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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Introduction to Tangible Space Initiative Technology
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 7~11
Development of a Wearable and Lightweight Haptic Device for Man and Environment Interface in the Intelligent Environment
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 12~17
Haptic Rendering Techniques and Applications
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 18~24
Sound Rendering Techniques for Virtual reality
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 25~30
A Context-Aware System in Ubiquitous Environment - Research Activity Guide Assistant -
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 31~37
The Minimizing of Cutting Depth using Vibration Cutting
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 38~45
This paper discusses the minimum cutting thickness with a continuous chip in sub-micrometer order precision diamond cutting. An ultra precision cutting model is proposed, in which the tool edge radius and the friction coefficient are the principal factors determining the minimum cutting thickness. The experimental results verify the proposed model and provide various supporting evidence. In order to reduce the minimum cutting thickness a vibration cutting method is applied, and the effects are investigated through a series of experiments under the same conditions as conventional cutting method.
The Effect of Slurry flow Rate and Temperature on CMP Characteristic
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 46~52
CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Polishing) is a process in which both chemical and mechanical mechanisms act simultaneously to produce the planarized wafer. CMP process is an extensive usage and continuing high growth rates in the semiconductor industry. The understanding of the process, however, is much slower. The nature of material removal from the wafer is still undefined and ambiguous. Material removal rate according to the slurry flow rate is also undefined and ambiguous. Thus, in this study, the basic mechanism of material removal rate as slurry flow rate is defined in terms of energy supply and energy loss.
Welding Characteristics of Dissimilar Metal by Continuous Wave Nd:YAG Laser
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 53~60
Laser welding techniques have been characterised for various materials. In this paper, the laser weldability of STS304 stainless steel and Inconel 600 at dissimilar metal welds using a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser are experimentally investigated. Inconel 600 is being used in a steam generator tubing of pressurized water reactor(PWR) exposed to some corrosion. Stress corrosion cracking can occur on this material. An experimental study was conducted to determine effects of welding parameters, on eliminating or reducing the extent welding zone formation at dissimilar metal welds and to optimize those parameters that have the most influence parameters such as focus length, power, beam speed, shielding gas, and wave length of laser were tested.
A Study on the Forming Failure Inspection of Small and Multi Pipes
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 61~68
Recently, there has been an increasing demand for computer-vision based inspection and/or measurement system as a part of factory automation equipment. Existing manual inspection method can inspect only specific samples and has low measuring accuracy as well as it increases working time. Thus, in order to improve the objectivity and reproducibility, computer-aided analysis method is needed. In this paper, front and side profile inspection and/or data transfer system are developed using computer-vision during the inspection process on three kinds of pipes coming from a forming line. Straight line and circle are extracted from profiles obtained from vision using Laplace operator. To reduce inspection time, Hough Transform is used with clustering method for straight line detection and the center points and diameters of inner and outer circle are found to determine eccentricity and whether good or bad. Also, an inspection system has been built that each pipe's data and images of good/bad test are stored as files and transferred to the server so that the center can manage them.
Thermal Expansion Coefficient Measurement of STS430 at High Temperature by In-plane ESPI
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 69~74
This paper presents ESPI system for the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of STS430 up to 1,00
. Existing methods, strain gauge and moire have the limitation of contact to object and do not supply the coefficient up to 80
. There needs to measure the data up to 80
, because heat resistant materials have high melting temperature up to 1,000'E In previous studies related to thermal strain analysis, the quantitative results have not reported by ESPI at high temperature, yet. In-plane ESPI and vacuum chamber for the reduction of air turbulence and oxidation are designed for the measurement of the coefficient up to 1,00
and speckle correlation fringe pattern images are processed by commercial image filtering tool-smoothing, thinning and enhancement- to obtain quantitative results, which is compared with references data. The comparison shows two data are agreed within 4.1% blow
however, there is some difference up to
. Also, the incremental ratio of the coefficient is changed up to 80
. The reason is the phase transformation of STS430 probably begins at 80
Development of a Metrological Atomic Force Microscope for the Length Measurements of Nanometer Range
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 75~82
A metrological atomic force microscope (M-AFM) was developed fur the length measurements of nanometer range, through the modification of a commercial AFM. To eliminate nonlinearity and crosstalk of the PZT tube scanner of the commercial AFM, a two-axis flexure hinge scanner employing built-in capacitive sensors is used for X-Y motion instead of PZT tube scanner. Then two-dimensional displacement of the scanner is measured using two-axis heterodyne laser interferometer to ensure the meter-traceability. Through the measurements of several specimens, we could verify the elimination of nonlinearity and crosstalk. The uncertainty of length measurements was estimated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. Among several sources of uncertainty, the primary one is the drift of laser interferometer output, which occurs mainly from the variation of refractive index of air and the thermal stability. The Abbe error, which is proportional to the measured length, is another primary uncertainty source coming from the parasitic motion of the scanner. The expanded uncertainty (k =2) of length measurements using the M-AFM is √(4.26)
(nm), where f is the measured length in nm. We also measured the pitch of one-dimensional grating and compared the results with those obtained by optical diffractometry. The relative difference between these results is less than 0.01 %.
Real-time Visual Tracking System and Control Method for Laparoscope Manipulator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 83~90
In this paper we present a new real-time visual servoing unit for laparoscopic surgery This unit can automatically control laparoscope manipulator through visual tracking of laparoscopic surgical tool. For the tracking, we present two-stage adaptive CONDENSATION(conditional density propagation) algorithm to extract the accurate position of the surgical tool tip from a surgical image sequence in real-time. This algorithm can be adaptable to abrupt change of laparoscope illumination. For the control, we present virtual damper system to control a laparoscope manipulator safely and stably. This system causes the laparoscope to move under constraint of the virtual dampers which are linked to the four sides of image. The visual servoing unit operates the manipulator in real-time with locating the surgical tool in the center of image. The experimental results show that the proposed visual tracking algorithm is highly robust and the controlled manipulator can present stable view with safe.
Decoupling of Thrust Force and Levitation Force of Transverse Flux Linear Induction Motor by the Active Compensation of Magnetic force across the Air-Gap
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 91~98
TFLIM(Transverse Flux Linear Induction Motor), making its closed magnetic path with the direction of the traveling field orthogonal, had been developed to decrease an edge effect of the general induction motor. To control the levitation force and the thrust force on the secondary part of TFLIM independently, the various methodologies have been presented. When we try to achieve the independent control using only the multi-phase inputs assigned in the stator coils as an approach, in which condition we can minimize the coupling effect between two forces\ulcorner In this paper, we show the qualitative influence of a slip frequency, an ac magnitude, a dc offset superposed in the ac power, and a major parameter of TFLIM on the couple through the computer simulation. And to realize the independent motions between levitation and thrust motion without any auxiliary means fur isolation of the secondary part of TFLIM, the decouple compensator is suggested, including the experimental results.
Precision Evaluation Method for the Positioning Error of Three-DOF Parallel Mechanism using Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 99~109
This paper proposes precision evaluation method for the positioning error of three-DOF translational parallel mechanism. The proposed method uses conventional CMM as metrology equipment to measure the position of end-effector. In order to obtain accurate measurement data from CMM, the transform relationship between the coordinate system of the parallel mechanism and the CMM coordinate system must be identified. For this purpose, a new coordinate referencing (or coordinate system identification) technique is presented. By using this technique accurate coordinate transformation relationships are efficiently established. According to these coordinate transformation relationships, an equation to calculate error components at any arbitrary position of the end-effector is derived. In addition, mathematical fitting models to represent the position error components in the two-dimensional workspace of the parallel mechanism are also constructed based on response surface methodology. The proposed error evaluation method proves its effectiveness through the experimental results and its application to real three-DOF parallel mechanism.
Decentralized Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 110~116
In this paper, a decentralized adaptive controller is proposed to control robot manipulators which are governed by highly nonlinear dynamic equations. The controller is computationally efficient since it does not require mathematical model or parameter values of robot manipulators. The stability of the manipulators with the controller is proved by Lyapunov theory. The results of numerical simulations show that the system is stable, and has excellent trajectory tracking performance.
Development of Ultra-precision Positioning Technology Using High-resolution Interpolation Algorithm
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 117~124
Recently, nano-methodology is increasingly important as the ruler for measuring nano-technology, and we applied the linear encoder to nano-methodology. The quadrature output in the linear encoder has an effect on increasing the resolution in some techniques. Already, various interpolation techniques based on the quadrature signal have applied to the precision servo system. In this paper, we propose a new interpolation algorithm for ultra-precision positioning in the low speed with simulation by MATLAB SIMULINK. This method modified previous methods and was properly designed for some given control system. To verify, we first fulfilled the encoder signal test to find main parameters fer the signal transformation, then we proved the proposed interpolation algorithm by experiments, which show that the result of the interpolation algorithm corresponds with the measurement of the laser interferometer in 100 nm unit approximately. In addition, we can get more precise measurement by more accurate and noise-free signal. So we need to compensate imperfections in the encoder signal. After that, we will apply this algorithm to nano positioning system.
Condition Diagnosis of Air-conditioner Compressor by Waveform Analysis of AE Raw Signal
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 125~129
For the diagnosis of compressor abnormal condition in air-conditioner, AE signal which is derived from wear condition, compressed air and assembly error is analyzed experimentally. The burst and continuous type AE signal occurred by metal contact and compressed air and AE raw signal of compressors were directly acquired in production line. After extracting samples according to waveforms, Early Life Test(ELT) is conducted and classified to normal and abnormal waveform. The efficient parameters of waveform pattern are investigated in time and frequency domain and the diagnosis algorithm of air-conditioner by Neural Network estimation is suggested.
The Forward Kinematics Solution for Casing Oscillator Using the Kinematic Inversion
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 130~139
The Casing Oscillator is a bore file Equipment for the all-casing process. All-casing process is a method of foundation work in construction yard to oscillate steel Casing in the ground. The existing Casing Oscillator has some problem like not boring horizontally with disturbance and not driving Casing othor angle except horizon. To solve problem, the new structure Casing Oscillator is presented and studied. The performance of Casing Oscillator is improved by kinematics analysis. The Casing Oscillator is similar to the parallel manipulator in structure. So we obtain Inverse kinematics solution of Casing Oscillator easily. But it is difficult to solve forward kinematics of Casing Oscillator. T his paper presents a novel pose description corresponding to the structure characteristics of parallel manipulators. Through analysis on geometry theory, we obtain a new method of the closed-form solution to the forward kinematics using Kinematic Inversion. The closed-form solution contains two different meanings -analytical and real-time. So we reach the goal of practical application and control. Closed-form forward kinematics solution is verified by an inverse kinematics analysis. It shows that the method has a practical value for real -time control and inverse kinematics servo control.
A Study on Mechanical Part Configuration Shape Synthesis for Supporting Conceptual Process Planning in the Early Design Stage
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 140~148
Tight integration of product design and process planning in the early design stage would make bigger impact as wider spectrum of design and manufacturing alternatives can be pursued and evaluated. Thus the development of systematic computer-based supporting for this integration if desirable. For this integration and process planning in the early design stage, the systematic method to synthesize shape of part from functional requirements is crucial. This research presents the methods of functional decomposition from overall function of product and synthesizing shape of part based on functional relations extracted from functional decomposition using planetary gear transmission system as an example.
A Study on the fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Repaired by Graphite/Epoxy Composite - Pretreatment Effect of Aluminum
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 149~154
For a present study, we investigated fatigue behavior of cracked aluminum repaired by unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite material. Three different specimens were used in the fatigue tests: cracked aluminum, cracked aluminum repaired by graphite/epoxy composite patch, and plasma-treated aluminum repaired by graphite/epoxy composite patch. The surface of the aluminum was treated using a DC plasma. The results showed that the fatigue crack growth behavior of cracked aluminum was significantly improved by repairing the cracked area with a composite patch. Specifically, the specimen repaired by composite patch showed about 300％ more fatigue lift than the cracked aluminum. In particular, the plasma-treated aluminum repaired by composite patch showed almost 12 ％ more fatigue life than the cracked aluminum repaired by graphite/epoxy composite patch. The increased fatigue life of plasma-treated case was attributed to the surface roughness of aluminum by plasma treatment.
Hybrid Method for Updating Geometry 3n Non-steady State Metal Forming Analysis by Rigid Plastic FEM
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 155~162
The volume of the metal is not changed for the plastic deformation. For metal forming simulation, rigid-plastic FEM codes are widely used. Updating geometry using Euler method in the simulation, the volume loss is occurred. In this paper, hybrid method is introduced to perform a more accurate simulation reducing computation time. In the proposed hybrid method, RK2 method is used for geometry updating at first time step and after the boundary condition of the node is changed. At the others, Adams-Bashforth or theta method is applied to update geometry. The results show that the simulations of upsetting and side-pressing can be performed within 0.02％.
Numerical Analysis for the Injection Molding of an Aspheric Lens for a Photo Pick-up Device
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 163~170
In order to produce high-quality optical components, aspheric lenses have been widely applied in recent years. An aspheric lens consists of aspheric surfaces instead of spherical ones, which causes difficulty in the design process as well as the manufacturing procedure. Although injection molding is widely used to fabricate optical lenses owing to its high productivity, there remains lots of difficulty to determine appropriate mold design factors and injection molding parameters. In the injection molding fields, computer simulation has been effectively applied to analyze processes based on the shell analysis so far. Considering the geometry of optical lenses, however, numerical analysis based on solid elements has been reported as more reliable approach than shell -based one. The present work covers three-dimensional injection molding simulation using MP1/Flow3D and relevant deformation analysis of an injection molded plastic lens based on solid elements. Numerical analysis has been applied to the injection molding processes of an aspheric lens for a photo pick-up device. The reliability of the proposed approach has been verified in comparison with the experiments.
Machining Characteristics of Wire EDM Using ER Brake System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 171~178
This paper presents vibration characteristics of a wire cut discharge machine in which an electro-rheological brake actuator is used to control the wire tension. The ER brake actuator has several advantages including design simplicity, fast response time and real-time controllability. On the basis of the tension level required in the machine an appropriate size of the ER brake actuator is devised. The ER brake actuator is then incorporated with the machine and the field-dependent wire tension is experimentally evaluated. The straightness of the workpiece is also empirically investigated by changing the intensity of the electric field.
Effect of viscous Damping on the Stability of Beam Resting on an Elastic Foundation Subjected to Dry friction force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 179~185
The effect of viscous damping on stability of beam resting on an elastic foundation subjected to a dry friction force is analytically studied. The beam resting on an elastic foundation subjected to dry friction force is modeled for simplicity into a beam resting on Kelvin-Voigt type foundation subjected to distributed follower load. In particular, the effects of four boundary conditions (clamped-free, clamped-pinned, pinned-pinned, clamped-clamped) on the system stability are considered. The critical value and instability type of columns on the elastic foundation subjected to a distributed follower load is investigated by means of finite element method for four boundary conditions. The elastic foundation modulus, viscous damping coefficient and boundary conditions affect greatly both the instability type and critical load. Also, the increase of damping coefficient raises the critical flutter load (stabilizing effect) but reduces the critical divergence load (destabilizing effect).
Microfabrication by Localized Electrochemical Deposition Using Ultra Short Pulses
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 186~194
In this research, microfabrication technique using localized electrochemical deposition (LECD) with ultra short pulses is presented. Electric field is localized near the tool tip end region by applying a few hundreds of nano second pulses. Pt-Ir tip is used as a counter electrode and copper is deposited on the copper substrate in 0.5 M CuSO
and 0.5 M H
electrolyte. The effectiveness of this technique is verified by comparison with LECD using DC voltage. The deposition characteristics such as size, shape, surface, and structural density according to applied voltage and pulse duration are investigated. The proper condition is selected from the results of the experiments. Micro columns less than 10
m in diameter are fabricated using this technique. The real 3D micro structures such as micro pattern and micro spring can be fabricated by this method. It is suggested that presented method can be used as an easy and inexpensive method for fabrication of microstructure with complex shape.
Micronization of Ibuprofen by Cryogenic Ball Milling
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 195~199
For the present study, the cryogenic ball milling process was applied to make Ibuprofen microsized. The cryogenic ball milling was performed at low temperature of about -18
for 6 hours. The particle size distribution was determined before and after the cryogenic process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was made to determine the effect of cryogenic process on the crystallinity of Ibuprofen. The results showed that the size of Ibuproffn was reduced about 10 times by the cryogenic process. The degree of crystallinity of Ibuproffn was slightly reduced by the cryogenic process.
Automatic Detection Method of the Region of Interest in the Measurement of Bone Mineral Density by Ultrasound Imaging
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 200~208
In ultrasonic bone densitometry, the positioning of measurement site is decisive in precision and reproducibility. In this study, automatic Region of Interest (ROI) detection algorithm is suggested and adopted the method using the local minimum value by ultrasonic image. The preprocess before the local minimum method extracts out the bone area and calculates the geometrical information of bone. The developed ROI detection algorithm was applied to the clinical test for the subject of 305 female patients in the range of 22-88 years old. As the results, the accuracy of the algorithm was shown to be 98.3％. It was also found that bone density parameter was significantly correlated with age(r=0.85, p<0.0001).
A New Method for the Identification of Joint Mechanical Properties
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 11, 2004, Pages 209~218
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a practical and simple method for the identification of the joint mechanical properties and to apply it to human knee joints. The passive moment at a joint was modeled by three mechanical parts, that is, a gravity term, a linear damper term and a nonlinear spring term. Passive pendulum tests were performed in 5 fat and 5 thin men. The data of pendulum test were used to identify the mechanical properties of joints through sequential quadratic programming (SQP) with random initial values. The identification was successful where the normalized root-mean-squared (RMS) errors between the simulated and experimental joint angle trajectories were less than 10％. The parameter values of mechanical properties obtained in this study agreed with literature. The inertia, gravity and the damping constant were greater at fat men, which indicates more resistance to body movement and more energy consumption fer fat men. The suggested method is noninvasive and requires simple setup and short measurement time. It is expected to be useful in the evaluation of joint pathologies.