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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17 - Dec 1974
Volume 16 - Feb 1974
Volume 15 - Feb 1974
Selecting the target year
Studies on the Inheritance of Heading Date in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L. em Thell)
Chang-Hwan Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 1~31
Introducing genes for earliness of wheat varieties is important to develop early varieties in winter wheat. In oder to obtain basic informations on the response of heading to the different day length and temperature treatments and on the inheritance of heading dates, experiments were conducted at the field and greenhouse of the Crop Experiment Station, Suwon. Varieties used in this experiments were, early variety Yecora F70, medium varieties Suke #169, Parker and Yukseung #3, and late varieties Changkwang, Bezostaia, Sturdy and Blueboy. The parents and F
s of partial diallel crosses of above eight varieties were subjected the following four different treatments; 1. high temperature and long day, 2. high temperature and short day, 3. low temperature and long day, and 4. low temperature and short day. The same materials were grown also in field condition. Parents, F
generation were grown also in both greenhouse under high temperature and short day and in field. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1. No effects of temperature and daylength on the number of leaves on the main stem were found when -varieties were vernalized. The number of main stem leaves were fewer for spring type of varieties than for winter type of varieties. 2. The effects of temperature and daylength on the days to flag leaf opening were dependent on the speed of leaf emergence. The speed of leaf emergence were faster for lower leaves than for upper leaves. 3. The response to short day and long day (earliness of narrow sense) of varieties were found to be direct factor responsible to physiology of heading dates in vernalized varieties. Great difference of varieties to heading date was found in high temperature and short day treatment, but less differences were found in high temperature and long day, low temperature and long day and low temperature and short day treatments respectively. The least varietal difference for heading dates was found in the field condition. 4. Changkwang and Parker were found to be the most sensitive to short day treatment (photosensitive) and the heading of these varieties were delayed by short day treatment. No great varietal differences were found among other varieties. 5. Varietal differences of heading dates due to daylength were greater in high temperature than in low temperature. 6. Varietal differences of heading dates due to temperature were not great. but in general the heading dates of varieties were faster under high temperature than under low temperature. 7. Earliness of heading dates was due to partial dominance effect of genes involved in any condition. The degree of dominance was greater under short day than under long day treatment. 8. The varietal differences of heading date under high temperature and long day were due to earliness or narrow sense (response to long day) of varieties. The degree of dominance was greater for Yecora F70, spring type than for other winter type of varieties. No differences or less differences of degree of dominance was found among winter type of varieties. The estimated number of effective factor concerned in the earliness of narrow sense was one pair of allele with minor genes. 9. The insensitivity of varieties to short day treatment in heading dates was due to single dominant gene effect. Under the low temperature the sensitivity of varieties to short day treatment was less apparent. 10. The earliness of short day and long day (earliness of narrow sense) sensitivities of varieties appearea to be due to partial dominance of earliness over lateness. In strict sense, the degree of the dominance should be distinguished. 11. Dominant gene effects were found for the thermo-sensitivity of varieties, and the effect was less, significant than the earliness in narrow sense. 12. One pair of allele, ee and EE, for photosensitivity was responsible for the difference in the heading dates between Changkwang and Suke #169. Two pairs of alleles, ee, enen and EE, EnEn. appeared to be responsible for the difference between Changkwang and Yecora F70. The effects of EE and EnEn were, additive to the earliness and the effects of EE were greater than EnEn under short day. However, the effects of EE were not evident in long day but the effects of EnEn were observed in long day. 13. Two pairs of dominant alleles for the earliness were estimated from the analysis of F
diallels in the field but the effects of these alleles in F
were not apparent due to low temperature and short day treatment in early part of growth and high temperature and long day treatment in later part of growth. The F
population shows continuous variation due to environmental effects and due to other minor gene effects. 14. The heritabilities for heading dates were ranged from 0.51 to 0.72, indicating that the selection in early generation might be effective. The extent of heritability for heading dates varied with environments; higher magnitude of heritability was obtained in short day treatment and high temperature compared with long day and low temperature treatments. The heritabilities of heading date due to response to short day were 0.86 in high temperature and 0.76 in low temperature. The heritabilities of heading date due to temperature were not significantly high. 15. The correlation coefficients of heading dates to the number of grains per spike, weight of 1, 000 grains. and grain yield were positive and high, indicating the difficulties of selections of high yielding lines from early population. But no significant correlation coefficient was obtained between the earliness and the number of spikes, indicating the effective selection for high tillering from early varieties for high yielding.
Studies on the Selection for Grain Yield and Components of Yield in Wheat Breeding
Dong-Woo Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 33~59
A series of experiments were conducted at Crop Experiment Station from 1968 to 1971 to obtain basic information on effects of selection on yield of wheat varieties. Heritability estimates, correlation and path coefficients computed for yield and yield related characters from fixed variety groups-Korean, U.S., and Japan; early and late-
generations were studied. The same estimates for fixed variety groups grown under different fertilizer levels and years were also studied. The results were summarized as follow: 1. Three variety groups classified by their origins as Korea, United States and Japan showed high heritability estimates for heading date, plant height and spike length. The heritability estimates for grain number per spike and 1, 000 grain weight were moderate and those for the number of spikes per plant and grain yield were low. Very low estimates of heritability were obtained for grain number per spike and yield of variety group from the Unites States. 2. High genotypic correlation coefficients between 1, 000 grain weight and yield were obtained for all variety groups originated from Korea, United States and Japan and early variety group, except late variety group. The genotypic correlation coefficients between grain number per spike and yield were also high for all variety groups except variety group originated from the United States. 3. The direct effects of 1, 000 grain weight in terms of path-coefficients to yield were high for all variety groups except late variety group. 4. High genotypic correlation coefficients were obtained between 1, 000 grain weight and yield in
from. two crosses. The same degree of genotypic correlation coefficients were obtained between grain number per spike and yield, although slight differences in its magnitude were found depending upon the cross combination. 5. The analysis of path-coefficients in
shows that the direct effects of yield components to yield were negligible. 6. The characters that showed high genotypic correlation coefficients with yield in
were 1, 000 gnain weight and grain number per spike. These characters showed also high direct effects to yield. 7. No great variations of heritability estimates for heading date, plant height and spike length were obtained for either fertilizer responsive or non responsive variety group due to fertilizer levels applied. 8. Heritability estimates of 1, 000 grain weight in fertilizer responsive group and yield in fertilizer nonresponsive group were high as level of fertilizer increased. 9. Heritability estimates for grain number per spike and 1, 000 grain weight of fertilizer non-responsive-group were higher than those of fertilizer. responsive group. 10. Genotypic corretation coefficients between yield and 1, 000 grain weight in fertilizer responsive group were getting lower as the level of fertilizer increased and those in fertilizer non-responsive group were vice versa. 11. Genotypic correlation coefficient between yield and spike number per plant in fertilizer responsive group was high. However, the genotypic correlation coefficient between yield and spike number per plant in fertilizer non-responsive group was low. 12. The direct effects of 1, 000 grain weight to yield were higher than other yield components either in fertilizer responsive or non-responsive group regardless of levels of fertilizer applied. The spike number per plant, however, was high only when high level of fertilizers were applied to fitilizer responsive group. 13. Slight variations of heritability estimates for heading dates, plant height, spike length, grain number per spike and 1, 000 grain weight were obtained between years. However, the spike number per plant with low heritabilility showed great variation between years. 14. The character that showed high genotypic correlation coefficients with yield in two years was 1, 000 grain weight, and this character was also high in direct effect to yield in terms of path-coefficients. 15. From the above experimental results, it might be concluded that 1, 000 grain weight would be one of the most important characters to increase the effects of selection for yield in wheat breeding in Korea.
Effects of leaf-defoliation and different nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application on maturity and yield of rice
Dong-Sam Cho ; Eun-Woong Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 61~67
Field experiment was conducted to disclose some effects of leaf defoliation in heading time and the application of different combinations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the maturity and yield of paddy rice. The results obtained are as follows; 1.All were components considered were increased as the amounts of nitrogen, phospgorus and potassium applied were increased, except the maturity rate had the tendancy to be decreased with the increase of the above fertilizer applications. 2.As the rate of cutting leaves went higher, the weight of rough rice, the maturity rate and the weight of 1, 000 kernels of perferct brown rice were decreased, and there were significant differences among the treatments of leaf blade cutting. 3. The contribution of each leaf to yield through the maturity, number of spikelets per panicle and 1, 000 kernel weight were 61.87-66.18-65.61% respectively for the flag leaf, 17.50-20.65-23.41%for the 2nd leaf, 12-71-12.73-10.11%for the 3rd lead and 7.93-6.44-0.87%for the 4th leaf respectively. This simply indicared that the effects of the leaves to the yield were decreased as their position went down. This tendency was specially emphasized in the case of the weight of 1, 000 kernels of perfect brown rice.
The Influence of Nitrogen and Soil Moisture Content on Yield Components of Soybeans
Yeon-Kyu Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 69~75
This experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different amount of nitrogen and deficiency of soil moisture on yield components of soybean. Soybean were seeded on 1/2000a wagner pot. Deficiency of soil moisture was treated at each growth atage of soybean. 1.In case of deficiencyt of soil moisture at the flowering time in the plot of non-nitrogen(NO D3), the growth duration of soybean was shortened about three to four days. 2. The leaf area was greatly affected by the influence of both treatments till 49days after germinating. 3.The increase of stem height, stem doameter,number of branches and lengeh of the branches came to an end about 70 days after seeding. These growing condition of tje soybean were lowest the plot of No D
,in which the frowth of the soybeans were poor at the early stage. 4.The number of pods was not increased by the increase of fertilizing nitrogenous fertilizer. The number of pods was much decreased by the influence of soil mousture deiciency, and under this condition, the proportion of main stem pods and two or three grain pods was high. 5.The 3rd and 4h nodes and the 10th to 12th nodes from bottom had more pods than the other nodes had, but of the plants had grown well, they had more pods on the 3rd and 4th nodes, but if the plants had grown poorly, they had more pods on the 10th to 12th nodes. 6.The content of protein in the soybean was low at the plit of N。D
which had not heavy weight of 100 grains, and the content of oil in the soybean was low in the plot in which each plant had a small number of grains.
Effects of Varieties and Seeding Dates on the Yield Components, Protein and Oil Content in Soybean
Yeon-Kyu Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 77~83
This experiment was conducted to study the effexts of seeding time and varieties on yield components, protein and oil content of soybean. Four varieties of soybean(Chung Buk Baek, Iksan, Keum doo, Chang dan Baek mok)wrere applied in this experiment and were seeded at May 15th, June 5th, and June 25th, the results obtained are as follows. 1.When the soybean was seeded at May 15th, stem height, stem diameter and number of nodes on main stem came to an end about 70days after seeding. In case that the seeding time was delayed 20 days and 40 days from May15th, respectively, the time to be almost cimpleted the growth of the characteristics was shortened 10days and 20days during ther debelopment. Among varieties, Chung Buk Beak grew faster than any other varieries. 2.When seeded at May 15th, the plants produced many pods, and had high proportion of branch pods. When seeded late, the proportion of branch pods were low. Branches had large proportion of empty pods and one grain pods, but on main stem, the proportion of two grain pods and three grain pods were more than that of branch. Among varieties, Chung Buk Baek had high proportion of two and three grain pods, Keum doo and Chang dan Baek mok had high proportion of one and two grain pods, and Iksan had high proportion of one and three grain pods. 3.Tields were less by the late seeding.The proportion if decreased yields to the yields when seeded at May 15th, that of Chung Buk Baek was decreased 6% when seeded at June 5th and 14% when seeded at June 25th, that of Ik san was decreased 9% and 17%, that of Keum doo decreased 15% and 26% and that of Chang dan Baek mik decreased 18% and 27%. 4.Protein content was highest in the plots seeded on May 15th, but oil content was highest in the plots seeded in June 25th. Among varietiesm Xhang dan Baek mok had the highest proportion of protein content and Iksan had the highest of oil content.
Studies on the Effect of Low Temperature Treatment at Meiotic, Heading and Seedling Stage in Paddy Rice
Hong-Suk Lee ; Hyung-Yull Cho ; Pyeong-Ki Yim ; Hoon Heu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 85~97
In order to clarify the inducing conditions and cause of sterility in rice plants, 4 varieties were cooled at 3 different levels of temperature combined with 3 different levels of treatment period. And 19 varieties were tested to examine the varietal difference of cold resistance. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. There were significant varietal differences in the effect of cooling treatment at meiotic stage. Suwon 213-1 was induced heavy sterility by 3 day cooling treatment at 17.5
whereas Hayayuki, Nongpaik and Jinheung were induced a little sterility by 3 day cooling treatment at 15
and 5 day treatment at 17.5
. The per cent of grain fertility was correlated significantly with the delayed days to heading, the degree of panicle extraction (Suwon 213-1, Nongpaik, Jinheung), culm length (Nongpaik, Suwon 213-1), and Auricle distance (Suwon 213-1). The degree of sterility was able to be estimated from the linear regression equation between the degree of panicle extraction (distance from panicle neck to flag leaf) and fertility percentage. In the case of heavy cold damage by the treatment of low temperature at meiotic stage, the rice plant had somewhat lower pollen density per anther, small and ununiform anther and pollen in size, and more sterile pollen grains. Suwon 213-1 showed anthesis in almost all spikelets, while Nongpaik, Jinheung and Hayayuki indicated considerable number of indehisced anther at 5 days after heading. 2. The fertility were not generally higher in cooling treatment at heading stage than at meiotic stage treatment. And significant correlation was found between the percentage of grain fertility treated at above two stages. Nongpaik and Jinheung were not affected in percentage of fertility by 5 day treatment at 15
when these were treated at heading stage. Indehisced anthers were not found in Suwon 213-1 and Hayayuki, but Nongpaik and Jinheung showed more anthers which did not show anthesis 3. There was different varietal response to low temperature which was indicated by the decrease of grain fertility resulted from cooling treatment at meiotic stage. Jaekeun and Jinheung did not show low fertility but Milseong, Suwon 210, Satominoli and Suwon 213-1 showed outstanding decrease in fertility percentage by the cooling treatment at meiotic stage. The varieties which had low fertility were likely to have low pollen density per anther, abnormal anthers, small size po]]en grains and many sterile pollens. 4. Remarkable varietal difference of cold resistance was found in heading stage cooling treatment. Nongpaik, Jinheung, Jaekeun, Paltal, Akibare, Milseung and Palkeong were not affected in grain fertility by cooling treatments but Nonglimna No. 1, Suseong, Hayayuki, Suwon 213-1 and Suwon 210 showed significantly high sterility as treated by cool temperature. Most of the varieties showed higher fertility by cooling treatment at heading stage than meiotic stage but Hayayuki, Suseong and Nonglimna No.1 showed lower fertility when these were treated at heading stage than meiotic stage. There were two grops of varieties in the response to cooling treatment, one was somewhat non-anthesised and the other showed full anthesis. 5. In cold injury test of young seedlings, the result of observation was not accorded with the degree of growth inhibition. As a general, Palkeum and Suseong were highly torelant to cool temperature but Suwon 213-1, Jaekeun, Paltal, Shirogane, Palkeong, Mankyung were highly susceptible. 6. There is no significant correlation between the degree of young seedling cold damage and or the degree of growth retardation at seedling stage and grain fertility resulted from coding treatment both heading and meiotic stage.
Studies on the Improvement of Nursery for Better Ripening Percentage and Prevention of Leaf Discoloration of Rice Variety 'Tongil'
Beom-Yeol Choi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 99~113
This experiment was carried out to find reasonable semi. hot seedbed system for early transplanting of "Tongil"rice cultivar. The quality of the young rice-plants, yield, and the occurrence of the reddish dry leaves were not significant differences between the seedbed with polyethylene tunnel and that of Rat covering. The per cent of healthy seedling of the soil preparation with the dry soil plowing was increased than that of the water soil plowing. The stability of the seedling cultivation of the thin layer straw mulching seedbed beneath the polyethylene film was higher than that of the common flat seedbed system.ed system.
Induction of Red Discoloration in Rice var. Tongil with Certain Metabolic Inhibitors
Beyoung-Hwa Kwack ; Chan Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 115~121
Artificial induction of nitrogen deficiency symptoms (leaf chlorosis) with two root respiratory inhibitors(DNP and Na
S) was studied and regarded to be the same characteristic to red discoloration in rice var. Tongil seedling leaves as well as adult ones. Tongil(IR 667) was shown to be more nitrogen sensitive and have more distinctive appearance of the leaf discoloration than Punggwang(a native Japonica-type varity.) Conclusions were drawn from the present data that so-called red discoloration of Tongil under the natural field conditions is brought about either by insufficient nitrogen supply in soils or certain factors which may limit at any time the root absorption of nitrogen (low temperature, toxic gases or substances, poor drainage, around roots, etc.) in soils even with ample supply of it.
Basic Studies for the Breeding of High Protein Rice III. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on the protein content in rice kernels
Mun-Hue Heu ; Kwang-Ho Kim ; Hak-Soo SUH ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 123~128
An experiment was conducted under different N,
fertilizer levels to study the environmental effects on protein content in rice kernels. Protein content in rice kernels was mostly affected by N-fertilizer, and weakly affected by N,
fertilizers. High or low nitrogen level was not necessarily required to detect high protein lines. 20% selection among the total tested lines would be enough, at any level of N-fertilizer, to maintain genetically high protein lines.
Basic Studies for the Breeding of High Protein Rice IV. Effect of Short-day and High-temperature Treatment on the Amylose and Crude Protein Content of Rice
Mun-Hue Heu ; Huhn-Pal Moon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 129~133
In order to obtain the fundamental informations on the protein and amylose content in rice grain, 4 varieties were subjected to the 4 different shortday treatments in 2 kinds temperature. Results can be summarized as follows; 1). By warmer temperature amylose content in the rice dropped by 2 to 3%, but no significant changes in protein content. 2). Short-day treatment caused decreases in amylose content by 2 to 5% and increases in protein content by 2 to 6%. 3). Interactions among varieties, temperature and shortday was significant for both the amylose content and protein content.
Studies on the aseptic culture induced from rice seedlings treated with auxins
Gun-Sik Chung ; Mun-Hue Heu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 135~140
The callus formation and shoot growth of germinating rice seedlings in the aseptic culture media treated with 2.4-D and N.A.A. were studied with 3 rice cultivars. Callus formation and shoot growth were the best in the media including
M N.A.A.. Varietal differences also were significant in the formation of callus and shoot growth from the callus.
A simple screening technique for blast resistant mutants from the radiation irradiated rice populations
Shin-Han Kwon ; Jeong-Hae Oh ; Hi-Sup Song ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 141~143
An attempt was made to develop a simple testing method fro blast resistance in the aged rice plant grown under the paddy field conditions. The blast resistance was tested with the detached 3rd leaves from the top of the plant, which were inoculated by dropping blast spore suspension mixed with 1% Tween 20 on the punched area and kept in 1% sucrose solution. The blast reaction was measured ten days after incubation at 26-28
under highly humid conditions. With this method blast resistant lines were effectively identified and the cost of testing was cheap as compared with any other methods ever practiced.
Studies on betterment of flue-curing of tobacco by using Ethephon
Eung-Ryong Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 15, 1974, Pages 145~153
Five different levels of Ethephon were treated on tobacco cultivar yellow Special A and Coker and harvested for curing. Changes in dehydration properties, yellowing, chlorophyll, nicotine, sugar and starch contents during the processes of curing were studied in order to justify feasibility of adoption an idea of 3-stage-curing method instead of the 5-stage. Ethephon-treated-tobacco leaves showed marked degradation of chlorophyll, greater dehydration and greater reduction in nicotine contents while little change in either sugar, starch and other chemical components. They showed also shorter hours of curing period allowing possible curing response at a relatively low temperature than those without treatment. Thus they undergo only 3 stages of flue-curing processes, yellowing, calor-fixing and vein-drying, and need 72 hours to finish curing, but the ordinary leaves need 100 hours for it.