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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17 - Dec 1974
Volume 16 - Feb 1974
Volume 15 - Feb 1974
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Studies on Grain Filling and Quality Changes of Hard and Soft Wheat Grown under the Different Environmental Conditions
Young-Soo Han ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 1~44
These studies were made at Suwon in 1972 and at Suwon, Iri, and Kwangju in 1973 to investigate grain filling process and variation of grain quality of NB 68513 and Caprock as hard red winter wheat, Suke ＃169 as soft red winter wheat variety and Yungkwang as semi-hard winter variety, grown under-three different fertilizer levels and seeding dates. Other experiments were conducted to find the effects of temperature, humidity and light intensity on the grain filling process and grain quality of Yungkwang and NB 68513 wheat varieties. These, experiments were conducted at Suwon in 1973 and 1974. 1. Grain filling process of wheat cultivars: 1) The frequency distribution of a grain weight shows that wider distribution of grain weight was associated with large grain groups rather than small grain group. In the large grain groups, the frequency was mostly concentrated near mean value, while the frequency was dispersed over the values in the small grain group. 2) The grain weight was more affected by the grain thickness and width than by grain length. 3) The grain weight during the ripening period was rapidly increased from 14 days after flowering to 35 days in Yungkwang and from 14 days after flowering to 28 days in NB 68513. The large grain group, Yungkwang was rather slowly increased and took a longer period in increase of endosperm ratio of grain than the small grain group, NB 68513. 4) In general, the 1, 000 grain weight was reduced under high temperature, low humidity, while it was increased under low temperature and high humidity condition, and under high temperature and humidity condition. The effect of shading on grain weight was greater in high temperature than in low temperature condition and no definite tendency was found in high humidity condition. 5) The effects of temperature, humidity and shading on 1, 000 grain weight were greater in large-grain group, Yungkwang than in small grain group, NB 68513. Highly significant positive correlation was found between 1, 000 grain weight and days to ripening. 6) The 1, 000 grain weight and test weight were increased more or less as the fertilizer levels applied were increased. However, the rate of increasing 1, 000 grain weight was low when fertilizer levels were increased from standard to double. The 1, 000 grain weight was high when planted early. Such tendency was greater in Suwon than in Kwangju or Iri area. 2. Milling quality: 7) The milling rate in a same group of varieties was higher under the condition of low temperature, high humidity and early maturing culture which were responsible for increasing 1, 000 grain weight. No definite relations were found along with locations. 8) In the varieties tested, the higher milling rate was found in large grain variety, Yungkwang, and the lowest milling rate was obtained from Suke ＃ 169, the small grain variety. But the small grained hard wheat variety such as Caprock and NB 68513 showed higher milling rate compared with the soft wheat variety, Suke ＃ 169. 9) There were no great differences of ash content due to location, fertilizer level and seeding date while remarkable differences due to variety were found. The ash content was high in the hard wheat varieties such as NB 68513, Caprock and low in soft wheat varieties such as Yungkwang and Suke ＃ 169. 3. Protein content: 10) The protein content was increased under the condition of high temperature, low humidity and shading, which were responsible for reduction of 1, 000 grain weight. The varietal differences of protein content due to high temperature, low humidity and shading conditions were greater in Yungkwang than in NB 68513. 11) The high content of protein in grain within one to two weeks after flowering might be due to the high ratio of pericarp and embryo to endosperm. As grains ripen, the effects of embryo and pericarp on protein content were decreased, reducing protein content. However, the protein content was getting increased from three or four weeks after flowering, and maximized at seven weeks after flowering. The protein content of grain at three to four weeks after flowering increased as the increase of 1, 000 grain weight. But the protein content of matured grain appeared to be affected by daily temperature on calender rather than by duration of ripening period. 12) Highly significant positive correlation value was found between the grain protein content and flour protein content. 13) The protein content was increased under the high level of fertilizers and late seeding. The local differences of protein content were greater in Suwon than in Kwangju and Iri. 14) Protein content in the varieties tested were high in Yungkwang, NB 68513 and Caprock, and low in Suke ＃ 169. However, variation in protein content due to the cultural methods was low in Suke ＃ 169. 15) Protein yield per unit area was increased in accordance with increase of fertilizer levels and early maturing culture. However, nitrogen fertilizer was utilized rather effectively in early maturing culture and Yungkwang was the highest in protein yield per unit area. 4. Physio-chemical properties of wheat flour: 16) Sedimentation value was higher under the conditions of high temperature, low humidity and high levels of fertilizers than under the conditions of low temperature, high moisture and low levels of fertilizers. Such differences of sedimentation values were more apparent in NB 68513 and Caprock than Yungkwang and Suke ＃ 169. The local difference of sedimentation value was greater in Suwon than in Kwangju and Iri. Even though the sedimentation value was highly correlated with protein content of grain, the high humidity was considered one of the factors affecting sedimentation value. 17) Changes of Pelshenke values due to the differences of cultural practices and locations were generally coincident with sedimentation values. 18) The mixing time required for mixogram was four to six minutes in NB 68513, five to seven minutes in Cap rock. The great variation of mixing time for Yungkwang and Suke ＃ 169 due to location and planting conditions was found. The mixing height and area were high in hard wheat than in soft wheat. Variation of protein content due to cultural methods were inconsistent. However, the pattern of mixogram were very much same regardless the treatments applied. With this regard, it could be concluded that the mixogram is a kind of method expressing the specific character of the variety. 19) Even though the milling property of NB 68513 and Caprock was deteriorated under either high temperature and low humidity of high fertilizer levels and late seeding conditions, baking quality was better due to improved physio-chemical properties of flour. In contrast, early maturing culture deteriorated physio-chemical properties, milling property of grain and grain protein yield per unit area was increased. However, it might be concluded that the hard wheat production of NB 68513 and Caprock for baking purpose could be done better in Suwon than in Iri or Kwangju area. 5. Interrelationships between the physio-chemical characters of wheat flour: 20) Physio-chemical properties of flour didn't have direct relationship with milling rate and ash content. Low grain weight produced high protein content and better physio-chemical flour properties. 21) In hard wheat varieties like NB 68513 and Caprock, protein content was significantly correlated with sedimentation value, Pelshenke value and mixing height. However, gluten strength and baking quality were improved by the increased protein content. In Yungkwang and Suk ＃ 169, protein content was correlated with sedimentation value, but no correlations were found with Pelshenke value and mixing height. Consequently, increase of protein content didn't improve the gluten strength in soft wheat. 22) The highly significant relationships between protein content and gluten strength and sedimentation . value, and between Pelshenke value, mixogram and gluten strength indicated that the determination of mixogram and Pelshenke value are useful for de terming soft and hard type of varieties. Determination of sedimentation value is considered useful method for quality evaluation of wheat grain under different cultural practices.
Studies on Dry Matter Production and Variation of Agronomic Characteristics of Determinate and Indeterminate Types of Soybean Cultivars (Glycine max L.) Under Different Growing Condition
Keun-Yong Park ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 45~78
To provide useful information for developing new high yielding soybean varieties and for improving cultural practices, an investigation was made on variation of dry matter production and on relationship among several agronomic characters of soybean plants grown under different planting times and densities as well as under different fertilizer levels, using Kwang-kyo, Dong puk-tae, and Suke ＃ 51 as determinate types and Shelby, SRF-300 and Harosoy as indeterminate types at the Crop Experiment Station during the period of 1972 and 1973. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1. The dry weight, CGR and LAI at the initial flowering stage were high in the high plant population irrespective of varieties, planting times, and fertilizer levels. However, those characters of the indeterminate type were lower than those of the determinate types. The same characters of the indererminate type at the terminal leaf stage were either same or higher than those of the determinate types. 2. The dry weight of the determinate type at the initial flowering stage was similar to the indeterminate, type, when planting times were May 21 or June 15. The dry weights of both types of varieties were low when planted on July 10. When fertilizer levels were increased, the CGR, dry weight and LAI at the initial flowering stages were also increased. 3. Even though significant differences of LAI were obtained among the varieties within the same plant type, the indeterminate type was in general lower than that of the determinate type regardless of planting time and densities, or fertilizer levels, while the yield of the indeterminate type was comparable to the yield of the determinate type. 4. The high degree of leaf- and petiole-fall at the greenbean stage was highly associated with early planting and high levels of fertilizers. However, less amount of leaf- or petiole-fall was found when planted on July 10 or under low plant population. 5. The percent of stem weight was high under higher plant population, while the percent of leaf weight was high under lower plant population. When planting time was late, the percent of stem and petiole weight were reduced, while the leaf weight was increased. 6. The percent of pod weight of the determinate type at the terminal leaf stage was about 2% when planted on May 21, about 8% when planted on June 15, and about 9% when planted on July 10. The percent of pod weight of the indeterminate type at the terminal leaf stage were about 6 % when planted on May 21, 14% when planted on June 15 and 21% when planted on July 10. 7. Kwang kyo showed less degree of leaf-fall even when lodged due to high levels of fertilizer applied, while SRF-300 showed great damage due to lodging. 8. High yields were obtained when planted on May 21, but there were little yield differences between yields from May 21 and June 15 plantings. The reduction of yield due to late planting of July 10 was less apparent in the determinate type of varieties, while it was high in the indeterminate type. 9. The optimum plant population per are for high yield was 1, 250 to 2, 500 plants when planted on May 21, 2, 500 plants when planted on June 15, and 3, 333 plants when planted on July 10. 10. High correlation coefficients were obtained between dry matter weight and LAI at the terminal leaf stages, and between the dry matter weight and yield at the greenbean stages. The optimum dry weight for high yield in the determinate type was expected to be 25 kg. per are at the initial flowering stage and 50 kg. per are at the terminal leaf stage. In the indeterminate type the LAI and dry weight at the greenbean stage were 4 to 5 and 80 kg. per are, respectively. 11. Under the high plant population plant height was increased, while the stem diameter and the number of nodes and branches were reduced. Consequently, the percent of mainstem to main stem plus branches were increased, and the length of internode was also elongated. The ratios of stem weight, number of nodes and pods, and yield of main stem were increased when high plant population was associated with the early planting. The percent of main stem to branches for the indeterminate type was higher than that of the determinate type. 12. Under the high plant densities and late planting, the percent of the pod number and yields of main stem were increased, indicating that varieties with no or less branches were better adaptable under such conditions. 13. High degree of simple correlation coefficients was obtained between the LAI at the initial flowering stage and terminal leaf stage, and the total node number, dry matter and dry stem weight of both determinate and indeterminate types. Even though no significant correlation was found between the LAI at the initial flowering stage of the determinate type and the stem length and pod number per are, highly significant correlation coefficients were obtained between such characters in the indeterminate type of varieties. 14. The dry matter was positively correlated with the LAI, CGR, stem length, and pod number, node number and dry stem weight per are, while no significant correlation was found between the dry matter and stem diameter. 15. The correlation coefficients between lodging index and the LAI, dry weight, stem length and dry stem weight were highly significant. Negative correlation was obtained for the indeterminate type between the stem diameter and lodging index. The correlation coefficient between the stem diameter and lodging index was non-significant for the determinate type, while positive correlation was obtained between the yield and lodging index in the determinate type. The lodging index was also positively correlated with average length of internode of main stem. 16. The 100 seed weight appeared to be lowered under the high plant population and no fertilizer condition, and when planted late. Apparent differences of 100 seed weight were found between main stem and branches, being higher for the main stem than for the branches. 17. No variation of protein content was found due to different cultural practices. However, the oil content was apparently reduced when planted late.
Studies on the Response to Day-length and Temperature and their Effects on the Yield of Perilla (Perilla ocimoides L.)
Ik-Sang Yu ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 79~114
Experiments were conducted to clarify the variations of the ecological characteristics under different day-length and temperature conditions inperilla varieties from 1972 to 1973 in the experimental fields of Crop Experiment Station, O.R.D, Suwon. Thirty-six varieties were tested in the field in 1972 under 6 growing seasons differing seeding dates. from April 5th to June 20th with 15-day interval between each seeding. Pot-experiment also were conducted in 1972 and 1973. The seeds of the 6 varieties tested were sown on May 25th. In this pot-experiment natural condition was regarded as a short-day treatment and 100-W incandescent lamps were used for long-day treatment. Three selected varieties were grown under different. temperature treatments in phytotron in Crop Experiment Station. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Most varieties tested flowered around September 6. The days required to flower were shortened gradually as the planting time was delayed. 2. The varieties used were matured around October 6, but the maturity was shortened when planted early. The days required for maturity after flowering was 26 to 30. 3. The growing period was also shortened gradually when planting time was delayed. 4. Plant height was reduced when planting time was delayed. 5. There were little differences in number of valid branches among planting time I, II and III, while the branch number was reduced as the planting time was delayed. 6. The dry matter weight was gradually increased from planting time I to III, while it was rapidly decreased after planting time IV. 7. It was found that the flowering of perilla was little affected by temperature. The varieties, however, were more sensitive to day-length. 8. No clear tendency was found in the plant height, number of valid branches and dry matter weight by the time and period of day-length and temperature treatments. 9. The highest yield was obtained at planting time III(May 5th) and the yield was decreased at either earlier or later planting. 10. 1, 000 grain weight appeared to be heavier as the planting time was delayed. 11. The number of flower cluster was largest at planting time III (May 5th) and it was decreased as planting time was earlier or later than III. 12. The oil content was also highest at planting time III (May 5th). 13. Days to flowering, days to maturity and total growing period and flowering period did not affect the yield much. 14. The number of valid branches, flower clusters, 1, 000-grain weight and dry matter weight were positively correlated with yield. The relationship between these characters and yield were variable depending upon the planting time.
Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of Seed Development in Ginseng Seed
Hee-Chun Yang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 115~133
This study was done on the metabolism of chemical components during the seed development of ginseng. The changes of the chemical components were inspected in the following periods: from the early stage of flower organ formation to flowering time, from the early stage of fruiting to maturity, during the moisture stratification before sowing. From flower bud forming stage to meiosis stage, the changes in the fresh weight, dry weight, contents of carbohydrates, and contents of nitrogen compounds were slight while the content of TCA soluble phosphorus and especially the content of organic phosphorus increased markedly. From meiosis stage to microspore stage the fresh and dry weights increase greatly. Also, the total nitrogen content increases in this period. Insolub]e nitrogen was 62-70% of the total nitrogen content; the increase of insoluble nitrogen seems to have resulted form the synthesis of protein. The content of soluble sugar (reducing and non-reducing sugar) increases greatly but there was no observable increase in starch content. In this same period, TCA soluble phosphorus reached the maximum level of 85.4% of the total phosphorus. TCA insoluble phosphorus remained at the minimum content level of 14.6%. After the pollen maturation stage and during the flowering period the dry weight increased markedly and insolub]e nitrogen also increased to the level of 67% of the total nitrogen content. Also in this stage, the organic phosphorus content decreased and was found in lesser amounts than inorganic phosphorus. A rapid increase in the starch content was also observed at this stage. In the first three weeks after fruiting the ginseng fruit grows rapidly. Ninety percent of the fresh weight of ripened ginseng seed is obtained in this period. Also, total nitrogen content increased by seven times. As the fruits ripened, insoluble nitrogen increased from 65% of the total nitrogen to 80% while soluble nitrogen decreased from 35% to 20%. By the beginning of the red-ripening period, the total phosphoric acid content increased by eight times and was at its peak. In this same period, TCA soluble phosphorus was 90% of total phosphorus content and organic phosphorus had increased by 29 times. Lipid-phosphorus, nucleic acid-phosphorus and protein-phosphorus also increased during this stage. The rate of increase in carbohydrates was similar to the rate of increase in fresh weight and it was observed at its highest point three weeks after fruiting. Soluble sugar content was also highest at this time; it begins to decrease after the first three weeks. At the red-ripening stage, soluble sugar content increased again slightly, but never reached its previous level. The level of crude starch increased gradually reaching its height, 2.36% of total dry weight, a week before red-ripening, but compared with the content level of other soluble sugars crude starch content was always low. When the seeds ripened completely, more than 80% of the soluble sugar was non-reducing sugar, indicating that sucrose is the main reserve material of carbohydrates in ginseng seeds. Since endosperm of the ripened ginseng seeds contain more than 60% lipids, lipids can be said to be the most abundant reserve material in ginseng seeds; they are more abundant than carbohydrates, protein, or any other component. During the moisture stratification, ginseng seeds absorb quantities of water. Lipids, protein and starch stored in the seeds become soluble by hydrolysis and the contents of sugar, inorganic phosphorus, phospho-lipid, nucleic acid-phosphorus, protein phosphorus, and soluble nitrogen increase. By sowing time, the middle of November, embryo of the seeds grows to 4.2-4.7mm and the water content of the seeds amounts to 50-60% of the total seed weight. Also, by this time, much budding material has been accumulated. On the other hand, dry stored ginseng seeds undergo some changes. The water content of the seeds decreases to 5% and there is an observable change in the carbohydraes but the content of lipid and nitrogen compounds did not change as much as carbohydrates.
Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of Germination in Ginseng Seed
Jong-Kyu Hwang ; Hee-Chun Yang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 135~142
A study on the metabolism of the chemical companents of endosperm and enbryonic othans of ginseng seeds during their germination were inverstigated and the results of the changes in the contents of nitrogen conponds, carbohydrates, lipids and phosphorus conpounds are summarized as follow; 1. When a seeding grows to 5cm the fresh weight of the embryonic organ incerases 13 times compared with that of its ripened embryo veore germination and its dry weight increases 4.5 times. On the other hand, about 65% of the dry weight of the endosperm is lost. 2. During germinarion the total nitrogen content of a sedding (endosperm+embryonic organ) decreases and when the seeding grows to 5cm there is a loss of 10% of total nitrogen content. At this time, soluble nitrogen content amounts to 40~50% of the total nitrogen, a comparatively high content. 3. When theseeding grows to 5cm, the total phosphorus content decreases by 15%. During the germination period 70~75% of the total phosphorus is distributed in the embryonic orang and 25% of it is in endosperm.In the embryonic organ 35~50% of the acid soluble phosphorus is inorganic phosphorus and in the endisperm, 20~25% of the acid soluble phosphorus is inorganic phosphorus,75~80% of the organic phosphorus is contained in the endosperm. 4.One the seedling grew to 2~3cm, carbohydrates such as soluble sugars,reducong sugars,nonreducong sugars, and crude starch interconverted remarkably. 5.After stratification (just before germination) the lipid content of the endosperm is about 54% of the total weight and lipid content of the embryo is about 61%. During germination 6.81mg of the fat contained in the endosperm per seed decreases to 4.13mg while the change of fat content in the embryonic organ is not so great.
Studies on the Effect of Potassium Split Application on Paddy -On the Time of Potassium Split Application-
Wang-Keun Oh ; Sang-Beam Lee ; Chan-Ho Park ; Sung-Bae Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 17, 1974, Pages 143~148
Field and pot experiments were conducted for the split application of potash in paddy (Oryza sativa L. cultivar Jinheung.) Production and the experimental results were analysed with regard to the yield of paddy and its yield components. The absence of potash at the reproductive stages such as primodial and heading period but supplied most of the potash at the early growth stages, resulted in an increase of panicles but in a decrease of grain numbers per panicle and yield of paddy. On the other hand, however, the reduced amount of potash application at the earlystage of growth showed a decreased number of panicles and yield of paddy, particulary where lime and fresh rice straw were applied.