed for type 316L, but were minutely observed for type 316LN in this cutting conditions.
Cutting Characteristics Depending on Coolant Level in Turning Process
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 80~86
With the increasing demand of environmentally clean machining in recent years, the use of coolants has been restricted extensively. In this paper, a multiple comparison method(Tukey's HSD method) is proposed to choose the optimum level of coolant necessary for an efficient and environmentally clean machining. The cutting temperature, specific cutting energy, and surface roughness in turning process are analysed by ANOVA(Analysis Of Variance) and Tukey's HSD method. From the experimental results and statistical analysis, it is found that the optimum condition of coolant level is 10 ml/min with 6% mix ratio, which is almost half of the commonly used level.
Novel Fabrication Process for Micro-Fluidic Channels and the Effect of the Surface States on the Fluid Flow
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 87~93
Recently, with the development of bio-technology the interests in the micro-fluidic devices for analysis in the fields of biology and medical science have been steadily increasing. Although polymer is considered as one of the best materials for micro-fluidic devices. glass or silicon molds fabricated by photo-lithographic technique have been commonly used. However, it is generally perceived that the conventional photolithographic technique has the limitation for fabricating micro-channels for micro-fluidic devices. In this work, the possibility of fabrication of micro-fluidic channels on PDMS by using the mechano-chemical process and the effect of surface states on the fluid flow were investigated. Experimental results revealed that PDMS mold fabricated by the mechano-chemical process could be used effectively to replicate micro-fluidic channels with high reproducibility and dimensional accuracy. It was also found that the fluid flow generation and flow speed were largely affected by the hydrophilicity and the surface roughness of the micro-channel surfaces.
Co-Simulation Technology Development with Electric Power Steering System and Full Vehicle
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 94~100
Most power steering systems obtain the power by a hydraulic mechanism. Therefore, it consumes more energy because the oil power should be sustained all the times. Recently, to solve this problem the electric power system has been developed and become widely equipped in passenger vehicles. In this research the simulation integration technique for an electric power steering system with MATLAB/SIMULINK and a full vehicle model with ADAMS has been developed. A full vehicle model interacted with electronic control unit algorithm is concurrently simulated with an impulsive steering wheel torque input. The dynamic responses of vehicle chassis and steering system are evaluated. This integrated method allows engineers to reduce the prototype testing cost and to shorten the developing period.
Compliance Control of a 3-Link Electro-Hydraulic Manipulator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 101~108
An electro-hydraulic manipulator using hydraulic actuators has many nonlinear elements, and its parameter fluctuations are greater than those of an electrically driven manipulator. So it is relatively difficult to obtain stable control performance. In this report, we applied disturbance estimation and compensation type robust control to all axes in a 3-link electro-hydraulic manipulator. From the results of experiment, it was confirmed that the performance of trajectory tracking and attitude regulating is greatly improved by the disturbance observer, which model is the same for each axis. On the other hand, for the autonomous assembly tasks, it is said that compliance control is one of the most available methods. Therefore we proposed compliance control which is based on the position control by disturbance observer for our manipulator system. To realize more stable contact work, the states in the compliance loop are feedback, where not only displacement but also velocity and acceleration are considered. And we applied this compliance control to Peg-in-Hole insertion task and analyzed mechanical relation between peg and hole. Also we proposed new method of shifting the position of end-effector periodically for the purpose of smooth insertion. As a result of using this method, it is experimentally confirmed that Peg-in-Hole insertion task with a clearance of 0.05［mm］can be achieved.
Development of In-Process Polishing Pressure Control System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 109~115
Polishing process has been applied to get extremely fine surfaces, e.g., mirror surfaces such as optical mirrors, lens, molds and etc. Nowadays not only fine surface quality but also submicron order of dimensional accuracy is required for many applications. To meet the requirements polishing process should be provided with an active control of polishing pressure especially for automation of polishing process. In this paper a study on development of an active polishing pressure control system has been presented. A new type of tool assembly has been developed to facilitate the control. The tool is attached to an axis of a polishing machine with a coil spring and control of the polishing pressure is done by the position control of the axis, which needs no additional actuator. The polishing pressure is successfully measured by the measurement of the spring deformation. Control specifications were quantitatively considered by weighting functions and a controller was designed by using loop-shaping technique based on the no synthesis. Some experiments have been executed on a polishing machine with a PC-NC controller. It is shown that the results were coincident well with the theoretical analyses and satisfied the design specifications.
Active Control of a Ship Cabin Motion Using 3-DOF Parallel Robots
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 116~123
The demand for the stable and comfortable cabin of a high speed passenger ship is increasing. The study on shipboard comfort has been mainly concentrated on the motion control of a whole hull body. In this study, however, a new control system operated by two parallel robots (3RPS, 3SPR) such as the active suspension system of motor vehicle is proposed. The goal of this control is keeping zero velocity of the upper robot (cabin) although the lower robot (ship) is moving by the waves. Jacobian matrix was used to design the controller, From the simulation results, the remarkable reduction of motion of the cabin (upper platform) was observed. The 3SPR parallel robot shows better performance compared to the 3RPS robot.
A Study on the Characteristics Improvement of Fluid Power Actuator Using Adaptive Control
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 124~132
A hydraulic system is difficult to keep the performance due to non-linearity, load pressure which changes according to working condition and system parameter variation, the requirement of control algorithm has been risen in order to satisfy them. An adaptive control is a control method which is suggested to achieve a control object though plant characteristics change. In spite of the case that plant characteristics and the degree of variation are difficult to grasp, adaptive control can keep the characteristics of closed-loop system regularly. In this study GMVAC(generalized minimum variance adaptive control) combined with output error feedback is proposed in order to solve problems of non-minimum phase, vibration and overshoot in initial response of the plant. The control performance according to the variation of characteristics of the plant is evaluated by changing the supply pressure only.
High speed machining of cavity pattern in prehardened mold using the small size tool
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 133~139
High speed machining (HSM) can reduce machining time with the high metal removal rate by high speed spindle and feedrate. This paper supports HSM technology using the small size tool with the optimal tool path generation and modification of tool change. The optimum tool path is generated to reduce cutting length of cavity pattern and change the cutting tool for preventing the tool breakage by wear. The tool path is modified with the experiment data of tool wear and breakage to support tool change on reasonable time. The result can contribute to HSM technology of high hardness materials using the small size end-mill.
Generation of Cutting Path Data for Two Steps of the Cutting Process in Full- Automated VLM-ST
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 140~148
A novel rapid prototyping (RP) process, a full-automated transfer type variable lamination manufacturing process (Full-automated VLM-ST) has been developed. In the full-automated VLM-ST process, a vacuum chuck and a rectilinear motion system transfer the EPS foam material in the form of the plate with two pilot holes to the rotary supporting stage. The supplied material is then cut into an automated unit shape layer (AUSL) with a desired width, a desired length, a desired slope on the side surface, and a pair of reference shapes, which is called the guide shape (GS)’, including two pilot holes in accordance with CAD data through cutting in two steps using a four-axis synchronized hotwire cutter. Then, each AUSL is stacked by setting each AUSL with two pilot holes in the building plate with two pilot pins, and subsequently, adhesive is applied onto the top surface of the stacked AUSL by a bonding roller and pressure is simultaneously given to the bottom surface of the stacked AUSL. Finally, three-dimensional shapes are rapidly and automatically fabricated. This paper describes the method to generate guide shapes in AUSL data for the full-automated VLM-ST process. In order to examine the applicability of the method to generate guide shapes, three-dimensional shapes, such as a piston shape and a human head shape, are fabricated from the full-automated VLM-ST apparatus.
Development of Shape refining process of VLM-ST Parts Using Noncontacting Hot Tool
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 149~158
In most RP processes, the inherent stair-stepped surfaces and shrinkage-induced warping of the parts require post processing such as surface finishing. To minimize such defects, VLH-ST, a newly developed RP process, employs a 3.9-mm thick expandable polystyrene (EPS) foam sheet and a hot wire to contour it to have slant linear-interpolated sides. The use of relatively thick sheets for layers, however, limits the process capability of constructing fine details, especially smaller than the layer thickness. This study is focused on the development of a post processing method fo fine details of VLM-ST parts. The post-processing tool was designed to meet all the requirements for the desirable post processing. It adopted a hot wire as a means of melting the EPS foam sheet. Various basic experiments on the post processing were carried out to obtain the optimal process conditions. The dominant process parameters such as the radiated heat input, the tool speed, and the gap between the tool tip and the foam sheet (tool height) were considered in the experiments. The effectiveness of the developed post-processing method fo forming or engraving fine details on the VLM-ST parts has been thus demonstrated. The experiments on engraving several sets of letters, such as CANESM, 인간, and 한국과학기술원, on the EPS foam sheet were carried out. In addition, a flowery shape was engraved on a three-dimensionally curved surface of a pottery-shape VLM-ST part.
Similarity Measurement of 3D Shapes Using Ray Distances
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 159~166
Custom-tailored products are meant by the products having various sizes and shapes to meet the customer's different tastes or needs. Thus fabrication of custom-tailored products inherently involves inefficiency. To minimize this inefficiency, a new paradigm is proposed in this work. In this paradigm, different parts are grouped together according to their sizes and shapes. Then, representative shape of each group is derived and it will be used as the work-piece from which the parts in the group are machined. Once a new product is ordered, the optimal work-piece is selected through making similarity comparisons of new product and each representative shape. Then an effective NC tool-path is generated to machine only the different portions between the work-piece and the ordered product. The efficient machining conditions are also derived from this shape difference. By machining only the different portions between the work-piece and the ordered product, it saves time. Similarity comparison starts with the determination of the closest pose between two shapes in consideration. The closest pose is derived by comparing the ray distances while one shape is virtually rotated with respect to the other. Shape similarity value and overall similarity value calculated from ray distances are used for grouping. A prototype system based on the proposed methodology has been implemented and applied to the grouping and machining of the shoe lasts of various shapes and sizes.
Design of a disk cam with remote follower in a tappet shedding device
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 167~172
A method for the design of a disk cam with a remote follower is presented. ADAMS software is utilized for the design process. The whole process is applied for the design of a cam profile to be used in a tappet shedding device of a shuttle loom. First the desired motion of the remote follower, the hearld frame in this case, is determined to improve the characteristic of a certain weaving process. Next, the desired displacement data is input to the ADAMS software and the cam profile is obtained as an output. To test the validity of the proposed method, designed cams were actually manufactured and implemented on a experimental loom. And with the help of potentiometer type displacement transducers, the motion of the remote followers were actually recorded. And the result was sufficient to prove the validity of the presented method.
Effect of Ground Subsidence on Reliability of Buried Pipelines
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 173~180
This paper presents the effect of varying boundary conditions such as ground subsidence, internal pressure and temperature variation for buried pipelines on failure prediction by using a failure probability model. The first order Taylor series expansion of the limit state function incorporating with von-Mises failure criteria is used in order to estimate the probability of failure mainly associated with three cases of ground subsidence. Using stresses on the buried pipelines, we estimate the probability of pipelines with von-Mises failure criterion. The effects of varying random variables such as pipe diameter, internal pressure, temperature, settlement width, load for unit length of pipelines, material yield stress and pipe thickness on the failure probability of the buried pipelines are systematically studied by using a failure probability model for the pipeline crossing ground subsidence regions which have different soil properties.
Evaluation of In-Plane Effective Properties of Circular-Hole Perforated Sheet
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 181~188
Structural analysis for materials containing regularly spaced in-homogeneities is usually executed by using averaged material properties. For the homogenization process, a unit cell is defined and loaded somehow, and its response is investigated to evaluate the properties. The imposed loading conditions should accord to the behavior of unit cell immersed in the macroscopic structure in order to guarantee the accuracy of the effective properties. Each unit cell shows periodic variation of strain if the material is loaded uniformly, and in this study, direct implementation of this characteristic behavior is attempted on FE models of unit cell. Conventional finite element analysis tool can be used without any modification, and the boundary of unit cell is constrained in a way that the periodicity is satisfied. The proposed method is applicable to skew arrayed in-homogeneity problems. The flexibility matrix relating tonsorial stress and strain components in skewed rectilinear coordinate system is transformed so that the required engineering constants can be evaluated. Effective properties are computed for the materials with square and skew arrayed circular holes, and its accuracy is examined.
A Study on Numerical Analysis of Impact Behavior by the Modified GPA Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 189~196
A modified generalized particle algorithm, MGPA, was suggested to improve the calculation efficiency of standard SPH Method in numerical analysis of high speed impact behavior. MGPA had a new weight function to reduce computation time. The efficiency of this method was proven through calculation for the sample problems of one dimensional rod impact problem and two dimensional plate impact problem. The MGPA method reduced the calculation error and stress oscillation near the boundaries. The validity of this approach was shown by the comparison with ABAQUS results in two dimensional plate impact problem.
Biomechanical Analysis of the Human Foot by Using Passive Elastic Characteristics of Joints
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 1, 2004, Pages 197~204
In this study we presented kinematic and kinetic data of foot joints using approximated equations and partial plantar pressure during gait. The maximum angular displacements of each tarsometatarsal joint were found to range from 4
and the maximum moments were from 200Nㆍcm to 1500Nㆍcm. It was relatively wide distribution. Foot kinematic data calculated from the approximated equations, which were represented by the correlation between moment and angular displacement, and the data from motion analysis were similar. We found that the movements of foot joint were mainly decided by the passive characteristics of the joint when ground reaction force acts. The method of kinematic and kinetic analysis using approximated equations which is presented in this study is considered useful to describe the movements of foot joints in gait simulations.