Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14 - Nov 1973
Volume 13 - Jun 1973
Selecting the target year
Studies on the Varietal Difference in the Physiology of Ripening in Rice with Special Reference to Raising the Percentage of Ripened Grains
Su-Bong Ahn ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 1~40
There is a general tendency to increase nitrogen level in rice production to insure an increased yield. On the other hand, percentage of ripened grains is getting decreased with such an increased fertilizer level. Decreasing of the percentage is one of the important yield limiting factors. Especially the newly developed rice variety, 'Tongil' is characterized by a relatively low percentage of ripened grains as compared with the other leading varieties. Therefore, these studies were aimed to finding out of some measures for the improvement of ripening in rice. The studies had been carried out in the field and in the phytotron during the period of three years from 1970 to 1972 at the Crop Experiment Station in Suwon. The results obtained from the experiments could be summarized as follows: 1. The spikelet of Tongil was longer in length, more narrow in width, thinner in thickness, smaller in the volume of grains and lighter in grain weight than those of Jinheung. The specific gravity of grain was closely correlated with grain weight and the relationship with thickness, width and length was getting smaller in Jinheung. On the other hand, Tongil showed a different pattern from Jinheung. The relationship of the specific gravity with grain weight was the greatest and followed by that with the width, thickness and length, in order. 2. The distribution of grain weight selected by specific gravity was different from one variety to another. Most of grains of Jinheung were distributed over the specific gravity of 1.12 with its peak at 1.18, but many of grains of Tongil were distributed below 1.12 with its peak at 1.16. The brown/rough rice ratio was sharply declined below the specific gravity of 1.06 in Jinheung, but that of Tongil was not declined from the 1.20 to the 0.96. Accordingly, it seemed to be unfair to make the specific gravity criterion for ripened grains at 1.06 in the Tongil variety. 3. The increasing tendency of grain weight after flowering was different depending on varieties. Generally speaking, rice varieties originated from cold area showed a slow grain weight increase while Tongil was rapid except at lower temperature in late ripening stage. 4. In the late-tillered culms or weak culms, the number of spikelets was small and the percentage of ripened grains was low. Tongil produced more late-tillered culms and had a longer flowering duration especially at lower temperature, resulting in a lower percentage of ripened grains. 5. The leaf blade of Tongil was short, broad and errect, having light receiving status for photosynthesis was better. The photosynthetic activity of Tongil per unit leaf area was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. 6. Tongil was highly resistant to lodging because of short culm length, and thick lower-internodes. Before flowering, Tongil had a relatively higher amount of sugars, phosphate, silicate, calcium, manganese and magnesium. 7. The number of spikelets of Tongil was much more than that of Jinheung. The negative correlation was observed between the number of spikelets and percentage of ripened grains in Jinheung, but no correlation was found in Tongil grown at higher temperature. Therefore, grain yield was increased with increased number of spikelets in Tongil. Anthesis was not occurred below 21
in Tongil, so sterile spikelets were increased at lower temperature during flowering stage. 8. The root distribution of Jinheung was deeper than that of Tongil. The root activity of Tongil evaluated by
-naphthylamine oxidation method, was higher than that of Jinheung at higher temperature, but lower at lower temperature. It is seemed to be related with discoloration of leaf blades. 9. Tongil had a better light receiving status for photosynthesis and a better productive structure with balance between photosynthesis and respiration, so it is seemed that tongil has more ideal plant type for getting of a higher grain yield as compared with Jinheung. 10. Solar radiation during the 10 days before to 30 days after flowering seemed enough for ripening in suwon, but the air temperature dropped down below 22
beyond August 25. Therefore, it was believed that air temperature is one of ripening limiting factors in this case. 11. The optimum temperature for ripening in Jinheung was relatively lower than that of Tongil requriing more than
. Air temperature below 21
was one of limiting factors for ripening in Tongil. 12. It seemed that Jinheung has relatively high photosensitivity and moderate thermosensitivity, while Tongil has a low photosensitivity, high thermosensitivity and longer basic vegetative phase. 13. Under a condition of higher nitrogen application at late growing stage, the grain yield of Jinheung was increased with improvement of percentage of ripened grains, while grain yield of Tongil decreased due to decreasing the number of spikelets although photosynthetic activity after flowering was. increased. 14. The grain yield of Jinheung was decreased slightly in the late transplanting culture since its photosynthetic activity was relatively high at lower temperature, but that of Tonil was decreased due to its inactive photosynthetic activity at lower temperature. The highest yield of Tongil was obtained in the early transplanting culture. 15. Tongil was adapted to a higher fertilizer and dense transplanting, and the percentage of ripened grains was improved by shortening of the flowering duration with increased number of seedlings per hill. 16. The percentage of vigorous tillers was increased with a denser transplanting and increasing in number of seedlings per hill. 17. The possibility to improve percentage of ripened grains was shown with phosphate application at lower temperature. The above mentioned results are again summarized below. The Japonica type leading varieties should be flowered before August 20 to insure a satisfactory ripening of grains. Nitrogen applied should not be more than 7.5kg/10a as the basal-dressing and the remained nitrogen should be applied at the later growing stage to increase their photosynthetic activity. The morphological and physiological characteristics of Tongil, a semi-dwarf, Indica
Japonica hybrid variety, are very different from those of other leading rice varieties, requring changes in seed selection by specific gravity method, in milling and in the cultural practices. Considering the peculiar distribution of grains selected by the method and the brown/rough rice ratio, the specific gravity criterion for seed selection should be changed from the currently employed 1.06 to about 0.96 for Tongil. In milling process, it would be advisable to bear in mind the specific traits of Tongil grain appearance. Tongil is a variety with many weak tillers and under lower temperature condition flowering is delayed. Such characteristics result in inactivation of roots and leaf blades which affects substantially lowering of the percentage of ripened grains due to increased unfertilized spikelets. In addition, Tongil is adapted well to higher nitrogen application. Therefore, it would be recommended to transplant Tongil variety earlier in season under the condition of higer nitrogen, phosphate and silicate. A dense planting-space with three vigorous seedlings per hill should be practiced in this case. In order to manifest fully the capability of Tongil, several aspects such as the varietal improvement, culural practices and milling process should be more intensively considered in the future.he future.
Effect of Number of Sowing Grain on the Rice Growth and Yield in Direct Sowing Culture on Irrigated Paddy Field
Jong-Chul Lee ; Chang-Sik Moon ; Hae-Yeong Suh ; Beom-Yeol Choi ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 41~45
This study was carried out in the central part of Korea in 1972 to investigate optimum grain number per square meter and variation of the yield and its components in the direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field. The results could be summarized as follows; 1. Number of maximum tillerings was directly increased with increase of grain number from 120 to 280 per square meter and it was gradually decreased with increase of number sowing grain. So number of maximum tillerings showed at the plot of 280 grain per square meter. Also it was showed remarkable competition at the plot more than 280 grain per square meter. 2. Percentage of effective tiller was decreased with increase of number of sowing grain from 120 to 280 per square meter and after it was gradually decreased with increase of number of sowing grain. 3. It was not remarkable competition in plot less than 1, 000 tillering per square meter on the number of maximum tillerings. 4. It was remarkable positive correlation between the number of panicle and the number of sowing grain, but it was tendency to negative correlation between the number of panicle and the number of spiklets per panicle, and between the number of panicle and the ripening ratio. 5. Correlation coefficient between the yield and the number of spiklet per square meter of land area was 0.929, r=0.695 in the yield and the number of panicle, r=0.796 in the number of panicles and the number of spiklets per square meter Also in rank correlation, it was showed most highly positive correlation(r=0.954) between the yield and the number of panicles, so number of panicles was most largely dominated on yield among the yield components in direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field. 6. It was producted highest yield in the plot of 280 grain sowing per square meter.
The Effects of Air-Temperatures on the Growth of Tillering Stage of Rice
Seog-Hong Park ; Eun-Woong Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 47~51
In order to ascertain the effects of fluctuations and range of daily temperatures on the growth of rice, a pot(1/5, 000 are) experiment was conducted in the phytotron, Crop Experiment Station, in 1972. Seven treatment combinations of day-temperatures 25 and
with night-temperatures 10, 15, 20 and
were applied in three 10 days periods, in to which the tillering stage was split after rooting of the paddy, namely, early, middle and late. The results may be summarized as follows: 1. The number of tillers were maximum with the treatments of day-temperature
and night-temperatures 20 as well as
in the early and middle periods, while the effects were small in the late period. 2. Multiplying plant height and number of panicles resulted in a high figure by combining a day-temperature of
with night-temperatures 20 as well as
in the early and middle periods, and no differences in the late period. 3. The treatment in the early period yielded a high RGR(g/g/day), of which the treatment combinations of day-temperature
with night-temperatures 20 and
gave the highest figure. 4. High straw weight in ripening stage was obtained with the temperature treatments in the early period rather than those in the late period. 5. Accordingly, it seems that the effect of temperature on the emergence of tillers is the highest at the early stage of tillering.
Agronomical Studies on the Thermal Conditions for Double Cropping of Rice
Kang-Sae Lee ; Jong-Kyu Hwang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 53~64
The studies reported herein were conducted to investigate the effect of thermal conditions in double-cropping of rice. The accumulated daily mean and minimum air temperatures, for the period of the last 30 years, were examined at the 10 different meteorogical stations which are located in the southern part of Korea. The results obtained could be summarized as follows: 1. The first cropping. a. It seemed to be free from any frost-damage of rice at the seeding stage at Yeosu, Pusan and Cheju. However, it was found that there were some dangers of frost damage for about 30 to 40 day at Iri, Chonju and Kwangju, for 18 to 28 days at Daeku and Ulsan, and for 4 to 14 days at Mokpo and Pohang, respectively. b. The early critical transplanting date seemed to be from middle to late-April in the first cropping. As compared with the ordinary lowland seedlings, the semi-protected and upland ones could be planted 5 and 10 days earlier, respectively. c. The early critical heading date was about late-June and there were some low-temperature damages for 8 to 25 days at young-ear formation stage of rice plant, depending upon location. d. The early critical ripening date (the early critical transplanting date of the 2nd cropping) was from late-July to early-August. It took about 32 to 39 days in ripening. There was a tendency of SS
15) and the minimum of
10), the ten locations could be devided into two ripening groups of
10. c. The late critical ripening date was around October 9 at Iri, Chonju, Kwangju and Daeku and around October 28 at Mokpo, Yeosu, Pusan and eheju. Three to four days were more required for a complete ripening of rice, as compared with the above dates. d. There was an overlap of about 12 to 42 days between the first and second cropping when early-maturing varieties requiring an accumulated mean air temperature of
, from transplanting to heading, were grown. Therefore, some varieties which could head with an accumulated daily mean air temperature of 1, 000 to
, should be either developed or some new cultural technology be established in order to have a successful double cropping in rice.
Studies on the Labour Saving Culture of Soybean. II. The effect of Nitrogen fertilization Amount on the Growth and Grain Yield of densely and lately seeded Soybean.
Chang-Yoel Choi ; Chong-Soo Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 65~69
This experiment was carried out to determine the adequate amount of nitrogen for densely and lately seeded soybean, and the results obtained are as follows, 1) Various fertilization amounts of nitrogen did not effect the date of emergency, but the flowering and the maturing dates were delayed at the plots fertilized the nitrogen heavily. 2) In accordance with an increasing amount of nitrogen fertilization, the length of the stem and the internode was significantly elongated but the stem diameter was thinned down, and the latter was suggested to be the cause of lodging. 3) The 1, 000 grain weight and the number of pods per hill were decreased according to the increasing the amount of nitrogen fertilization. 4) A highly significant difference in grain yield was recognized between varieties but among treatments. However, in case of the extremly late cultivation, the grain yield of the early maturing variety (Choongbukbaeg) was increased at the plot of 6 kg nitrogen.
Studies on the Effect of the Application of Fused Phosphate on Yield of Rice in Sandy Paddy Field (Very Rapid Permerbitily)
Sang-Suk Chae ; Yung-Seon Chang ; Hwa-Soo Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 71~77
To observe the effect of fused phosphate fertilization, as a soil improvement material, in low productive paddy field which has rapid permeable sandy-skeletal texture, this experiment was carried out under five different levels of fused phosphate. The results obtained are briefly as follows: 1. Rice, grown in areas receiving annual fused phosphate application of from 200 to 250kg per 10a showed yield increases of about 10 to 27 percent based on 1, 000 grain weight of brown rice. Other favorable effects from high fused phosphate applications include increased number of panicles, faster ripening rate of the rice, and lower infection rate of blast. 2. In the soil analysis after the experiment, the useful soil chemical properties, such as available phosphate, silica, soil pH, exchangeable calcium, magnesium, and base saturation were increased significantly. The exchangeable potassium, however, was not changed noticeably. 3. The relation between the major soil chemical properties, especially available phophate and silica, and yield component which directly effect yields, showed a significant correlation statistically.
Studies on the Spring Sowing of Winter Type Naked Barleys -The Heading Responses of Winter Type Naked Barleys in the Sowing Times-
Jae-Seok Chae ; Jae-Chul Kang ; Yung-Seo Ku ; Jong-Kyu Hwang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 79~86
In order to investigate the heading responses of naked barleys and their grain yields under the different sowing times in spring sowing at 9 levels and to select the promising variety, present work was carried out with 11 recommended naked barley varieties and 2 newly developed lines for the period of 3 years from 1971 to 1973 at Iri, these results being summarized as follows: 1. Under spring sowing cultures, 'Wanju naked barley' being spring habit showed the highest yields among them. However, Sedohadaka and Bangju being winter habit were also considered as the promising varieties. 2. In the case of sowing the spring type naked barleys in spring the optimum sowing time of barleys at Iri was estimated in the late of February or the early of March. 3. The number of main culm leaves and tillering per hill of 'Wanju naked barley' were not influenced at sowing times. But winter type barleys being sown in spring, they were outstandingly increased in accordance with the sowing time being late, especially after the critical sowing time. 4. In comparison with average days from germinating to heading date under different seasonal sowing at the same variety, 'Wanju naked barley' took 64.4 days to get heading and Kikaihadaka and Hyangchoen gwa, the low spring growing habit varieties, 72-73 days. 5. Young spikelet differentiation stage (length of young spikelet: 0.3-0.5mm) arrived at about 30 days before heading date in comfortable sowing time without regarding spring or winter type. But number of main culms disclosed great differences among them; barleys being high spring type were 4 leaves and low about 6. 6. In the view of morphology, culm length under the different seasonal sowing could not be found out differences in the high spring type barleys, but in the low, it was grately shortened by postponing the sowing time. The barley height of rosette form had no difference at any sowing time.difference at any sowing time.
Estimate of Optimum Plot Size and Shape for Soybean Yield Trials
Shin-Han Kwon ; Kun-Hyuk Im ; Cheong-Yeol Sohn ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 87~90
Optimum plot shape and size in a uniformity trial in the newly founded experimental farm of KAERI were determined for seed yield with the basic units consisted of 2.5m
0.6m plot. Various plot sizes and shapes were made by combination of the basic units. Coefficients of variations for yield were 21% in local branch type variety Kumkang-Dairip and 20% in the introduced branchless type variety Clark. This result indicates that the field in the new experimental farm is appropriate for soybean yield trials when adequate number of replications are employed in the field experiment. In general, C. V. values were gradually decreased with increase of plot sizes. Although the data were not consistant, the errors for the long narrow plots tend to have somewhat smaller than for the square shape plots. A sharp decrease in C.V. value was found from the
plot in the variety Kumkang-Dairip and from the
plot in the variety Clark. These results imply that 5-
plot could be used for yield trials in early generations of hybrid progenies. 2.5-5m long plot with 3-4 replications will be practical for yield trials in the early hybrid generations. The C.V. values with 7.5m long plot was about 16% in both varieties and 15.3% in 10m plot. These results indicate that 7.5-10m plot with 3-4 replications could be employed in accurate yield test in the advanced generations.
Influence of Spacing on Seed Yield and Yield Component Characters in Three Different Types of Soybean Canopy
Shin-Han Kwon ; Yong-Tae An ; Gwang-Rae Kim ; Jong-Sun Eun ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 91~96
This study was conducted to determine optimum canopy type for dense planting with three soybean varieties possessing different types of canopy. The experimental plots were arranged in split-split plot design. Branches and pods per plant were both reduced by close planting, particularly keen responses were observed in the variety Clark. Number of nodes per plant seems a characteristics of each variety and was independent character from the plant height. Clark, tall variety, was most resistant to lodging and it may be due to the elasticity of the stem. Seed yields of Jangdan-Baikmok, branching type, tended to be lower at the dense spacing, whereas, branchless type variety Clark was higher in seed yield at the dense planting. These results indicate that the plant type possessing more nodes and less branching per plant with be suitable for dense planting.
Investigation on Techniques for Evaluating Hardiness to Low Temperature in Cereals
Chae-Yun Cho ; J. D. Hayes ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 97~109
1. The relatively lower prehardening temperature was more effective on increase of the hardiness of the intermediately hardy varieties than the higher one but either the extremely hardy or nonhardy varieties did not respond to the temperature as much as the intermediate types. 2. Five degree Centigrade was generally more favorable than
on hardening of the plants, especially when frozen at higher temperature for shorter duration. 3. It appears that photoperiod during prehardening and hardening did not play so important role as temperature on the hardiness. 4. The higher the soil moisture content, the higher the frost injury occurred. 5. Application of nitrogen increased markedly the hardiness and % DM of the plants. Percentage of dry matter of young seedlings might be used as an easy and rough criterion for evaluating hardiness since there was a highly significant regression of varietal frost injury on the %DM. 6. Four days appeared to be enough for hardening of plants although the plants increased gradually the hardiness as duration of hardening extended. Dehardening of the plants at relativity higher temperature took place rapidly within one to four days. 7. Under this controlled environment, freezing at about
for 24 hours seemed the best for the purpose of evaluating the hardiness to low temperature. 8. It is believed that assessment of frost injury should be done at least one week after freezing. Some varieties showed strong ability to recover from the damage as recovery period was extended. 9. As a whole, Cd 80 and 83 were the most hardy and followed by Cappelle and Maris Otter. Four. winter oats varieties and Jufy I belonged to the intermediate type while the other three spring varieties were nonhardy at all. Peniarth was comparable with Maris Otter in hardiness. S 147 appeared the least hardy among the winter oats varieties. 10. It is evident that water-soluble carbohydrate content is associated with the hardiness to some extent but not primary factor involved in hardiness.
Studies on Morphological and Physical Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Culms under Different Cultural Conditions II. Effects of Planting Density and Amount of Fertilizer Applied on Morphological and Physical Characteristics of Barley Culms
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Hong-Suk Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 111~115
This experiment was carried out to study the effects of planting density and amount of fertilizer applied on the morphological, physiological and physical characteristics of barley culm. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Heavy application of fertilizer increased the diameter of the inside and outside thickness of culm, dry weight per unit culm, culm length, spike weight and number of per hill. 2. Thined planting density increased lodging resistance. But lodging resistance in sparse-planted plot of
20cm was almost the same as that in the plot of
15cm. 3. In the heavy fertilized plot weight of culm at breaking, bending moment of culm atbreaking, secondary moment of inertia and section modulus increased more than those in the standard fertilized one. As a result heavy application of fertilizer gave high lodging resistance. On the other hand thined planting density increased the above-mentioned physical characters of culm. 4. In the case of dense planting lodging index became higher in standard fertilized plot, but in the case of sparse planting over 10 x 10cm there were no significant differences in lodging index as affected by amount of fertilizer applied and planting density. 5. Grain yield was increased by heavy application of fertilizer and proper planting density was
10cm for the safe maximum yield.
Studies on Morphological and Physical Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Culms under Different Cultural Conditions 1. Effects of Top-Dressing Time of Nitrogen on Morphological and Physical Characteristics of Barley Culms
Hong-Suk Lee ; Chang-Hwan Cho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 117~121
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen top-dressed at the different growth stages on the morphological and physical characteristics of barley culm. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. By top-dressing of nitrogen in March, each internode length from the third to the fifth internode was shortened, and total fresh weight of the top, dry weight per unit culm, inside or outside culm diameter and thickness of culm were increased. Therefore these characteristics related to lodging indicated the beneficial changes for lodging resistance by top-dressing of nitrogen in March. 2. Both weight of culm at breaking and bending moment of culm at breaking, expressing lodging resistance of culm, were increased in the plots of nitrogen top-dressed in March. Accordingly lodging resistance became higher by top-dressing of nitrogen in March. 3. Both section modulus and secondary moment of inertia, expressing bending stiffness of culm, were increased by top-dressing of nitrogen in March. Accordingly lodging index, expressing comprehensive lodging resistance, became low by top-dressing of nitrogen in March. 4. Both spike weight and grain yield were increased by top-dressing of nitrogen in March. Consequently we came to the conclusion that the suitable top-dressing time of nitrogen was in March.
Yield Reductions in the
Generations of Highly Promising Varietal Crosses of Corn
Chea-Yu Cho ; R.M. Lantican ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 123~131
1. In order to evaluate the performance of the
varietal crosses which in past trials yielded better than or as high as the recommended double-cross hybrids, eleven yellow and five white-endosperm
varietal crosses, their
generations, and the parental open-pollinated varieties together with the standard double-cross hybrids were tested in performance trials in the 1963 wet and 1963-64 dry seasons. The former trials, however, failed due to a strong typhoon that damaged the crop. 2. Net hybrid vigor was highly manifested in grain yield in the
varietal crosses, which on the average was 39.9 per cent of the mid-parent yields. Reduction in heterosis was 27.2 per cent in the
and 30.3 per cent in the
generation, respectively. 3. A fairly high degree of reduction in yield occurred in the
generation. On the average, the
generation decreased by 17.6 per cent and the
by 20.7 per cent. The losses in two generations were exhibited in two levels; four crosses decreased by 10.9 per cent and twelve combinations by 22.0 per cent. The advanced generations of one yellow cross, Cuban Yellow Flint
Hawaiian Flinty Dent, and three white flint crosses, Bicol White Flint
Eto Blanco, College White Flint
Eto Blanco and Bicol White Flint
Nariono 330b, yielded as high as Philippine Hybrid No.1 and Philippine Hybrid No.4, respectively. 4. No significant differences in yield were obtained between the
populations, showing that genetic equilibrium was reached in
, as may be expected in view of the Hardy-Weinberg law on panmixis. 5. As in past trials, Hawaiian Flinty Dent, a variety, yielded as high as Philippine Hybrid No. 1.
Classification of Ecotypical and Maturing Groups of Perilla varieties
Ik-Sang Yu ; Eun-Woong Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 133~137
In order to classify the ecotypical and maturing groups 136 Korean local and 4 Japanese Perilla varieties were sown at Suwon on May 20, 1972, and investigations were made on days to flowering, days to maturing and growth duration. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Ecotype was classified from 6 groups with combination of the long and short duration from sowing to flowering and maturing period. The classified symbols of groups were Ia, Ib, IIa, IIIa, and IIIb. I: long duration. to flowering II: medium duration to flowering III: short duration to flowering a: long duration to maturing b: short duration to maturing Korean local varieties were distributed 3 ecotypes of IIa, IIb and IIIa, however, Japanese varieties did 2 ecotypes of IIa and IIb, respectively. 2. Maturing group was classified from 3 groups with long (I), medium (II), and short (III) growth durations. Korean local varieties belong to II and III groups but Japanese varieties belong to I and II groups, respectively. 3. Three were highly significant positive correlation (0.685) between ecotypical and maturing group. Ecotype was more related with days to flowering and growth duration, however, maturing group was related with days to flowering, days for maturing, and growth duration. Korean local varieties, more distributed into ecotype than maturing group, were attributed to differences of environmental conditions and cultural practices at different provinces.
Effect of Growth Regulator Treatments on Growth and Yield of Sweet-potato
Tae-Seok Kim ; Don-Kil Lee ; Il-Hea Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 139~145
Effects of Choline Chloride on growth and yields of sweet-potato cultivated with the single crop and after-barley crop were summarized as follows. 1. The greatest effect was obtained when the sprout-bases of sweet potato were soaked in the solution of Choline Chloride for 24 hours, while the optimum concentration of Choline Chloride was 32.3ppm in case of single crop and 31.1ppm in after barley crop respectively. 2. Choline Chloride restrained the growth of stem; the length shortened and the dry weight decreased. 3. The number of tubers and yields were increased by treating choline chloride. It may be thought that the translocations of assimilation substance from leaves and stem to tubers, was stimulated by treating choline chloride. The tendancy of higher yielding was shown in the early harvesting than in the usual harvesting 4. Sugar and starch content were higher, crude fiber and crude protein content were lower as compared with the control.
Studies on the Factors Affecting Barley Injury Caused by Herbicides in Drained Paddy Field
Whan-Seung Ryang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 147~157
I. The effect of excessive soil moisture(at the time of germination) on germination of barley and crop damage of herbicides was investigated. Machete(Butachlor) and TOK(Nitrofen) were treated, respectively, at the rate of 150g ai/10a on each pot whose different soil moisture content was controlled by suppling 30, 40, 50 and 60ml of water per 100gr of air-dried soil, respectively. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Excessive soil moisture beyond field moisture capacity caused great inhibition, from 20 to 100%, of the germination of barley even at untreated pots(check pots). Also, further development of root and growth of barley were greatly inhibited even though the seeds germinated. 2. The same tendency in inhibition of germination and growth as at untreated pots was observed at treated pots, too. As a whole, however, the damage were heavier at treated pots. II. Wanju naked spring barley was seeded on four different soils and covered with soil to a depth of 1 em, and then Machete, TOK, Saturn and HE-314 were treated at the rate of 180, 150 and 200, 150, and 250g ai/10a, respectively, and the effect of soil texture on crop damage of the herbicides was investigated. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Machete(emulsion and granule, at 180g ai/10a) The degree of crop damage was quite different from one soil texture to another: while almost no crop damage was observed on a clay loam soil regardless of the type of formulation, the damage became heavier as the soil texture became sandier as sandy clay loam, volcanic ash loam and sandy loam, and great inhibition of growth was observed on sandy loam soil. In general heavier damage was caused by the application of emulsion than by granular formulation. 2. TOK(Wettable powder, at 150, 250g ai/l0a) Almost the same tendency as in the application of Machete was observed, and the damage became heavier as the application rate increased. 3. Saturn(at l50g ai/l0a) No great difference in crop damage among soil textures was observed. 4. HE-3l4(at 250g ai/l0a) Almost no difference in crop damage among soil textures was observed at this rate of 250g ai/l0a. III. To study a difference of crop damage on soil covering depth(4 levels), 9 herbicides(TOK, MO, HE-3l4, Machete, Saturn, Simetryne, Simazine, Gesaran, Lorox) were treated on the pots with two different soils, and the effect of soil covering depth on crop damage of the herbicides was investigated. The results obtained in this experiment are summarized as follows: Light Clay Soil 1. The growth of barley in relation to depth of soil covering at check pots followed the order vigorous to weak; lcm>1.5cm>0.5cm>0cm. And in case of 0 and 0.5cm covering the growth of barley was very poor. 2. The damage at 0 and 0.5cm covering at treated pots was very severe, but Saturn, Machete, MO and TOK at 100 to l50g ai/l0a, respectively and He-3l4 at 250 to 375g ai/l0a were relatively safe to barley at the depths of lcm and above. 3. Simazine, Lorox and Simetryne caused slight damage even at 1.5cm covering. Sandy Loam Soil The growth of barley in relation to depth of soil covering at untreated pots followed the order, from vigorous to weak; 1.5cm 0.5cm 3cm 5cm. While MO was safe to barley at 1.5cm covering, for other chemicals more than 3cm covering was require for safe use. Machete and Saturn at 100g ai/l0a, and HE-3l4 at 250g ai/l0a was relatively safe at more than 3cm covering. Simazine, Lorox, Simetryne and Gesaran were unsafe on sandy soil regardless of covering depth.
Effect of Different Cultivating Method on Growth, Yield in Rice Variety
;Jong-Chul Lee;Chang-Sik Moon;Hae-Yeong Suh;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 159~164
This study was carried out in the central part of Korea for three years from 1970 to 1972. Its aim was to investigate the variations of growth and yield of rice varieties of different cultivating methods (transplanting culture, direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field, and direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field. The results could be summarized as follows; 1. The number of days from sowing to heading by direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field was remarkably shorter than transplanting culture. Direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field was longer than transplanting culture. 2. The number of panicles showed direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field was first, direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field was second, and third transplanting culture. But the number of spikelets per panicle was first on the transplanting culture, second on the direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field and third on the direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field. 3. The weight of the brown rice showed that direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field produced the highest yield among the cultivating method in all varieties. The transplanting culture increased more than the direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field. The highly productive varieties were Sadominory, Akibale, Suwon 213-1 when the direct sowing culture on irrigated paddy field was used. 4. The correlation between the brown rice yield and the yield components were as follows; in each cultivating method, it showed highly significant positive correlation between the brown rice yield and the 1, 000 grain weight of hulled rice, and between the brown rice yield and the number of the spiklets per panicle in the transplanting culture, in the direct sowing culture On irrigated paddy field between the brown rice yield and the number of spikelets per panicle and between the brown rice yield and the number of panicles, in direct sowing culture on non-irrigated paddy field between the brown rice yield and number of panicles. 5. It showed highly significant negative correlation between the brown rice yield and the number of days from sowing to heading in the direct sowing culture on irrigated and non-irrigated paddy field, but it was showed very low negative correlation in the transplant culture.
Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of Flower Organ and Seed in Ginseng Plant. IV. Variation of Free Amino Acids in the Flower and Seeds of the
Plants of the Combinations Panax ginseng
Panax quinquefolium and Panax ginseng
Jong-Kyu Hwang ; Hee-Chun Yang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 165~172
The sterile phenomenon is frequently found in the inter-species hybrids of ginseng as in other plants. It is known that among the hybrids between Panax Ginseng (PG) and Panax Quinquefolium (PQ), and between Panax Ginseng and Paxax Japonicus (PI), PG
PI is fertile only very rarely, while PG
PQ is always sterile. Therefore, in order to clarify the relationship between this sterility phenomenon and the metabolism of free amino acids, the changes of free amino acids through the formation of the flower organs and seeds of two hybrids, PG
PQ and PG
PI were investigated by thin layer chromatography. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Distinct differences in the quantity and number of free amino acids were recognized between PG
PI and their parent plants. From the hybrid PG
PQ, 19 kinds of ninhyrin sensitive substances were detected in all. They were (1) 17 amino acids: alanine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, hydroxy-proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, arginine,
-amino butyric acid,
-alanine, cysteic acid and tryptophan, and (2) two amides: asparagine and glutamine. From the hybrid PG
PI, in addition to the above 19 substances, methionine and one unknown substance were detected. 2. Generally, alanine, as partie acid, glutamic acid, cysteic acid and asparagine were detected in large amounts in the two hybrids as in PG, PG and PJ but it was a noticeable fact concerning these two hybrids that the largest quantity of asparagine was found at microspore satge and pollen mature stage. 3. The decrease of cysteic acid in the two hybrids at the red ripened stage was the same as in PQ and PJ but opposite to the change in PG. The detection of methionine in PG
PJ was worthy of notice. 4. The change of proline was conspicuously different from that in their parent plants. It was detected as a trace of color at the micros pore stage while asparagine was detected in the greatest amount at that time. It is well known that the quantity of proline is closely related to the sterility of plant. This fact was also found true in the formation of ginseng seeds. It was reported as well that asparagine accumulated when proline decreased. 5. The deficiency of proline seemed to be closely related with the sterility of hybrids and with the degradation of pollen in anther. 6. The difference in the changes of free amino acids between the selfed lines of PG, PQ and PJ, and their hybrids seemed to be caused by the transformation of gene-action system by hybridization. On these phenomena along with proline metabolim and its physiological role in seed formation further studies are required.
Studies on. the Green-Soybean Cultivation as preceding Crop of the Rice in the Paddy-Field in the middle Parts of Korea
Ki-Jun Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 14, 1973, Pages 173~189
The followings are the results obtained in a series of experiments concerning of the varieties, the short-day-treatment, the fertilizer application, and the planting space of soybean, which were carried out to investigate the methods best suited for cultivating green soybean as the preceding crop of the rice. in the paddy-field in the middle parts of Korea at the practice farm attached to Agriculture College of Kon Kuk University in 1972. 1. Though the varieties of soybean was planted on the hot-bed on March 15 and then set in the main plot, none of them did flower within May 15, which is the limit time of flowering in growing soybean as the preceding crop of the rice in the paddy-field without the short-day-treatment being applied during raising seedlings. 2. The earliest-maturing variety groups such as HOKKAl#l, WASEMIDORI, YAEHUSANARI, MIT AKARAHAKUCHO, and VERDE flowered within May 15 by the short-day-treatment during raising seedlings. 3. The optimum hours of the day length was known to be 7 to 9 in the medium-maturing and late-maturing variety groups and 7 to 11 in the early-maturing and the earliest-maturing variety groups in the case of appling the short-day-treatment for 10 days from the beginning of the primary regular compound leaf development. 4 The optimum days in appling the short-day-treatment for 11 hours a day was recognized to be about 10 days regardless of the maturity of varieties. 5. Reduction of days required to flower by the short-clay-treatment, that is, light-sensitivity was remarkably higher in the medium-maturing and the late-maturing variety groups than in the earliest-maturing and the early-maturing variety groups. 6. The yield showed an increase of about 17 per cent in the case of appling the standard amount of nitrogen(4.0 kg/10 a), but it tended to reduce on the contrary in appling the increased amount of nitrogen. 7. The application of increased amount of phosphate had less significant effect on the yield increase than in the case of application of its standard amount( 4.0 kg/l0 a). 8. When the number of transplantation plant was changed from 54 to 130 per 3.3
, the yield in 130 plant plot was about two times so higher than in 54 plant plot that the effect of close planting cultivation on the yield was proved to be remarkable. 9. Conditions possible for cultivating green soybean as the preceding crop of the rice in the paddy-field in the middle parts of Korea are turned to be as follows: (a) to plant the earliest-maturing-variety groups on the hot-bed on March 15. (b) to apply the short-day-treatment by 11 hours a day for 16 days from April 16, which is about the time when the primary regular leaf begin to develop. And it was, found to be a most remarkable in the increased yield that apply nitrogen 4.0 kg, phosphate 4.0 kg, and potassium 6.0 kg per 10 a as basic manuring totally and apply the close planting by 130 plants per