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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
High Precision Measurement of Rotational Accuracy
Wei Gao ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 7~13
Precision Measurement Technology in Assembly Process of NC
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 14~18
Examples of Performance Estimation on the Feed System of Precision Machine Tools
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 19~26
A Study on the Machinability of Electroless Nickel by the Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 27~33
The ultra-precision cutting is a key technique for the manufacture of optical components such as aluminium mirrors, electroless nickel mirror, plastic mirror in a variety of advanced science and technology applications. The paper presents experimental results of ultra-precision diamond fuming of electroless nickel materials. In general, the cutting condition such as feed rate and depth of rut, have effect on the surface roughness in ultra-precision diamond turning. To obtain an optimal cutting condition, we studied the effect of the cutting speed. the tool length, the tool nose radius, the feed rate and depth of cut on the surface roughness. So, the relationship of the surface roughness and cutting condition has been clarified. From the experimental results, the machined surface roughnesses were obtained less than 1nm rms.
Nano-scale Precision Polishing Characteristics using a Micro Quill and Magnetic Chain Structure
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 34~42
A new polishing technique for three dimensional micro/meso-scale parts is suggested using a micro quill and a magnetic chain structure. The principle of this method is to polish the target surface with the collected magnetic brushes at a micro tool by the non-uniform magnetic field generated around the tool. In a typical magnetic abrasive finishing process magnetic particles and abrasive particles are unbonded each other. But, to finish the three dimensional small parts bonded magnetic abrasive have to be used. Bonded magnetic abrasives are made from direct bonding, and their polishing characteristics are also examined. Alumina, silicon carbide and diamond micro powders are used as abrasives. Base metal matrix is carbonyl iron powder. It is found that bonded magnetic abrasives are superior to unbonded one by experiment. finally, the polished surface roughness is evaluated by atomic force microscope.
Machining Characteristics in High Speed Endmill Operation Considering Clearance Angle
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 43~49
The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of clearance angle on cutting performance in high speed end milling operation. The tool geometry parameters have complex relationship with cutting process parameter. In order to explain the effect of clearance angle, 2D turning operation in lathe and end milling operations are performed. Tools with different clearance angles are manufactured. Cutting forces, machining accuracy and tool life are examined according to the change of clearance angle. As clearance angle increases, cutting force decreases and machining accuracy improves. But it has been proved that there exists the optimal clearance angle according to the diameter of end mill for maximum tool life which is measured by frank wear.
Dimensional Analysis for the Front Chassis Module in the Auto Industry
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 50~56
The directional ability of an automobile has an influence on driver directly, and hence it must be given most priority. Alignment factors of automobile such as the camber, caster and toe directly affect the directional ability of a vehicle. The above mentioned factors are determined by the pose of interlinks in the assembly of an automobile front chassis module. Measuring the position of center point of ball joints in the front lower arm is very difficult. A method to determine this position is suggested in this paper. Pose estimation for front chassis module and dimensional evaluation to find the rotational characteristics of front lower arm were developed based on fundamental geometric techniques. To interpret the inspection data obtained for front chassis module, 3-D best fit method is needed. The best fit method determines the relationship between the nominal design coordinate system and the corresponding feature coordinate system. The least squares method based on singular value decomposition is used in this paper.
Prediction Technology on the Source Location of Acoustic Emission Signal in Plate with Welding Line
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 57~64
This study deals with the prediction of defect location which can be occurred in structure. The existing methods was very difficult to be applied to predict it, because of complex numerical formula. The triangulation method proposed in this study can predict the source location easily with small amount of data. The arrival time of wave can be directly converted into the distance between sensors. For this purpose, the propagation velocity was measured by Rayleigh wave, and the propagation behavior was analyzed. The welded workpiece is adapted to investigate for the consideration of jointed part in structure, The propagation velocity of signal was measured in welded workpiece and the revised algorithm of source location was proposed.
Development of 3D Burr Measurement Technique using Conoscopic Holography
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 65~72
For the burrs formed in machining are irregular and very sharp in shape, it is usually very difficult to measure burr accurately. It was proved that micro burr geometry can be measured imprecision by the Conoprobe sensor using conoscopic holography method. We developed 3D burr measurement system using this sensor. The system is composed of Conoprobe sensor, XY table, controller and 3D measurement program. Some measurements using the developed system are conducted for the burrs formed in micro drilling and piercing. Specific software fur burr measurement includes several function, calculation of burr volume, average burr height. Burs formed on a curved surface were compensated and measured successfully using the basic surface compensation function.
Path Design Method of Mobile Robot for Obstacle Avoidance Using Ceiling- mounted Camera System and Its Implementation
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 73~82
In this paper, implementation of obstacle avoidance of a nonholonomic mobile robot in unstructured environment is introduced. To avoid obstacles, first, a reference collision-free path for the MR is generated off-line using HJB-based optimal path planning method. A controller is designed using integrator backstepping method for tracking the generated reference path. To implement the designed controller, a control system are needed and composed of camera system and PIC-based controller. The workspace is observed by a ceiling-mounted USB camera as part of an un-calibrated camera system. Thus the positional information of the MR is updated frequently and the MR can get the useful inputs for its tracking controller. The whole control system is realized by integrating a computer with PIC-based microprocessor using wireless communication: the image processing control module and path planning module serve as high level computer control while the device control serves as low level PIC microprocessor control. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed control system.
Inspection of Automotive Oil-Seals Using Artificial Neural Network and Vision System
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 83~88
The Classification of defected oil-seals using a vision system with the artificial neural network is presented. The artificial neural network fur classification consists of 27 input nodes, 10 hidden nodes, and one output node. The selection of the number of the input nodes is based on an observation that the difference among the defected, non-defected, and smeared oil-seals is greatly pronounced in the 26 step gray-scale level thresholding. The number of the hidden nodes is chosen as a result of a trade-off between accuracy and computing time. The back-propagation algorithm is used for teaching the network. The proposed network is capable of successfully classifying the defected from the smeared oil-seals which tend to be classified as the defected ones using the binary thresholding. It is envisaged that the proposed method improves the reliability and productivity of the automotive vision inspection system.
Measurement of Tensile Properties of Copper Foil using Micro-ESPI Technique
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 89~96
Micro-tensile testing system, consisting of a micro tensile loading system and micro-ESPI(Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry) system, has been developed for measurement of micro-tensile properties of thin micro-materials. Micro-tensile loading system had a load cell with the maximum capacity of 50N and micro actuator with resolution of 4.5nm in stroke. The system was used to apply a tensile load to the micro-sized specimen. During tensile loading, the micro-ESPI system acquired interferornetric speckle patterns in the deformed specimen and measured the in-plane tensile strain. The ESPI system consisted of a CCD-camera with a lens and the window-based program developed for this experiment. Using this system, stress-strain curves for 4 kinds of electrolytic copper foil 18
m thick were obtained. From these curves, tensile properties, including the elastic modulus. yielding strength and tensile strength, were determined and also values of the plastic exponent and coefficient based on Ramberg-Osgood relationship were evaluated.
A Study on the Prediction of Failure Stress for Table Liner under Fatigue Load
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 97~105
The vertical roller mill is the important machine grinding and mixing various crude materials in the manufacturing process of portland cement. Table liner is one of grinding elements of vertical roller mill and is subjected to the cyclic bending stress by rollers and the centrifugal force by rotation of table. It demands
expense of life but has
cycle. It fractures at the edge of grinding path of outside roller The repair expense fur it amounts to 30% of total maintenance of vertical roller mill. Therefore, this study shows the fracture mechanism of table liner of vertical roller mill using HDM and fatigue analysis
Design for Micro-stereolithography using Axiomatic Approach
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 106~111
Micro-stereolithography technology has made it possible to fabricate any form of three-dimensional microstructures. It makes a 3D structure by dividing the shape into many slices of relevant thickness along horizontal surface, hardening each layer of slice with a laser, and stacking them up to a desired shape. Until now, however, the micro-stereolithography device was not designed systematically because the key factors governing the device were not considered. In this paper, we designed micro-stereolithography device using axiomatic approach. This paper contains an overview and an analysis of a new proposed system for development of micro-stereolithegraphy device, and detailed descriptions of the activities in this system. The newly designed system offers reduced machine size by minimizing of optical components and decoupled design matrix.
The Effects of the Mounted Method of Frame of a Large Truck on Handling Performance
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 112~119
This paper develops a computer model of a cabover type large truck for estimating the effects of the mounted method of frame on handling performance. The computer model considers two mounted methods of frame; flange mounted and web mounted. Frame is modeled by finite elements using MSC/NASTRAN in order to consider the flexibility of frame. The reliability of the developed computer model is verified by comparing the actual vehicle test results with the simulation results. The actual vehicle test is performed in a double lane change course, and lateral acceleration, yaw rate, and roll angle are measured. To estimate the effects of the mounted method of frame on handling performance, simulations are performed with the flange mounted and web mounted frame. Simulation results show that the web mounted frame＇s variations of roll angle, lateral acceleration, and yaw rate are larger than the flange mounted frame＇s variations, especially in the high test velocity and the second part of the double lane course. Also, simulation results show that the web mounted frame＇s tendencies of roll angle, lateral acceleration, and yaw rate advance the flange mounted frame＇s tendencies, especially in the high test velocity and the second part of the double lane course.
Structural Vibration Analysis of Electronic Equipment for Satellite under Launch Environments
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 120~128
The impulse between launch vehicle and atmosphere can generate a lot of noise and vibration during the process of launching a satellite. Structurally, the electronic equipment of a satellite consists of an aluminum case containing PCB. Each PCB has resistors and IC. Noise and vibration of the wide frequency band are transferred to the inside of fairing, subsequently creating vibration of the electronic equipment of the satellite. In this situation, random vibration can cause malfunctioning of the electronic equipment of the device. Furthermore, when the frequency of random vibration meets with natural frequency of PCB, fatigue fracture may occur in the part of solder joint. The launching environment, thus, needs to be carefully considered when designing the electronic equipment of a satellite. In general, the safety of the electronic equipment is supposed to be related to the natural frequency, shapes of mode and dynamic deflection of PCB in the electronic equipment. Structural vibration analysis of PCB and its electronic components can be performed using either FEM or vibration test. In this study, the natural frequency and dynamic deflection of PCB are measured by FEM, and the safety of the electronic components of PCB is evaluated according to the results. This study presents a unique method for finite element modeling and analysis of PCB and its electronic components. The results of FEA are verified by vibration test. The method proposed herein may be applicable to various designs ranging from the electronic equipments of a satellite to home electronics.
Effect of an Intermediate Support on the Stability of Elastic Material Subjected to Dry Friction Force
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 129~135
This paper discussed on the effect of an intermediate support on the stability of elastic material subjected to dry friction force. It is assumed in this paper that the dry frictional force between a tool stand and an elastic material can be modeled as a distributed follower force. The elastic material on the friction material is modeled for simplicity into an elastic beam on Winkler-type elastic foundation. The stability of beams on the elastic foundation subjected to distributed follower force is formulated by using finite element method to have a standard eigenvalue problem. The first two eigen-frequencies are obtained to investigate the dynamics of the beam. The eigen-frequencies yield the stability bound and the corresponding unstable mode. The considered beams lose its stability by flutter or divergence, depending on the location of intermediate support.
A Study on the Open Architecture CNC System for WEDM
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 136~142
This paper deals with the design and implementation of an open architecture CNC system for Wire-EDM, with a consideration of the difference between Wire-EDM and NC cutting machines. Recent open architecture controller(OAC) related research results could be applied to directly access Wire-EDM systems at the CNC level. However, previous research about OAC is mostly aimed at NC cutting machines such as milling or lathes, and hence these results are inadequate to apply to Wire-EDM. To close the gap between previous general research on OAC and Wire-EDM specific needs, an open architecture NC model for Wire-EDM composed of a synchronization kernel and a NC functional module is proposed. Based on the control information flow and Wire-EDM specific machining process, the conceptual CNC model and the detailed implementation model for Wire-EDM is suggested.
A Study on the NURBS Interpolator for the Precision Control of Wire-EDM
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 143~151
This paper deals with the precision NURBS interpolator for wire-EDM. Previous research about OAC (Open Architecture Controller) is mostly aimed at NC cutting machines such as milling or lathes, and hence these results are inadequate to apply to wire-EDM. In contradiction to NC machines, wire-EDM operates relatively slow feed rates and based on a feedback control loop to the machining process. The 2-stage interpolation method which reflects wire-EDM specific characteristics was proposed. The constant interpolation error could be acquired through 1 st stage interpolation. Feed rate regulation was performed through 2nd stage interpolation. The suggested algorithm was implemented to test-bed PC-NC system. Computer simulations and the experimental machining were conducted.
Fabrication of Miniaturized Shadow-mask for Local Deposition
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 152~156
A new tool of surface patterning technique for general purpose lithography was developed based on shadow mask method. This paper describes the fabrication of a new type of miniaturized shadow mask. The shadow mask is fabricated by photolithography and etching of 100-mm full wafer. The fabricated shadow mask has over 388 membranes with apertures of micrometer length scale ranging from 1
made on each 2mm
2mm large low stress silicon nitride membrane. It allows micro scale patterns to be directly deposited on substrate surface through apertures of the membrane. This shadow mask method has much wider choice of deposit materials, and can be applied to wider class of surfaces including chemical functional layer, MEMS/NEMS surfaces, and biosensors.
Analysis of Scoliosis Correction Effects according to Instrumentation Devices using a Finite Element Model
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 157~163
Scoliosis is a complex musculoskeletal dieses requiring 3-D treatment with surgical instrumentation. To investigate the effects of correction surgery, a finite element model of personalized model of the scoliotic spine that will allow the design of clinical test providing optimal estimation of the post-operation results was developed. Three dimensional skeletal parts, such as vertebrae, clavicle and scapular were modeled as rigid bodies with keeping their morphologies. Kinematical joints and spring elements were adapted to represent the inter-vertebral disc and ligaments respectively. With this model, two types of surgery procedure, distraction procedure with Harrington device and rod derotation procedure with pedicle screw and rod system had been carried out. The obtained simulation results were comparatively corresponding to the post operational outcomes and successfully demonstrated qualitative analysis of surgical effectiveness. From this analysis, it has been found that the preparing of appropriate rod curvature and its insertion was more important than just performing the excessive derotation for scoliosis correction.
Analysis of Skin Movement Artifacts Using MR Images
;N. Miyata;M. Kouchi;M. Mochimaru;;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 164~170
The skin movement artifacts are referred to as the relative motion of skin with respect to the motion of underlying bones. This is of great importance in joint biomechanics or internal kinematics of human body. This paper describes a novel experiment that measures the skin movement of a hand based on MR(magnetic resonance) images in conjunction with surface modeling techniques. The proposed approach consists of 3 phases: (1) MR scanning of a hand with surface makers, (2) 3D reconstruction from the MR images, and (3) registration of the 3D models. The MR images of the hand are captured by 3 different postures. And the surface makers which are attached to the skin are employed to trace the skin motion. After reconstruction of 3D models from the scanned MR images, the global registration is applied to the 3D models based on the particular bone shape of different postures. The results of registration are then used to trace the skin movement by measuring the positions of the surface markers.
Implementation of FES Cycling using only Knee Muscles : A Computer Simulation Study
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 171~179
The purpose of this study is to generate cycling motion for FES (functional electrical stimulation) using knee muscles only. We investigated the possibility by simulation. The musculoskeletal model used in this simulation was simplified as 5-rigid links and 2 muscles (knee extensor and flexor). For the improvement of the present feedforward control in FES, we included feedback path in the control system. The control system was developed based on the biological neuronal system and was represented by three sub-systems. The first is a higher neuronal system that generates the motion command for each joint. The second is the lower neuronal system that divides the motion command to each muscle. And the third is a sensory feedback system corresponding to the somatic sensory system. Control system parameters were adjusted by a genetic algorithm (GA) based on the natural selection theory. GA searched the better parameters in terms of the cost function where the energy consumption, muscle force smoothness, and the cycling speed of each parameter set (individual) are evaluated. As a result, cycling was implemented using knee muscles only. The proposed control system based on the nervous system model worked well even with disturbances.
The Effect of Highly Concentrated Oxygen Administration on Cerebrum Lateralization of Young Men during Visuospatial Task
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 180~187
The present study attempted to investigate the effects of supply of highly concentrated (30%) oxygen on human ability of visuospatial cognition and cerebrum lateralization. compared to air of normal oxygen concentration (21%). The experiment consisted of two runs, one fur visuospatial cognition test with normal air (21% of oxygen) and for visuospatial cognition test with more oxygen in the air (30% of oxygen). Each run was composed of four blocks and each block included eight control tasks and five visuospatial tasks. Functional brain images were taken from 3T MRI using the single-shot EPI method. The result of task performance showed the accuracy increased at 30%＇s concentration of oxygen rather than 21%＇s. There were more activations observed at the left and right hemisphere, but there was decrease cerebrum lateralization with 30% oxygen administration. Thus, it is concluded that the positive effect on the visuospatial cognitive performance level by the highly concentrated oxygen administration was due to increase of cerebrum activation and decrease of cerebrum lateralization
The Study on the Mechanical Behavior of the Anastomosis with respect to the Thickness Variation of Elastic Foundation Using Simplified Suturing Model
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 21, issue 8, 2004, Pages 188~195
In this paper we analyzed the mechanical behavior with respect to the thickness variation of elastic foundation(fatty tissue) in end-to-end anastomosis. This study considered the preliminary deformed shape induced by suturing in the anastomosis of coronary artery and PTFE with different diameters using simplified suturing model and the fatty tissue surrounding heart and coronary artery for more accurate result using finite element method. Area compliance(CA) was used to analyze the final deformed shape of the anastomotic part with respect to the thickness variation of fatty tissue under mean blood pressure, 100mmHg(13.3㎪). And Equivalent and circumferential stresses in the anastomosis were also analyzed with respect to the change of initial diameter ratio(
) and fatty tissue thickness(
). The results obtained were as follows : 1 When the elastic foundation, assumed to be incompressive material, surrounded the grafts in anastomosis, the compliance mismatch of artery and PTFE was reduced by 47 -72%. 2. As the initial diameter ratio(
) became larger, the higher difference of compliance was induced in spite of elastic foundation surrounding grafts. 3. The maximum nondimensional circumferential stress is twice or three times as high as the maximum nondimensional equivalent stress in the anastomotic part.t.