Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
A Ubiquitous Robot System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 7~14
In an upcoming ubiquitous era, humankind will live in a ubiquitous space, where everything is connected through communication network. In this ubiquitous space, a ubiquitous robot, which can be used by anyone for any service through any device and any network at anytime and anywhere in a u-space, is expected to be required to serve seamless and context-aware services to humankind. In this paper, we introduce the ubiquitous robot, and define three components of the ubiquitous robot. The first one is "SoBot" which can be connected through the network in anywhere with environment recognition function and communication ability with human. The second one is "EmBot" which is embedded into environments and mobile robots and has localization and certification function with sensor fusion. The last one is "Mobile Robot" which serves overall physical services. This paper also introduces KAIST ITRC-Intelligent Robot Research Center that pursues the implementation of the ubiquitous robot.
Survey on Humanoid Researches
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 15~21
A number of Humanoids are introduced including ASIMO, HRP-2 Promet, Johnniee, Babybot, and KHR-2. Most researches are focused on the development of stable biped walking of Humanoids and it is not easy to endow an Humanoid with intelligence and service technology until now in the sense that the operation time of a Humanoid is limited less than 30 minutes even in the case that the battery is used only for the control of actuators in a Humanoid. In this paper, a brief survey on Humanoids is proposed and the concept of 'Network-based Humanoid', a Humanoid being able to provide intelligence for human-friendly services using ubiquitous networks, is introduced briefly.
Tungsten CMP in Fixed Abrasive Pad using Hydrophilic Polymer
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 22~29
As a result of high integration of semiconductor device, the global planarization of multi-layer structures is necessary. So the chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) is widely applied to manufacturing the dielectric layer and metal line in the semiconductor device. CMP process is under influence of polisher, pad, slurry, and process itself, etc. In comparison with the general CMP which uses the slurry including abrasives, fixed abrasive pad takes advantage of planarity, resulting from decreasing pattern selectivity and defects such as dishing & erosion due to the reduction of abrasive concentration especially. This paper introduces the manufacturing technique of fixed abrasive pad using hydrophilic polymers with swelling characteristic in water and explains the self-conditioning phenomenon. And the tungsten CMP using fixed abrasive pad achieved the good conclusion in terms of the removal rate, non-uniformity, surface roughness, material selectivity, micro-scratch free contemporary with the pad life-time.
Rapid Manufacturing of 3D-Shaped Microstructures by UV Laser Ablation
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 30~36
Recently, the lead-time of a product is to be shortened in order to satisfy consumer's demand. It is thus important to reduce the manufacturing time and the cost of 3D-shaped microstructures. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and devices are usually fabricated by lithography-based methods. Above method is not flexible for the rapid manufacture of 3D-shaped microstructures because it depends on work's experiences and requires excessive cost and time for making many masks. In this paper, the effective laser micrornachining is developed to fabricate UV sensitive polymer microstructures using laser ablation. The proposed process, named by laser microRP, is a very useful method on rapid manufacturing for 3D-shaped microstructures.
Optimization of Grinding Conditions and Prediction of Surface Roughness Using Taguchi Experimental Design
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 37~45
Grinding is a finishing operation of products in various areas. Surface roughness of industrial components obtained in grinding operation is a critical quality measure but is a function of many operating parameters and their interactions. To achieve higher surface roughness and to identify the influence of grinding parameters on surface roughness, it is an ideal situation fer using the design of experiments. This paper presents an successful optimization of grinding conditions and prediction of surface roughness using the design of experiments. From the experimental verification tests, it was observed that this approach was useful as a robust design methodology for grinding operation.
The Development of Polishing System a Magnetorheological Fluids
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 46~52
The Magnetorheological fluid has the properties that its viscosity has drastic changed under some magnetic fields therefore, Magnetorheological fluids has been used fur micro polishing of the micro part(for example, a spherical surface in a micro lens). The polishing process may appears as follows. A part rotating on the spindle is brought into contact with an Magnetorheological finishing(MRF) fluids which is set in motion by the moving wall. In the region where the part and the MRF fluid are brought into contact, the applied magnetic field creates the conditions necessary for the material removal from the part surface. The material removal takes place in a certain region contacting the surface of the part which can be called the polishing spot or zone. The polishing mechanism of the material removal in the contact zone is considered as a process governed by the particularities of the Bingham flow in the contact zone. Resonable calculated and experimental magnitudes of the material removal rate for glass polishing lends support the validity of the approach.
Development of Direct Extrusion Process on Al 1050 Condenser Tube by using Porthole Die
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 53~61
Condenser tube which is used for a cooling system of automobiles is mainly manufactured by conform extrusion. However, direct extrusion using porthole die in comparison with conform extrusion has many advantages such as improvement of productivity, reduction of production cost etc. In general, the porthole die extrusion process is useful for manufacturing long tubes with hollow sections and consists of three stages(dividing, welding and forming stages). Especially, Porthole die for producing condenser tube is very complex. Thus, in order to obtain the detailed mechanics, to assist in the design of proper die shapes and sizes, and to improve the quality of products, porthole die extrusion should be analyzed in as non-steady state as possible. This paper describes FE analysis of non-steady state porthole die extrusion for producing condenser tube with multi-hole through 3D simulation in the non-steady state during the entire process to evaluate detailed metal flow, temperature distribution, welding pressure and extrusion load. Also to validate FE simulation of porthole die extrusion, a comparison of simulation and experiment results was presented in this paper.
An Experimental Study on the Dimensional Error in Ball End Milling
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 62~69
This paper presents an experimental study on the dimensional error in ball-end milling. In the 3D free-formed surface machining using ball-end milling, while machining conditions are varied due to the Z component of the feed and existing hemisphere part of the ball-end mill, the mechanics of ball-end milling are complicated. In the finishing, most of cutting is performed the ball part of the cutter and the machined surface are required the high quality. But the dimensional errors in the ball-end milling are inevitably caused by tool deflection, tool wear, thermal effect and machine tool errors and so on. Among these factors, the most significant one of dimensional error is usually known as tool deflection. Tool deflection is related to the instantaneous horizontal cutting force and varied the finishing cutting path. It lead to decrease cutting area, thus resulting cutting forces but the dimensional precision surface could not be obtained. So the machining experiments are conducted fur dimensional error investigation and these results may be used for decrease dimensional errors in practice.
A Study on the Burr Minimization in Punching Process Based on Micro Die Alignment
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 70~75
The shearing process for the sheet metal is normally used in the precision elements such as a lead frame of IC chips. In these precision elements, the burr formation brings a bad effect on the system assembly and demands the additional deburring process. In this paper, we developed the small size precision punching system to investigate burr formation mechanism and to present kinematically punch-die aligning methodology between the rectangular shaped punch and die. The punch is driven by an air cylinder and the sheet metal is moving on the X-Y table system which is driven by two stepping motors. The whole system is controlled by microprocessor and is communicated with each other by RS232C serial communication protocol. Punching results are measured manually using the SEM photographs and are compared aligning result with miss aligning one.
Neighboring Optimal Control using Pseudospectral Legendre Method
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 76~82
The solutions of neighboring optimal control are typically obtained using the sweep method or transition matrices. Due to the numerical integration, however, the gain matrix can become infinite as time go to final one in the transition matrices, and the Riccati solution can become infinite when the final time free. To overcome these disadvantages, this paper proposes the pseudospectral Legendre method which is to first discreteize the linear boundary value problem using the global orthogonal polynomial, then transforms into an algebraic equations. Because this method is not necessary to take any integration of transition matrix or Riccati equation, it can be usefully used in real-time operation. Finally, its performance is verified by the numerical example for the space vehicle's orbit transfer.
The Estimation of the Transform Parameters Using the Pattern Matching with 2D Images
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 83~91
The determination of camera position and orientation from known correspondences of 3D reference points and their images is known as pose estimation in computer vision or space resection in photogrammetry. This paper discusses estimation of transform parameters using the pattern matching method with 2D images only. In general, the 3D reference points or lines are needed to find out the 3D transform parameters, but this method is applied without the 3D reference points or lines. It uses only two images to find out the transform parameters between two image. The algorithm is simulated using Visual C＋＋ on Windows 98.
Development of a Visual Servo System in a Mobile Manipulator for Operating Numeral Buttons
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 92~100
A service robot is expected to be useful in indoor environment such as a hotel, a hospital and so on. However, many service robots are driven by wheels so that they cannot climb stairs to move to other floors. If the robot cannot use elevators. In this paper, the mobile manipulator system was developed, which can operate numeral buttons on the operating panel in the elevator. To perform this task, the robot is composed of an image recognition module, an ultrasonic sensor module and a manipulator. The robot can recognize numeral buttons and an end-effector in manipulator by the vision system. The Learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithm is used to recognize the number on the button. The barcode mark on the end-effector is used to recognize the end-effector. The manipulator can push numeral buttons using informations captured by the vision system. The proposed method is evaluated by experiments.
Development of plane Motion Accuracy Measurement Unit of NC Lathe
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 101~106
Measurements of linear motion accuracy for one axis of NC lathe have achieved with laser interferometer system, but measurement of plane motion accuracy for two axes on zx-plane of NC lathe have not achieved with the above system. Therefore in this study, measuring unit system is organized using two optical linear scales in order to acquire error. data during of plane motion of ATC(Automatic Tool Change.) of NC lathe by reading zx-plane coordinates. Two optical linear scales of measuring unit are fixed on zx-plane of NC lathe, and moving part of the scales are fixed to the ATC and then error motion data of z, x-coordinates of the ATC are received from the scales through the PC counter card inserted in computer at constant time intervals using tick pulses coming out from computer. And then, error motion data files acquired from measuring are saved in computer memory and the aspect of plane motion are modeled to plots, and range of the error data, means. average deviations, and standard deviations etc. are calculated by means of statistical treatments using computer programs.
Two-time Scale Controller Design for Vibration Reduction of High Speed Cartesian Manipulator
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 107~114
This paper presents a two-time scale approach for vibration reduction of a high speed Cartesian manipulator. High speed manipulators would be subject to mechanical vibration due to high inertia forces acting on linkages. To achieve high throughput capability, such motion induced vibration would have to be damped quickly, to reduce settling time of the manipulator end-effector. This paper develops a two-time scale model fer a structurally-flexible Cartesian manipulator. Based on the two-time scale model, a composite controller consisting of a computed torque method for the slow time-scale rigid body subsystem, and a linear quadratic state-feedback regulator for the fast time-scale flexible subsystem, is designed. Simulation results show that the proposed two time-scale controller yields good performance in attenuating structural vibration arising due to excitation from inertial forces.
A Study on the Gait Optimization of a Biped Robot
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 115~123
This paper deals with the gait optimization of via points on biped robot. ZMP(Zero Moment point) is the most important index in a biped robot's dynamic walking stability. To stable walking of a biped robot, leg's trajectory and a desired ZMP trajectory is required, balancing motion is solved by FDM(Finite Difference Method). In this paper, optimal index is defined to dynamically stable walking of a biped robot, and genetic algorithm is applied to optimize gait trajectory and balancing motion of a biped robot. By genetic algorithm, the index of walking parameter is efficiently optimized, and dynamic walking stability is verified by ZMP verification equation. Genetic algorithm is only applied to balancing motion, and is totally applied to whole trajectory. All of the suggested motions of biped robot are investigated by simulations and verified through the real implementation.
Development of a Guiding System for the High-Speed Self-Align Cable Winding
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 124~129
Recently, the demand for the optical cable is rapidly growing because the number of internee user increases and high speed internet data transmission is required. But the present optical cable winding systems has some serious problems such as pile-up and collapse of cable usually near the flange of the bobbin in the process of the cable winding. To reduce the pile-up collapse in a cable winding systems, a new guiding system is developed for a high-speed self-align cable winding. First of all, the winding mechanism was analyzed and synchronization logics for the motions of winding, traversing, and the guiding were created. A prototype cable winding systems was manufactured to validate the new guiding system and the suggested logic. Experiment results showed that the winding system with the developed guiding system outperformed the system without the guiding system in reducing pile-up and collapse in the high-speed winding.
3-D Localization of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Using Extended Kalman Filter
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 130~135
This paper presents a 3-D localization of an autonomous underwater vehicle(AUV). Conventional methods of localization, such as LBL or SBL, require additional beacon systems, which reduces the flexibility and availability of the AUV We use a digital compass, a pressure sensor, a clinometer and ultrasonic sensors for localization. From the orientation and velocity information, a priori position of the AUV is estimated based on the dead reckoning. With the aid of extended Kalman filter algorithm, a posteriori position of the AUV is estimated by using the distance between the AUV and a mother ship on the surface of the water together with the water depth information from the pressure sensor. Simulation results show the possibility of practical application of the method to autonomous navigation of the AUV.
Production of Laser Welded Tube for Automobile Bumper Beam from 60kgf/
Grade Steel Sheet
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 136~144
Optimal process and system to produce the laser welded tube for one body formed bumper beam are studied. The calculated size of tube is a thickness of 1.4mm, diameter of 105.4mm and length of 2000mm. The tube is shaped from a cold rolled high strength steel sheet(tensile strength: 60kgf/
grade). Two roll bending method is the optimal tube shaping process compared to UO-bending, bending on press brake, multi-step continuous roll forming and 3 roll bending methods. Weld quality monitoring and seam tracking along the butt-joint lengthwise to the tube axis are also studied. The longitudinal butt-joint is welded by the
laser welding system equipped with a seam tracker and plasma sensor. The constructed
laser tube welding system can be used for the precision seam tracking and the real-time monitoring of weld quality. Finally, the obtained laser welded tube can be used for one-body formed automobile bumper beam.
The Development of 3D based On-Machine Measurement Operating System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 145~152
This paper proposed efficient manufacturing system using the OMM (on-machine measurement) system. The OMM system is software based 3D modeler for inspection on machine and it is interfaced tool machine with RS232C. The software is composed of two inspection modules that one is touch probe operating module and the other is laser displacement sensor operating module. The module for touch probe has need of inspection feature that extracted it from CAD data. Touch probe moves to workpiece by three operating modes as follows: manual, general and automatic mode. The operating module of laser displacement sensor is used inspection for profile and very small hole. An Advantage of this inspection method is to be able to execute on-line inspection during machining or after it. The efficiency of proposed system which can predict and definite the machining errors of each process is verified, so the developed system is applied to inspect the mold-base(cavity, core).
A Study on the Die Design for Manufacturing of High Pressure Gas Cylinder
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 153~162
This paper describes a research work on the die design for the deep drawing ＆ ironing(D.D.I.) of high pressure gas cylinder. D.D.I die set is large-sized die used in horizontal press, which is usually composed of drawing, and ironing die. Design method of D.D.I. die set is very different from those of conventional cold forging die set.. Out diameter of the die set is fixed because of press specification and out diameter of the insert should be as small as possible for saving cost of material. In this study, D.D.I die set has been designed to consider those characteristics and the feasibility of the designed die has been verified by FE-analysis. In addition, the automated system of die design has been developed in AutoCAD R14 by formulating the applied methods to the regular rules.
Generation of Block Assembly Sequence by Case Based Reasoning
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 163~170
In order to automatically determine the sequences of block assembly operations in shipbuilding, a process planning system using case-based reasoning (CBR) is developed. A block-assembly planning problem is modeled as a constraint satisfaction problem where the precedence relations between operations are considered constraints. The process planning system generates an assembly sequence by adapting information such as solutions and constraints collected from similar cases retrieved from the case base. In order to find similar cases, the process planning system first matches the parts of the problem and the parts of each case based on their roles in the assembly, and then it matches the relations related to the parts-pairs. The part involved in more operations are considered more important. The process planning system is applied to simple examples fur verification and comparison.
Techniques for Measuring Mechanical Properties of Polysilicon using an ISDG
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 171~178
Techniques and procedures are presented for measuring mechanical properties on thin-film Polysilicon. Narrow platinum lines are deposited 250
apart on tensile specimens that are 3.5
thick and 600
wide. Load is applied by a piezo-actuator and by hanging weights. Strain is measured by an ISDC at temperatures up to 500
. Measurements of the elastic modulus with jig modifications, loading speed and temperature change are presented first. And then, the preliminary data for the coefficient of thermal expansion and creep behavior are presented as a reference.
A study on the Fabrication of Copper-clad Aluminum Composite using Hydrostatic Extrusion
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 179~184
In this work, a copper-clad aluminum composite was fabricated using hot hydrostatic extrusion with various extrusion ratios (8.5, 19, 49) and semi-die angles (30, 45, 60 degree) at a temperature of 32
, Material characteristics of copper-clad aluminum composites were determined from compression tests and hardness tests The results showed that for ER of 8.5, the optimum semi-die angle was below or equal to 30 degree and a pressure drop was about 31%. For ER of 19, the optimum semi-die angle was in the range of 40 to 50 degree and a pressure drop was about 38%. In the case of ER=49, the optimum semi-die angle was above or equal to 60 degree and a pressure drop was about 36%. Compressive yield strength was maximum for ER of 8.5 and semi-die angle of 30 degree and the value of maximum was 155 MPa. Uniform hardness distribution was obtained as the extrusion ratio increases and the semi-die angle decreases. In the case of ER=8.5 and semi-die angle of 30 degree, the lowest extrusion pressure and the maximum compressive yield strength was obtained. Therefor, it was concluded that the optimum extrusion condition for fabricated copper-clad aluminum composites under hydrostatic pressure environment was ER of 19 and semi-die angle of 30 degree.
Motion Error Analysis of the Porous Air Bearing Stages Using the Transfer Function
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 7, 2004, Pages 185~194
In order to analyze the motion errors of the aerostatic stage, it is necessary to consider the influence of the moment variation occurred inside the pads. In this paper, a motion error analysis method utilizing the transfer functions on the reaction force and moment is proposed, and general characteristics of the transfer functions are discussed. Calculated motion errors by the proposed method show good agreement with the ones calculated by Multi fad Method, which is considered the entire table as an analysis object. Also, by the introduction of the transfer function of motion errors, which represent the relationship between the spatial frequency components of the rail form error and motion errors, motional characteristics of the porous aerostatic stage can be generalized. In detail, the influence of the spatial frequencies is analyzed qualitatively, and the patterns of the insensitive frequencies which almost do not affect the linear motion error or angular motion error according to the rail length ratio and the number of the pad are verified. The relationship between the moment variation occurred inside the pads and the motion errors is also verified together.