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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10 - Dec 1971
Volume 9 - Jan 1971
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Studies on Ecological Variation and Inheritance for Agronomical Characters of Sweet Sorghum Varieties (Sorghum vulgare PERS) in Korea
Se-Ho Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 1~43
Experiment I: The objective of this study was to know variation in some selected agronomic characters of sweet sorghum when planted in several growing seasons. The 17 different sweet sorghum varieties having various maturities, and plant, syrup and sugar types were used in this study which had been carried out for the period of two years from 1968 to 1969 at Industrial Crops Division of Crop Experiment Station in Suwon. These varieties were planted at an interval of 20 days from April 5 to August 25 both in 1968 and 1969. The experimental results could be summarized as follows: 1. As planting was made early, the number of days from sowing to germination was getting prolonged while germination took place early when planted at the later date of which air temperature was relatively higher. However, such a tendency was not observed beyond the planting on August 25. In general, a significant negative correlation was found between the number of days from sowing to germination and the average daily temperature but a positive correlation was found between the former and the total accumulated average temperature during the growth period. 2. The period from sowing to heading was generally shortened as planting was getting delayed. The average varietal difference in number of days from sowing to heading was as much as 30.2 days. All the varieties were grouped into early-, medium and late-maturing groups based upon a difference of 10 days in heading. The average number of days from sowing to heading was 78.5
4.5 days in the early-maturing varieties, 88.5
4.5 days in the medium varieties and 98.5
4.5 days in the late-maturing varieties, respectively. The early-maturing varieties had the shortest period to heading when planted from July 15 to August 5, the medium varieties did when planted before July 15 and the late-maturing varieties did when planted before June 5. 3. The relationship between the sowing date (x) and number of days from sowing to heading could be expressed in an equation of y=a+bx. A highly positive correlation was found between the coefficient of the equation(shortening rate in heading time) and the average number of days from sowing to heading. 4. The number of days from sowing to heading was shortened as the daily average temperature during the growth period was getting higher. Early-maturing varieties had the shortest period to heading at a temperature of 24.2
, medium varieties at 23.8
and late-maturing varieties at 22.9
, respectively. In other words, the number of days from sowing to heading was shortened rapidly in case that the average temperature for 30 days before heading was 22
. It prolonged relatively when the temperature was lower than 21
. 5. There was a little difference in plant height among varieties. In case of early planting, no noticeable difference in the height was observed. The plant height shortened generally as planting season was delayed. Elongation of plant height was remarkably accelerated as planting was delayed. This tendency was more pronounced in case of early-maturing varieties rather than late-maturing varieties. As a result, the difference in plant height between the maximum and the minimum was greater in late-maturing varieties than in early-maturing varieties. 6. Diameter of the stalk was getting thicker as planted earlier in late-maturing varieties. On the other hand, medium or early-maturing varieties had he thickest diameter when they were planted on April 25. 7. In general, a higher stalk yield was obtained when planted from April 25 to May 15. However, the planting time for the maximum stalk yield varied from one variety to another depending upon maturity of variety. Ear]y-maturing varieties produced the maximum yield when planted about April 25, medium varieties from April 25 to May 15 and late-maturing varieties did when planted from April 5 to May 15 respectively. The yield decreased linearly when they were planted later than the above dates. 8. A varietal difference in Brix % was also observed. The Brix % decreased linearly when the varieties were planted later than May 15. Therefore, a highly negative relationship between planting date(x) and Brix %(y) was detected. 9. The Brix % during 40 to 45 days after leading was the highest at the 1st to the 3rd internodes from the top while it decreased gradually from the 4th internode. It increased again somewhat at the 2nd internode from the ground level. However, it showed a reverse relationship between the Brix % and position of internode before heading. 10. Sugar content in stalk decreased gradually as planting was getting delayed though one variety differed from another. It seemed that sweet sorghum which planted later than June had no value as a sugar crop at all. 11. The Brix % and sugar content in stalk increased from heading and reached the maximum 40 to 45 days after heading. The percentage of purity showed the same tendency as the mentioned characters. Accordingly, a highly positive correlation was observed between. percentage of purity and Brix % or sugar content in stalk. 12. The highest refinable sugar yield was obtained from the planting on April 25 in late-maturing varieties and from that on May 15 in early-maturing varieties. The yield rapidly decreased when planted later than those dates. Such a negative correlation between planting date(x) and refinable sugar yield(y) was highly significant at 1% level. 13. Negative correlations or linear regressions between delayed planting and the number of days from sowing to germination. accumulated temperature during germination period, number of days to heading, accumulated temperature to heading, plant height, stem diameter, stalk weight, Brix %. sugar content, refinable sugar yield or Purity % were obtained. On the other hand, highly positive correlations between the number of days from sowing to heading(x) and Brix %, sugar content, purity %, refinable sugar yield, plant height or stalk yield, between Brix %(x) and purity %, refinable sugar yield or stalk yield, between sugar content(x) and purity% or refinable sugar yield(y), between purity %(x) and refinable sugar yield and between daylength at heading(x) and Brix %. number of days from sowing to heading, sugar content, purity % or refinable sugar yield (y), were found, respectively. Experiment II: The 11 varieties were selected out of the varieties used in Experiment I from ecological and genetic viewpoints. Complete diallel cross were made among them and the heading date, stalk length, stalk yield, Brix %, syrup yield, combining ability and genetic behavior of F
plants and their parental varieties were investigated. The results could be summarized as follows: 1. In general, number of days to heading showed a partial dominance over earliness or late maturity or had a mid-value, though there were some specific combinations showing a complete dominance or transgressive segregation in maturity. Some combinations showed relatively high general or specific combining abilities in maturity. Therefore, a 50 to 50 segregation ratio in heading date could be estimated in this study and it might be positive to have a selection in early generation since heritability of the character was relatively high. 2. A vigorous hybrid vigor was observed in stalk length. A complete or partial dominant effect of long stalk was obtained. The general combining ability and specific combining ability of stalk length were generally high. Long and short stalks segregated in a ratio of 50:50 and its heritability was relatively low. 3. Except for several specific combinations, high stalk yield seemed to be partial dominant over the low yield. Some varieties demonstrated relatively high general as well as specific combining abilities. It was assumed that several recessive genes were involved in expression of this character. The interaction among regulating recessive genes was also obtained. Accordingly, the heritability of stalk yield seemed to be rather low. 4. The Brix % of hybrid plants located around mid-parental value though some of them showed much higher or lower percentage. It could be explained by the fact that such behavior might be due to partial dominance of Brix %. The varieties with, relatively higher Brix % were high both in general. and specific combining abilities. Therefore, it could be recommended to use the varieties having higher sugar content in order to develop higher-sugar varieties. 5. The syrup yield seemed to be transgressively segregated or completely dominant over low yield. Hybrid vigor of syrup yield was relatively high. No-consistent relationship between general combining ability and specific combining ability was observed. However, some cases demonstrated that the varieties with relatively higher general combining ability had relatively lower specific combining ability. It was assumed that the frequencies of dominant and recessive alleles were almost same.
The Effect of Heat Treatment on Biological Response and Mutation Frequency of Gamma Irradiated Rice Seeds
Chang-Yawl Harn ; J. L.Won ; Kwang-Tae Choi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 45~50
For the purpose of finding out the effect of heat treatment on biological response and mutation rate, rice seeds were heat treated before and after gamma irradiation. 1. At a dose of 20 KR, pre-irradiation heat treatment showed reduced biological damage and increased mutation rate as compared with non-heat treatment. 2. Mutation frequency was increased in post-treatment of heat shock than in pre-irradiation heat treatment and non-heat treatment. 3. Pre-irradiation heat treatment at 6
for 30 minutes markedly reduced the biological damage and increased the mutation rate. 4. Mutation spectrum in heat treatment was different from non-treatment.
Studies on the appearance, distribution varietal resistance and disinfection of white tip Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie of rice in Korea
Jeon-Woo Bang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 51~56
To make certain of the white tip infection on rice, nematodes isolated from the rice seeds grown at Chongdo-goon Isu-myun and Kimje-goon Chooksan-myun were artificially inoculated and their pathway was studied. Also, studies were made for the hot water seed treatment as a measure of white tip control at different levels of water temperature and their germinablity was checked. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Causal nematodes survive in the paddy soil and cause white tip year after year. 2. Causal nematodes can survive in the rice seeds as long as the seeds loose their germinability. 3. Causal nematodes can disseminate throught the irrigation water. 4. Causal nematodes can disseminate through the soil move from a place to other place. 5. Causal nematodes can infect all of the parts of the rice and they can disseminate through any of the parts of rice. 6. The hot water treatment at 5
for 60 minutes were not effective controlling causal nematodes. But, either treatment of at 55
for 15-20 minutes or at 6
for 10-15 minutes were effective and germination of seeds was not affected.
Studies on the milling quality of major varieties of domestic and foreign produced wheat
Hi-Kap Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 57~60
In this experiment 5 Korean varieties and 3 U.S.A. varieties of wheat were investigated for their moisture content, ash content, crude protein content and extraction rate. The results are summarized as follows; 1. In the case of U.S.A. wheat, the ash content is directly proportional to the content of protein but the extraction rate is negatively correlated to the content of ash. 2. In the case of korean wheat, there is no proportional tendency as in the U.S.A. wheat. It might be cause by the low extraction rate where the endosperm is hardly separated from the bran layer at the same conditions of temering process. 3. The concentration of protein particles in the endospern, is centrifugal in the U.S.A. wheats, but in the Korean varieties the direction is oppositional to the U.S.A. varieties. 4. Yooksung ＃3, Cahngkwang, Youngkwang and Hard winter wheat are adapted to the production of all purpose flour or noodle flour; Noring ＃4, Jinkwang and Softwhite wheat are suitable for the process of cake flour; and Dark northern spring is just adaped to the production of bread flour.
Effect of Slaked Lime and Borax Application upon Yield and Yield Components of Paddy Rice
Cho, D.S ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 61~71
This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of slaked lime and borax on the Akiochi paddy field. The pot trial(slaked lime was treated 0, 6, 10, 15g and borax 0, 0.75, 1.5g per pot) and the field trial(slaked lime was treated 0, 100, 200kg and borax 0, 10, 30, 50kg per 10are) respectively. The results are summarized as fo11ows. I. Pot Trial: 1. In a heavy treated of borax, appeared chlorosis on whole leaves(bottom) in early growing stage, However, in about 25 days after transplanting, these chlorosis were disappeared gradually. And in proportion to close by maturity after the ear-heading, changed to dark brown color and rolled at the end of upper leaves, finally withered. At the same time the part of the end of grains was also colored to dark brown. 2. Slaked lime effected to increase the ti1lering, hence increased the number of ear, on the other hand, borax showed the tendency of repression the tillering, conversely. 3. Borax effected to hurried up to heading date of rice plant, to which borax had been the plot of B
to 3 days and B
to 5 days, hurried up than control respectively, regardless of the quantities of slaked lime application. 4. According to the application of borax, the length of culm were shortened, otherwise the length of panicle were longished, then no recognized the. independent effect of slaked lime. 5. The number of grains per panicle were seemed like increased by treatment of slaked lime, but the grain were decreased in the heavy treatment of slaked lime and borax. These phenomena were showed in ratio of maturity likely tendency as above. 6. In the 1, 000 grains weight of brown rice, in the case of slaked lime was almost no significant, otherwise by increase the application of borax, increased the weight of 1, 000 grains and the size of the grains was greater. 7. The weight of rough rice and straw were showed the same tendency as the number of grains and maturity ratio. particularly, showed the phenomenon of the reduction by the heavy application of borax. II. Field trial: 1. In a heavy treated of borax, appeared chlorosis in a early growing stage, according to close by maturiting date after the ear-heading changed to dark brown the end of upper leaves, finally dried. 2. Slaked lime application accelerated the growth and increased the number of ear, but borax showed the tendency of repression the tillering. 3. Borax effected to hurried up to heading date of rice plant, according to heavy treatment of borax quickened heading date for 4 to 5 days. 4. As a whole, culm length was repressed by borax treatment. 5. Borax application 10kg per 10are advanced progress the maturity, but in the case of above 30kg per 10are of borax showed the tendency obstruction the maturity. 6. The yield of rough rice and brown rice recognized the independent effect of slaked lime and borax, respectively. the yield was decreased by the abundant of borax.
EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND DURATION OF POST-IRRADIATION STORAGE ON SEEDLING HEIGHT OF WHEAT
Chang-Yawl Harn ; Chi-Moon Kim ; Young-Sang Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 73~77
The experiment was carried out to investigate post-irradiation storage effect which was related to temperature(i.e. at 2
) on wheat seeds; Weibull's Svenno, treated with gamma-ray and fast neutron. Results obtained showed that the seedling height in both radiation sources was decreased with prolongation of storage period, especially when the seeds were treated with high dosage and stored at high temperature(4
). The results of this trial, however, showed that storage effect was influenced by irradiation dose, temperature and storage time.
The Effects of the Seed Inoculation, Pelleting, and Liming on the Nodulation and Growth of Lucerne(Medicago sativa L.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 79~83
To investigate the effects of seed treatments and liming on nodulation and growth of lucerne(Medicago sativa L.) in an upland yellow-brown earth in N.Z. the five levels of seed treatments(Uninoculated, Inoculated, Inoculated plus lime pelleted, Inoculated plus 50/50 phosphate/dolmite pelleted, Inoculated plus ta1c pelleted), and 2 levels of lime applications (0, 25kg/10a) were compared and their interactions were observed, and then the following results were obtained. 1. In oder to obtain the effective nodulation of lucerne on acid soil it is usually necessary to apply lime and inoculate the seed. 2. The coating of inoculated lucerne seed with adequate materials will promote the nodulation. 3. The pelleting of lucerne seed may be a of reducing the need for the heavy liming. 4. The finely grounded lime was the best to use origin upland yellow-brown earth. 5. When the seed were not inoculated or pelleted with inferior material, liming is very effective for the nodulation and growth of lucerne. 6. The pelleting seed will reduce the laborious work and expenditure.
Methods of Breaking Seed Dormancy in Oats
Heung-Bae Kim ; Irvin M. Athkins ; Milton E. McDaniel ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 85~90
Dormancy breaking methods were studied on Avenasterilis seeds. The treatments were: application of alcohol, hot water, low temperature, pure oxygen, thiourea and gibberellic acid. Thiourea treatment with 3 different concentrations (0.25 x 10
M, 0.625 x 10
M, 1.25 x 10
M) had little effect in breaking dormancy. Gibberellic acid treatment applied at 5ppm, 50ppm, 500ppm were effective and maximum germination was obtained with 500ppm. Low temperature treatment at 3
for a week in a refrigerator was also very effective in breaking dormancy. Other treatments were not effective. In all cases, primary seeds germinated significantly better than secondary seeds. Different A. sterilis strains varied significantly in their response to gibberellic acid treatment. Different concentrations of gibberellic acid also gave significantly different responses in breaking dormancy.
Separation of Barley Seed Proteins by Disc Electrophoresis
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 10, 1971, Pages 91~97
Fifteen samples of barley seed proteins representing winter 6-rowed, spring 6-rowed and spring 2-rowed group were separated by disc electrophoresis. Photographic, densitometric and diagrammatic representation were presented to make comparison possible. Eighteen to twenty one bands were detected in each gel. Electrophoretic spectrum of each variety was highly variety specific showing that the spectrum is the reflection of hereditary constituents of a organism. Related variety showed identical or nearly identical pectrum. All winter 6-rowed barley showed very faint B2 band, while spring 6-rowed and spring 2-rowed barley showed dense or less dense B2 band. All spring barley showed B3 band, while all winter barley showed B4 band.