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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Precision Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 22, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 22, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 22, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 22, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 22, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 22, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Shape Measurement Method by using Moire Phenomenon
Ryu Weon-Jae ; Kang Young-June ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 7~12
Shape measurement by using optical triangulation
Baik Sung-Hoon ; Park Seung-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 13~18
Shape Measurement by using Laser
Park Nak Gyu ; Kang Young June ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 19~26
A Study on the Real-time Micro Control of WEDM Process for the Improvement of Discharging Stability
Kwon Shin ; Nam Sung-Ho ; Yang Min-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 27~36
Some studies have shown that unstable factors are inherent in WEDM process, causing the instability of the discharging pulse to reach about 40∼60％ in normal machining. Transient stability is an important subject in WEDM process since there is a close relationship between stability and machining performance, such as the characteristics of a machined surface, machining speed and problem of instability like wire rupture phenomenon. Among the many machining parameters affecting WEDM machining state, three specific parameters (Vr, Ip, off time ) are major controllable variables that can be applied in transient stability control. And, this research investigates the implementation and analysis of real-time micro control of the discharging stability of WEDM (Wire Electric Discharge Machining) process.
Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Drilling Burr Formation Using Wavelet Transform and an Artificial Neural Network
Lee Seoung Hwan ; Kim Tae Eun ; Raa Kwang Youel ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 37~43
Real time monitoring of exit burr formation is critical in manufacturing automation. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) was used to detect the burr formation during drilling. By using wavelet transform (WT), AE data were compressed without unnecessary details. Then the transformed data were used as selected features (inputs) of a back-propagation artificial neural net (ANN). In order to validate the in process AE monitoring system, both WT-based ANN and cutting condition (cutting speed, feed, drill diameter, etc.) based ANN outputs were compared with experimental data.
Planarization Uniformity Improvement by a Variable Pressure Type of the Polishing Head with the Thin Rubber Sheet
Lee Hocheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 44~51
In this paper, a new polishing head with the variable pressure structure was studied to improve the planarization uniformity of the conventional template-metal head. Metal surface waviness and slurry distribution on the pad have been known to affect the polishing uniformity even in the synchronized quill and platen velocities. A polishing head with silicon rubber sheet was used to get a curved pressure distribution. In the experiment, the vertical deflection behavior on the pad was characterized with back pressure in the air chamber. Quill force increased linearly with backpressure. However, backpressure under a quill force made the upward movements of the quill. In the wafer polishing experiments, polishing rate and polishing thickness distribution were severely changed with backpressure. The best uniformity was observed with the standard deviation off.5％ level of average polishing removal 215nm at backpressure 12.1kPa.
Control of Taper Shape in Micro-Hole Machining by Micro-EDM
Kim Dong Jun ; Yi Sang Min ; Lee Young Soo ; Chu Chong Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 52~59
When a micro hole is machined by EDM with a cylindrical electrode, the hole diameter is different at the inlet and the outlet of the micro hole. The taper shape of the micro hole is caused by not only wear of the electrode but the eroded particles. The eroded particles cause secondary discharge during machining the micro hole. As a result, the diameter of the inlet becomes larger than that of the outlet. In this paper, a new method is proposed to reduce the difference in diameter between the inlet and the outlet of the hole. Observed was that the feed depth and machining time affect the formation of taper shape On this experimental basis, ultrasonic vibration was applied to reduce machining time, and capacitance was changed during machining to use the difference in discharging energy of different capacitances. Using the proposed method, a straight micro-hole was fabricated.
Acoustic Emission Monitoring during Laser Spot Welding of Stainless Steel Sheets
Lee Seoung Hwan ; Choi Jung Uk ; Choi Jang Eun ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 60~67
Compared with conventional welding, laser spot welding offers a unique combination of high speed, precision and low heat distortion. This combination of advantages is attractive for manufacturing industries including automotive and electronics companies. In this paper, a real time monitoring scheme fur a pulsed Nd:YAG laser spot welding was suggested. Acoustic emission (AE) signals were collected during welding and analyzed for given process conditions such as laser power and pulse duration. A back propagation artificial neural network, with AE frequency content inputs, was used to predict the weldability of stainless steel sheets.
Chip Load Control Using a NC Verification Model Based on Z-Map
Baek Dae Kyun ; Ko Tae Jo ; Park Jung Whan ; Kim Hee Sool ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 68~75
This paper presents a new method for the optimization of feed rate in sculptured surface machining. A NC verification model based on Z-map was utilized to obtain chip load according to feed per tooth. This optimization method can regenerate a new NC program with respect to the commanded cutting conditions and the NC program that was generated from CAM system. The regenerated NC program has not only the same data of the ex-NC program but also the updated feed rate in every block. The new NC data can reduce the cutting time and produce precision products with almost even chip load to the feed per tooth. This method can also reduce tool chipping and make constant tool wear.
The Geometric Machining Mechanism of Ultrasonic Drilling
Jang Sung-Hoon ; Lee Seok-Woo ; Choi Hon-Zong ; Lee Sun-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 76~83
With the acceleration of the miniaturization of products, especially in recent years, machining technologies for these products is in need of improvement. Conventional technologies have limitations in realizing the miniaturization due to the downsizing effects of the tools, which lack sufficient cutting stiffness during machining. The application of ultrasonic vibration is one of the most useful solutions in dealing with the problem. This study focused on the difference of ultrasonic drilling from conventional one in geometrical machining mechanism and the corresponding machining results. In detailed, some mathematical equations for drill cutting edge paths during drilling were extracted and new method to find uncut chip thickness from above equations was suggested. The experiments were carried out through the comparison between the results (disposed chips and internal surface states of holes) of conventional drilling and those of ultrasonic drilling. It was determined that the geometrical paths of cutting edges and analyzed uncut chip thickness agree with the appearance of disposed chips. Furthermore, the change in tool path by ultrasonic vibration resulted in the improvement of surface statement.
Pitch Measurement of One-dimensional Gratings Using a Metrological Atomic Force Microscope and Uncertainty Evaluation
Kim Jong-Ahn ; Kim Jae Wan ; Park Byong Chon ; Eom Tae Bong ; Kang Chu-Shik ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 84~91
We measured the pitch of one-dimensional (ID) grating specimens using a metrological atomic force microscope (M-AFM). The ID grating specimens a.e often used as a magnification standard in nano-metrology, such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thus, we need to certify the pitch of grating specimens fur the meter-traceability in nano-metrology. To this end, an M-AFM was setup at KRISS. The M-AFM consists of a commercial AFM head module, a two-axis flexure hinge type nanoscanner with built-in capacitive sensors, and a two-axis heterodyne interferometer to establish the meter-traceability directly. Two kinds of ID grating specimens, each with the nominal pitch of 288 nm and 700 nm, were measured. The uncertainty in pitch measurement was evaluated according to Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The pitch was calculated from 9 line scan profiles obtained at different positions with 100 ㎛ scan range. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in pitch measurement were 0.10 nm and 0.30 nm for the specimens with the nominal pitch of 288 nm and 700 nm. The measured pitch values were compared with those obtained using an optical diffractometer, and agreed within the range of the expanded uncertainty of pitch measurement. We also discussed the effect of averaging in the measurement of mean pitch using M-AFM and main components of uncertainty.
A Study on Indirect Adaptive Decentralized Learning Control of the Vertical Multiple Dynamic System
Lee Soo Cheol ; Park Seok Sun ; Lee Jae Won ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 92~98
The learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented an iterative precision of linear decentralized learning control based on p-integrated learning method for the vertical dynamic multiple systems. This paper develops an indirect decentralized teaming control based on adaptive control method. The original motivation of the teaming control field was loaming in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. Some techniques will show up in the numerical simulation for vertical dynamic robot. The methods of learning system are shown up for the iterative precision of each link.
Electromagnetic Analysis of a Flat-Type Proportional Solenoid by the Reluctance Method
Hong Yeh-Sun ; Kwon Yong-Cheol ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 99~106
In this study, the electromagnetic characteristics of a flat-type two-dimensional proportional solenoid were analyzed by the magnetic reluctance method. The equivalent magnetic circuit equation for the solenoid was derived by modeling the reluctance of air gaps and magnetic structural components such as pole core, armature and yoke. It was solved iteratively because of the nonlinear magnetization properties of the iron parts. The solutions showed good agreement with experimental data. Based on the equivalent magnetic circuit equation, the influence of design parameters on the force-to-armature displacement curves was mathematically derived and experimentally verified. In this way, dominant design parameters could be analytically determined.
Transmitted Force Estimation of Prototype HIF System Considering Flexibility of Mount System
Kim Hyo Jun ; Choe Eui Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 107~112
In this study, the dynamic analysis is performed fur predicting the transmitted force to flexible human body induced by prototype HIF(High Impulsive force) device operation, which is partially assembled by major parts. A beam-mass model and a shear-structure model are used for the flexible mount structure and their dynamic behavior are investigated by experimental results under rigid/flexible mount conditions using a general purpose device. From the test result of prototype device in rigid mount condition, the transmitted force to human body which can not be measured directly, is estimated based on the proved mount structure model.
Development of a Robot Element Design Program
Jung Il Ho ; Kim Chang Su ; Seo Jong Hwi ; Park Tae Won ; Kim Hee Jin ; Choi Jae Rak ; Byun Kyng Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 113~120
This paper presents the development of the design of the robot element. Robot element design is an important part of robot design since it decides the performance and life time of the robot. It is necessary that the robot kinematics and the robot dynamics are accomplished to design the robot elements. The robot kinematics and dynamics determine the design parameters of the element. We developed a robot element design program with which a designer can design the robot element with convenience and reliability. The program is composed of motor, harmonic driver and ball-screw design. The program is founded on the virtual robot design program. The virtual robot design program is the powerful software which may be used to solve various problems of the robot kinematics and dynamics. The robot element design program may be used to calculate the design parameters of the element that are necessary to design robot element. Therefore, the designer can decide upon the available robot elements available to perform the objective of the robot. The robot element design program is expected to increase the competitiveness and efficiency of the robot industry.
Gesture Recognition Algorithm by Analyzing Direction Change of Trajectory
Park Jahng-Hyon ; Kim Minsoo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 121~127
There is a necessity for the communication between intelligent robots and human beings because of wide spread use of them. Gesture recognition is currently being studied in regards to better conversing. On the basis of previous research, however, the gesture recognition algorithms appear to require not only complicated algorisms but also separate training process for high recognition rates. This study suggests a gesture recognition algorithm based on computer vision system, which is relatively simple and more efficient in recognizing various human gestures. After tracing the hand gesture using a marker, direction changes of the gesture trajectory were analyzed to determine the simple gesture code that has minimal information to recognize. A map is developed to recognize the gestures that can be expressed with different gesture codes. Through the use of numerical and geometrical trajectory, the advantages and disadvantages of the suggested algorithm was determined.
Analysis of Stability for Overhead Crane Systems
Ban Gab Su ; Lee Kwang Ho ; Mo Chang Ki ; Lee Jong Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 128~135
Overhead crane systems consist of trolley, girder, rope, objects, trolley motor, girder motor, and hoist motor. The dynamic system of these systems becomes a nonlinear state equations. These equations are obtained by the nonlinear equations of motion which are derived from transfer functions of driving motors and equations of motion for objects. From these state equations, Lyapunov functions of overhead crane systems are derived from integral method. These functions secure stability of autonomous overhead crane systems. Also constraint equations of driving motors of trolley, girder, and hoist are derived from these functions. From the results of computer simulation, it is founded that overhead crane systems is secure.
Understanding and Development of Software-based Open Architecture Controller
Yun Won-Soo ; Kim Chan-Bong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 136~143
Open architecture controller (OAC) is well known technology in factory automation. To better understand the requirements of OAC, authors have discussed the OAC related topics with a number of control experts who represents different segments of the machining industry. There is no common concept that is accepted or used, however, the common ideas for OAC is the control system that is hardware independent, interchangeable, and easily scalable. This paper presents summary of the understaning and requirements of OAC. Based on the requirements of OAC, authors developed the software based PC-CNC. The main focus of the PC-CNC was on the user customization capability and open interface between control networks in manufacturing system. This paper introduces the developed PC-CNC briefly. In addition to introduction of the PC-CNC, to fill the gap between end users and vendors of OAC, this paper presents two applications using OAC. One is a remote monitoring system. The OPC (Ole for Process Control) standard interface was used to monitor the status of open architecture CNC across network. The other is the remote production management module for machine tools using standard database interface.
Effects of Processing Variables on the Gas Penetrated Part of Gas-Assisted Injection Molding
Han Seong Ryul ; Park Tae Won ; Jeong Yeong Deug ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 144~150
Gas-assisted injection molding (GAIM) process is reducing the injection pressure during mold filling required as well as the shrinkage and warpage of the part and cycle time. Despite of these advantages, this process introduces new parameters and makes the application more difficult because the process interacts between gas and melt during injection molding process. Important GAIM factors that involved in this process include gas penetration design, locations of gas injection points, shot size, gas injection delay time as well as common injection molding parameters, gas pressure and gas injection time. In this study, the experiments were conducted to investigate effects of GAIM process variables on the gas penetration for PP and ABS moldings by changing gas injection point. Taguchi method was used fer the design of experiment. When the gas was injected at cavity's center, the most effective factor was shot size. When the gas was injected at cavity's end, the most effective factor was melt temperature. Injection speed was also an effective factor in GAIM process.
Surface Profile Measuring System for Axial Fan of Cooling Towers
Kang Jae-Gwan ; Lee Kwang-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 151~158
An important component of a cooling tower is an axial fan, and there happens distortion in its shape which brings significant loss of efficiency. In this paper, a surface profile measuring system for large size axial fan of cooling towers is developed. A laser sensor is used as a measuring device and aluminum profiles and stepping motors are engaged into the system as frame structure and driving devices respectively. The measuring data are compared to the design data to compute the distortion of the axial fans. Two types of errors, axial and twist errors, are used to represent the precision of axial fan distortion. Genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem during computing the precision. Results are displayed three dimensionally in a solid-modeler as well as 2-D drawings to help users find it with ease.
A Study on Correction of the Gear Tooth Profile Error by Finish Roll Forming
Lyu Sung-Ki ; Uematsu Seizo ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 159~166
This study deals with the correction of gear tooth profile error by finish roll forming. First, we experimentally confirmed that the tooth profile error is a synthesis of the concave error and the pressure angle error. Since various types of tooth profile errors appear in the experiments, we introduced evaluation parameters for rolling gears to objectively evaluate profile quality. Using these evaluation parameters, we clarified the relationship among the tooth profile error, the addendum modification factor (A. M. factor), and the tool loading force. We verified the character of concave error, pressure angle error, tool loading force and number of cycles of finish roll forming by using a forced displacement method. This study makes clear that tool loading force and number of cycles of finish roll forming are very important factors that affect involute tooth profile error. The results of the experiment and analysis show that the proposed method reduces concave and pressure angle errors.
Taper Reduction in Micro Electrochemical Milling Using Disk-type Electrode
Kim Bo Hyun ; Lee Young Soo ; Choi Deok Ki ; Chu Chong Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 167~172
In this paper. micro electrochemical machining (ECM) for micro structure fabrications is presented. By applying ultra short pulses. the chemical reaction can be restricted only to the region very close to the electrode. Micro ECM is applied to machining micro structures through electrochemical milling process becasuse it doesn't suffer from tool wear. Using this method. 3D micro structures were machined on stainless steel. It was found that micro machining is possible with good surface quality in the low concentration electrolyte,0.1 M H₂SO₄. In ECM, as the machining depth increases, better flushing of electrolyte is required for sufficient ion supply. Layer-by-layer milling is advantageous in flushing. However, layer-by-layer milling causes taper of structures. To reduce the taper, application of a disk-type electrode was introduced. By electrochemical milling, various 3D micro structures including a hemisphere with 60 ㎛ diameter were fabricated.
Changes in Verbal Cognitive Performance, Blood Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate due to 30% Oxygen Administration
Chung Soon Cheol ; Sohn Jin Hun ; Tack Gye Rae ; Yi Jeong Han ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 173~180
In this study, changes in verbal cognitive performance, blood oxygen saturation and heart rate due to 30％ concentration oxygen supply were observed. Five male (24.6±0.9) and five female (22.2±1.9) college students were asked to perform 28 verbal cognitive tasks of the same difficulty during two types of oxygen (concentration 21％, 30％) administration. The experimental sequence consisted of Rest1 (1 min.), Control (1 min.), Task (4 min.), and Rest2 (4 min.) and the physiological signals such as blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured throughout the stages. The experimental result showed that the performance increased significantly at 30％'s concentration of oxygen rather than 21％'s, which shows oxygen supply has positive influence on verbal cognitive performance. When 30％ concentration oxygen is supplied, the oxygen saturation in the blood significantly increased comparing to 21％. The heart rate showed no significant difference. Significant correlations were found between changes in oxygen saturation and cognitive performance. It is suggested that 30％ oxygen can stimulate brain activation by increasing actual blood oxygen concentration in the process of cognitive performance.
A Study on an Electrical Biosignal Detection System for the Microbiochip
Park Jeong Yeon ; Park Jae Jun ; Kwon Ki Hwan ; Cho Nahm Gyoo ; Ahn Yoo Min ; Lee Seoung Hwan ; Hwang Seung Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 181~187
In this study, a microchip system fabricated with MEMS technology was developed to detect bioelectrical signals. The developed microchip using the conductivity of gold nanoparticles could detect the biopotential with a high sensitivity. For designing the microchip, simulations were performed to understand the effects of the size and number of nanoparticles, and the sensing width between electrodes on the detection of biosignals. Then, a series of experiment was performed to validate the simulation results and understand the feasibility of the proposed microchip design. Both simulation and experimental results showed that as the sensing width between electrodes increased the conductivity decreased. Also, the conductivity increased as the density of gold nanoparticles increased. In addition, it was found that the conductivity that changes with the nanoparticles density could be approximated by a cumulative normal distribution function. The developed microchip system could effectively apply when a biosignals should be measured with a high sensitivity.
Nonlinear Damper Model for the Quantification of joint Mechanical Properties
EOM Gwang-Moon ; LEE Chang-Han ; KIM Chul-Seung ; Heo Ji-Un ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 188~193
The purpose of this paper is to develop a more precise damper model of the joint for the quantification of the joint mechanical properties. We modified the linear damper model of a knee joint model to nonlinear one. The normalized RMS errors between the simulated and measured joint angle trajectories during passive pendulum test became smaller with the nonlinear damper model than those of the linear one which indicates the nonlinear damper model is better in precision and accuracy. The error between the experimental and simulated knee joint moment also reduced with the nonlinear damper model. The reduction in both the trajectory error and the moment error was significant at the latter part of the pendulum test where the joint angular velocity was small. The nonlinearity of the damper was significantly greater at thin subject group and this indicates the nonlinearity is a useful index of joint mechanical properties.
Development of Multi-functional Hotwire Cutting System using EPS-foam
Lee Sang-Ho ; Kim Hyo-Chan ; Yang Dong-Yol ; Park Seung-Kyo ; Kim Chan-Kuk ;
Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, volume 22, issue 4, 2005, Pages 194~202
The objective of this paper is to develop a multi-functional hotwire cutting system (MHC) using EPS-foam block or plate as the working material. Because the MHC apparatus employs a four-axis synchronized hotwire cutter with the structure of two XY movable heads and a turntable, it allows the easy fabrication of various 3D shapes, such as (1) an axisymmetric shape or a sweeping cross-sectioned pillar shape using the hot-strip in the form of sweeping surface and EPS foam block on the turntable, (2) a polyhedral complex shape using the hotwire and EPS foam block on the turntable, and (3) a ruled surface approximated freeform shape using the hotwire and EPS foam plate. In order to examine the applicability of the developed MHC apparatus, an axisymmetric shape, a polyhedral shape and a large-sized freeform shape were fabricated on the apparatus.