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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Muscular activation of bracing driver
Lee, In-Hyeok ; Mun, Mu-Seong ; Choi, Hyung-Yun ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 7~15
Bio-mechanical Study on Human Muscle Papameters
Cho, Hyeon-Seok ; Bae, Tae-Soo ; Kang, Sung-Jae ; Lee, Jae-Yeon ; Mun, Mu-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 16~23
Identification of Knee Joint Spasticity using Pendulum Movement Test
Eom Gwang Moon ; Kim Chul-Seung ; Kong Se-Jin ; Kim Jong-Moon ; Lee Soon-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 24~29
Flexion-extension exercise analysis of transfemoral amputee depending on variation of the surgical method
Hong, Jung-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 30~37
Analysis of Whiplash Injury according to Headrest Stiffness during Low-speed Rear Impact
Kim, Young-Eun ; Kim, Soo-Taek ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 38~44
Forging Effect of Al6061 in Casting/Forging Process
Kwon, Oh-Hyuk ; Bae, Won-Byong ; Cho, Jong-Rae ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 45~50
In this study, the casting/forging process was applied in manufacturing a low control arm, in order to prove that application of casting/forging process to Al6061 is likely to get the effect of light weight compared with existing steel products and to reduce the cost of materials. Firstly, In order to set up the optimum casting condition of the forging material, Al6061, casting experiments were carried out by controlling pouring temperature of the aluminum for casting, mold temperature, and pouring time.
mold temperature and 10-second pouring time were taken into account as the optimum casting conditions. With respect to a hot forging test, it is practiced on the basis of a temperature of materials, strain rate, and reduction rate so as to observe each microstructure and examine strain-stress curve simultaneously; examine tensile test and hardness test; eventually set up the optimum hot forging condition. A hot forging test, tensile test, hardness experiment, and microstructure observation were carried out on condition of
temperature of materials, and 1 strain rate. As a result of those experiments, 330MPa tensile strength,
elongation, and 122.8Hv hardness were recorded. In oder to get a sound preform which has no unfitting cavity and less flash, two preforms were proposed on the basis of volume rate of the final product; the optimum volume rate of preform for the low control arm was
. In conclusion, it is confirmed that using the forging material rather than casting materials in casting/forging process is likely to get more superior mechanical properties. Compared with Al6061, performed by means of general forging, moreover, cast/forged Al6061 can not only stimulate productivity by reducing production processes, but cut down the cost of materials by reusing forging scraps.
Characteristics of Laser Surface Hardening for SM45C Medium Carbon Steel using Continuous Wave Nd:YAG Laser
Yoo, Young-Tae ; Shin, Ho-Jun ; Ahn, Dong-Gu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 51~58
Laser surface hardening technologies have been used to improve characteristics of wear and to enhance the fatigue resistance for automotive parts. The objective of this research work is to investigate the influence of the process parameters, such as power of laser and defocused spot position, on the characteristics of laser heat treatment for the case of SM45C medium carbon steel. CW Nd:YAG laser is selected as the heat source. The optical lens with the elliptical profile is designed to obtain a wide heat treatment area with a uniform hardness. From the results of the experiments, it has been shown that the maximum hardness is approximatly 780 Hv when the power and the travel speed of laser are 1,095 W and 0.6 m/min, respectively. In addition, the hardening width using the elliptical lens was three time larger than that using the defocusing of laser beam.
Analysis of Subjective Sound Quality Characteristics for the HVAC System using the Design of Experiments
Oh Jae-Eung ; Yun Taekun ; bin Abu Aminudin ; Sim Hyun-Jin ; Lee Jung-Youn ; Kim Sung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 59~63
Since human listening is very sensitive when the sound hit him, the subjective index of sound quality is required. Therefore, at each situation of sound evaluation its composed with the sound quality factor. But, when substituting the level of one frequency band we could not see the tendency of substitution at whole frequency band during the sound quality evaluation. In this study a design of experiment is used. The frequency domain is divided into an equally 12 parts and each level of domain whether is given increase or decrease due to the change of frequency band based on 'sharp' and 'annoy' of the sound quality is analyzed. By using the design of experiment the number of test is reduce very effectively by the number of experiment and each band the main effect will be as a solution. The case of sound quality for 'sharp' and 'annoy' at each band, the change of band (increase or decrease of sound pressure or keep maintain) which will be the most effects on the characteristics of sound quality can be identify and this will be able to us to select the objective frequency band. Through these obtained results the physical changes of level at arbitrary frequency domain sensitivity can be adapted.
Development of microscopic surface profile estimation algorithm through reflected laser beam analysis
Seo Young-Ho ; Ahn Jung-Hwan ; Kim Hwa-Young ; Kim Sun-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 64~71
In order to measure surface roughness profile, stylus type equipments are commonly used, but the stylus keeps contact with surface and damages specimens by its tip pressure. Therefore, optics based measurement systems are developed, and light phase interferometer, which is based on light interference phenomenon, is the most noticeable research. However, light interference based measurements require translation mechanisms of nano-meter order in order to generate phase differences or multiple focusing, thus the systems cannot satisfy the industrial need of on-the-machine and in-process measurement to achieve factory automation and productive enhancement. In this research, we focused light reflectance phenomenon rather than the light interference, because reflectance based method do not need translation mechanisms. However, the method cannot direct]y measure surface roughness profile, because reflected light consists of several components and thus it cannot supply surface height information with its original form. In order to overcome the demerit, we newly proposed an image processing based algorithm, which can separate reflected light components and conduct parameterization and reconstruction process with respect to surface height information, and then confirmed the reliability of proposed algorithm by experiment.
Kinematic Analysis and Implementation of a Spherical 3-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Mechanism
Lee, Seok-Hee ; Kim, Whee-Kuk ; Oh, Se-Min ; So, Byung-Rok ; Yi, Byung-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 72~81
A new spherical-type 3-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism consisting of a two degree-of-freedom parallel module and a serial module is proposed. Two alternative designs for the serial sub-chain are suggested and compared. The first design employs RU joint arrangement for the serial sub chain structure. The second design incorporates a gear chain to drive the distal revolute joint of the serial sub-chain from the base platform of the mechanism. This modification significantly improves kinematic characteristics of the mechanism within its workspace. Firstly, the closed-form solutions of both the forward and the reverse position analysis are derived. Secondly, the first-order kinematic model with respect to three inputs which are located at the base is derived. Thirdly, it is confirmed through simulation that the modified mechanism has much more improved isotropic characteristic throughout the workspace of the mechanism. Lastly, the proposed mechanism is implemented to verify the results from this analysis.
A Study on Development of PC Based In-Line Inspection System with Structure Light Laser
Shin Chan-Bai ; Kim Jin-Dae ; Lim Hak-Kyu ; Lee Jeh-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 82~90
Recently, the in-line vision inspection has become the subject of growing research area in the visual control systems and robotic intelligent fields that are required exact three-dimensional pose. The objective of this article is to study the pc based in line visual inspection with the hand-eye structure. This paper suggests three dimensional structured light measuring principle and design method of laser sensor header. The hand-eye laser sensor have been studied for a long time. However, it is very difficult to perform kinematical analysis between laser sensor and robot because the complicated mathematical process are needed for the real environments. In this problem, this paper will propose auto-calibration concept. The detail process of this methodology will be described. A new thinning algorithm and constrained hough transform method is also explained in this paper. Consequently, the developed in-line inspection module demonstrate the successful operation with hole, gap, width or V edge.
A Study on the Development of a High Speed Feeding Type Three-Dimensional Bending Machine
Lim, Sang-Heon ; Lee, Choon-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 91~98
This study has been focused on the development of a high speed feeding type three-dimensional bending machine. It is designed for manufacture of copper pipe for heat exchangers. For the purpose of design of the machine, analysis of bending process, structural analysis and reliability evaluation of the machine by a laser interferometer are carried out. The analysis is carried out by FEM simulation using commercial softwares, DEFORM, MARC and CATIA V5. In addition, the machine has attained high accuracy and repeatability. In order to improve the accuracy of this machine, the maximum speed, positioning accuracy and repeatability of feed are measured by the laser interferometer. The final results of analysis are applied to the design of a high speed feeding type three-dimensional bending machine and the machine is successfully developed.
An investigation of the strain rate effect on the delamination toughness of fiber-reinforced composites in the hydrostatic pressure condition
Ha Sung Rok ; Rhee Kyong Yop ; Kim Hyeon Ju ; Jung Dong Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 99~103
It is generally accepted that fracture toughness of fiber-reinforced polymer composites is affected by strain rate in an atmospheric pressure condition. For a present study, the strain rate effect on the fracture toughness of fiber-reinforced laminated composites in the hydrostatic pressure condition was investigated. For this purpose, fracture tests have been conducted using graphite/epoxy laminated composites applying three steps of the strain rate at 270 MPa hydrostatic pressure condition. The strain rates applied were
. Fracture toughness was determined from the work factor approach as a function of applied strain rate. The result showed that fracture toughness decreased as the strain rate increased. Specifically, the fracture toughness decreased
as the strain rate increased from
Dynamic Characteristics Analysis of Closing Resistors of Gas Insulated Switchgear
Cho Hae-Yong ; Lee Sung-Ho ; Lim Sung-Sam ; Lee Ki-Joung ; Kim Min-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 104~110
GIS(Gas Insulated Switchgear) is used in electric power system, to insure non conductivity, breaking capacity and operating reliability. The commercial dynamic analysis code COSMOS MOTION and 3-D modeling program SOLID WORKS were used to simulate dynamic analysis of the closing resistors of the GIS in this paper. To reduce chatter vibration of closing resistors, the motion of moving and fixed parts of closing resistors were simulated by varying the spring constant, the damping coefficient and the mass of moving and fixed parts. The simulated results were compared with experimental results. As a result, chatter vibration of closing resistors of the GIS could be reduced by using the results. These data can be used to determine the spring constant, the damping coefficient and mass of a moving part to reduce chatter vibration when the next model is developed.
A Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Gear-System
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Park, No-Gill ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 111~117
The vibration problems associated with gear coupled rotors have been the focus of much engineering work. These systems are complex and difficult to analyze in that they have the problems associated with conventional rotors plus those additional problems associated with the gear couplings. This paper examines the problems peculiar to the gear mesh. Because of the meshing action of gears, the elasticity of the gear teeth introduces time-varying stiffness coefficients into the governing equations of motion. This means that system response must be thought of in terms of Mathieu-type equations, where multiple-frequency response occur due to the periodic coefficients. The meshing action of the gears also couples the lateral and torsional gear motions. Gear errors, such as tooth profile and spacing errors, produce forces and torque that excite the system at multiple frequencies, some of which are much higher than shaft rotational speed. To investigate how to the time-varying stiffness in the gear teeth and the gear errors act one the dynamic response of the gear coupled rotors, a three-dimensional dynamic model with lateral-tortional oscillation is developed. The harmonic balance technique is employed to solve this mathieu-type problem.
An Experimental Study of Pipkin-Rogers Model for Automotive Bushing
Kim, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Su-Young ; Lee, Seong-Beom ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 118~124
An automotive bushing is a device used in automotive suspension systems to reduce the load transmitted from the wheel to the frame of the vehicle. A bushing is a hollow cylinder, which is bonded to a solid steel shaft at its inner surface and a steel sleeve at its outer surface. The relation between the force applied to the shaft and the relative deformation of a bushing is nonlinear and exhibits features of viscoelasticity. In this paper, an automotive bushing is regarded as nonlinear viscoelastic incompressible material. Instron 8801 equipment was used for experimental res earch and ramp-to-constant displacement control test was used for data acquisition. Displacement dependent force relaxation function was obtained from the force extrapolation method and expressed as the explicit combination of time and displacement. Pipkin-Rogers model, which is the direct relation of force and displacement, was obtained and comparison studies between the experimental results and the Pipkin-Rogers results were carried out.
Effects of Contact Zone according to Geometries and Mechanical Properties of Pad for Fretting Contacts
Roh Hong-Rae ; Jang Song-Koon ; Cho Sang-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 125~134
Recently, there have been reported on the results that the material life is reduced by fretting conditions and the initial crack made by low stress under fretting. The purpose of this paper is to show that the results of finite element analysis for the fretting contact problems of a flat rounded punch are nearly consistent with the theoretical solutions and to research that the results about effects of the contact zone according to geometries and mechanical properties of pad.
Measurement of Five DOF Motion Errors in the Ultra Precision Feed Tables
Oh Yoon Jin ; Park Chun Hong ; Hwang Joo Ho ; Lee Deug Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 135~141
Measurement of five DOF motion errors in a ultra precision feed table was attempted in this study. Yaw and pitch error were measured by using a laser interferometer and roll error was measured by using the reversal method. Linear motion errors in the vertical and horizontal directions were measured by using the sequential two point method. In this case, influence of angular motion errors was compensated by using the previously measured ones by the laser interferometer and the reversal method. The capacitive type sensors and an optical straight edge were used in the reversal method and the sequential two point method. Influence of thermal deformation on sensor jig was investgated and minimized by the periodic measurement according to the variation of room temperature. Deviation of gain between sensors was also compensated using the step response data. 5 DOF motion errors of a hydrostatic table driven by the linear motor werer tested using the measurement method. In the horizontal direction, measuring accuracies for the linear and angular motion were within
arcsec, respectively. In the vertical direction, they were within
arcsec. From these results, it was found that the introduced measurement method was very effective to measure 5 DOF motion errors of the ultra precision feed tables.
Design and Performance Evaluation of a Spindle System for Centerless Grinding Machine
Park Chun Hong ; Hwang Joo Ho ; Cho Soon Joo ; Cho Chang Rae ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 142~150
Design and performance evaluation of a spindle system which was composed of a grinding spindle and a regulating spindle for the centerless grinding of ferrule were performed in this paper. Layout and details of spindle system were designed and hydrostatic bearings for spindles were also designed. Prototype of spindle system was developed and its availabilities to machine the ferrule were discussed using the experimental results on the spindle stiffness of each spindle, loop stiffness, rotational accuracy and thermal characteristics. Loop stiffness of the spindle system was
, which was enough to machine the ferrule. Rotational accuracies of each spindle were about
at the primary speed of 2,300 rpm(grinding spindle) and 300 rpm(regulating spindle). Temperature rises at the same speed were about
in the case of grinding spindle and
in the case of regulating spindle, which agreed well with the designed value. From these results, it was estimated that the prototype of spindle system had enough performances for the centerless grinding machine to machine the ferrule.
A Micro Turning Lathe Using Piezo Feed Driver
Ko Tae Jo ; Jeong Jong Woon ; Chung Byeong Mook ; Kim Hee Sool ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 151~158
Micro-machine tool is essential in the micro/meso cutting for the sake of saving of space, resources, and energy. In this research, a micro-turning lathe was fabricated with piezoelectric feed drive mechanism, and motion of each axis was generated by stepwise mechanism with two piezo actuators. The resolution to drive the axis was
and position accuracy less than
was assured. From the positioning experiment, piezo feed mechanism is good enough for the micro machine tools. Many fuming experiments were carried out with diamond-cutting tools to evaluate cutting capability of a machine tool. Continuous flow type chip could be obtained even if the cutting speed was very low due to small diameter of workpiece. However, thorough investigation about machineability in micro/meso cutting is inevitable to assure high quality surface roughness in micro machine tool.
Fabrication of Micro Electrodes by Reverse EDM and Its Applications
Choi Se Hwan ; Kim Bo Hyun ; Park Byung Jin ; Chu Chong Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 159~164
For increasing productivity of micro electrochemical machining (MECM), the application of multiple electrodes was introduced. The electrodes were fabricated by reverse electrical discharge machining (REDM). By REDM micro electrodes with various shapes can be machined easily. According to capacitance and applied voltage, machining characteristics of reverse EDM were investigated and the optimal conditions for stable machining were suggested. By using multiple electrodes and a channel-shape electrode, holes and channels were machined on stainless steel by ECM.
Effects of Package Induced Stress on MEMS Device and Its Improvements
Choa Sung-Hoon ; Cho Yong Chul ; Lee Moon Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 165~172
In MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System), packaging induced stress or stress induced structure deformation becomes increasing concerns since it directly affects the performance of the device. In the decoupled vibratory MEMS gyroscope, the main factor that determines the yield rate is the frequency difference between the sensing and driving modes. The gyroscope, packaged using the anodic bonding at the wafer level and EMC (epoxy molding compound) molding, has a deformation of MEMS structure caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This effect results in large distribution in the frequency difference, and thereby a lower yield rate. To improve the yield rate we propose a packaged SiOG (Silicon On Glass) process technology. It uses a silicon wafer and two glass wafers to minimize the wafer warpage. Thus the warpage of the wafer is greatly reduced and the frequency difference is more uniformly distributed. In addition. in order to increase robustness of the structure against deformation caused by EMC molding, a 'crab-leg' type spring is replaced with a semi-folded spring. The results show that the frequency shift is greatly reduced after applying the semi-folded spring. Therefore we can achieve a more robust vibratory MEMS gyroscope with a higher yield rate.
Electrostatic 2-axis MEMS Stage for an Application to Probe-based Storage Devices
Baeck Kyoung-Lock ; Jeon Jong Up ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 173~181
We report on the design and fabrication of an electrostatic 2-axis MEMS stage possessing a platform with a size of
. The stage, as a key component, would be used in developing probe-based storage devices in the future. It was fabricated by forming numerous
etching holes in the central platform, as a result, reducing the total number of masks to 1, thereby simplifying the whole fabrication process. Experimental results show that the driving range of the stage was
at the supplied voltage of 20V and the natural frequency was approximately 300Hz. The mechanical coupling between x- and y-motion was also measured and verified to be
Development of Three-Dimensional Contact Model of Human Knee Joint During Locomotion
Kim, Hyo-Shin ; Park, Seong-Jin ; Mun, Joung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 182~189
The human knee joint is the intermediate joint of the lower limb that is the largest and most complex joint in the body. Understanding of joint-articulating surface motion is essential for the joint wear, stability, mobility, degeneration, determination of proper diagnosis and so on. However, many studies analyzed the passive motion of the lower limb because of the skin marker artefact and some studies described medial and lateral condyle of a femur as a simple sphere due to the complexity of geometry. Thus, in this paper, we constructed a three-dimensional geometric model of the human knee from the geometry of its anatomical structures using non-uniform B-spline surface fitting as a study for the kinematic analysis of more realistic human knee model. In addition, we developed and verified 6-DOF contact model of the human knee joint using
continuous surface of the inferior region of a femur, considering the relative motion of shank to thigh during locomotion.
Design of A Femoral IM Nail by analysis of Lateral Curve Angle
Kim, Sung-Min ; Park, Sung-Yun ; Lee, Man-Pyo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 190~195
A Femur is the longest and largest bone which supports body in human musculoskeletal structure. Therefore, it may cause heavy loss of blood when it is suffered by a simple or complex fracture, and the complication is very dangerous with a possibility of severe tissue damage. In this study, the femoral cancellous angle change is estimated in order to design the Korean femoral IM nail. Generally, it is various in the size and curvature of femoral cancellous bone depending on patient's body dimension. Therefore surgeon has difficulty in fitting this femoral IM nail to the patient in the surgical procedure. In our study, we tries to estimate femoral lateral curve angle with more precise method based on CT image of the femur and utilize this information on the design of femoral IM nail for Korean patients.
Rapid Manufacturing of 3D Micro Products by UV Laser Ablation and Phase Change Filling
Shin B. S. ; Kim J. G. ; Chang W. S. ; Whang K. H. ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 196~201
UV laser micromachining are generally used to create microstructures for micro product through a sequence of lithography-based photopatterning steps. However, the micromachining process is not suitable for the rapid realization of complex 3D micro product because it depends on worker experiences, excessive cost and time to make many masks. In this paper, the more effective micro rapid manufacturing process, which is developed upon the base of laser micromachining, is proposed to fabricate micro products directly using UV laser ablation and phase change filling. The filling process is useful to hold the micro product during the next ablation step. The proposed micro rapid manufacturing process is also proven experimentally that enables to fabricate the 3D micro products of UV sensitive polymer from 3D CAD data to functional micro parts.
Benchmark Study of Rapid Prototyping Processes and the Development of Decision-support System to Select Appropriate RP Process and Machine
Yi Il Lang ; Chung Il Yong ; Choi Byung Wook ; Keum Young Tag ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 202~209
In this paper, benchmark tests of Rapid Prototyping(RP) are presented to evaluate characteristics of various RP Systems and Processes, and several decision-support systems are developed to select RP Machine/Process suitable to user's requirements. Results of the RP benchmark tests are applied to the recently developed RP machines for the purpose of analyzing attributes such as dimensional accuracy, surface roughness, build cost, build time, and etc. Decision-making support systems are also developed, which contain not only new LCE (Linear Confidence Equation) algorithm but also modified PRES and MDS algorithm. Those algorithms are proved to be effective in that reasonably acceptable results are obtained on several cases of different inputs.
Prediction of Curl Distortion using Classical Lamination Theory in Stereolithography
Kim, Gi-Dae ; Lee, Jae-Kon ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 11, 2005, Pages 210~217
A curl distortion induced by shrinkage during stereolithography polymerization process is analyzed with the classical lamination theory. Test parts of different layer thickness and part thickness are manufactured and their deformations are measured with CMM. Curl distortion is generated by the differential shrinkage of the layers, where the total shrinkage includes the shrinkages due to solidification and the change of temperature. It is shown that the curl distortion increases exponentially with decreasing the total thickness of the part, whose smaller layer thickness induces larger curl distortion. It is verified that only a part of the total shrinkage plays a role in generating the curl distortion.