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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 1981
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 1981
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 1981
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 1981
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Physiological and Ecological Studies on the Low Temperature Damages of Rice (Oryza sativia L.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 1~31
Experiments were conducted to investigate rice varietal response to low water and air temperatures at different growth stages from 1975 to 1980 in a phytotron in Suweon and in a cold water nursery in Chooncheon. Germination ability, seedling growth, sterility of laspikelets, panicle exertion, discoloration of leaves, and delay of heading of recently developed indica/japonica cross(I/J), japonica, and indica varieties at low air temperature or cold water were compared to those at normal temperature or natural conditions. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Practically acceptable germination rate of 70% was obtained in 10 days after initiation of germination test at 15\circ_C for japonica varieties, but 15 days for IxJ varieties. Varietal differences in germination ability at suboptimal temperature was greatest at 16\circ_C for 6 days. 2. Cold injury of rice seedlings was most severe at the 3.0-and 3.5-leaf stage and it was reduced as growth stage advanced. A significant positive correlation was observed between cold injury at 3-leaf stage and 6-leaf stage. 3. At day/night temperatures of 15/10\circ_C seedlings of both japonica and I/J varieties were dead in 42 days. At 20/15\circ_C japonica varieties produced tillers actively, but tillering of I/J varieties was retarded a little. At 25/15\circ_C, both japonica and I/J varieties produced tillers most actively. Increase in plant height was proportional to the increase in all varieties. 4. In I/J varieties the number of differentiated panicle rachis branches and spikelets was reduced at a day-night temperature of 20-15\circ_C compared to 25-20 or 30-25\circ_C, but not in japonica varieties although panicle exertion was retarded at 20-15\circ_C. The number of spikelets was not correlated with the number of primary rachis branches, but positively correlated with that of secondary rachis branches. 5. Heading of rice varieties treated with 15\circ_C air temperature at meiotic stage was delayed compared to that at tillering stage by 1-3 days and heading was delayed as duration of low temperature treatment increased. 6. At cold water treatment of 17\circ_C from tillering to heading stage, heading of japonica, I/J, and cold tolerant indica varieties was delayed 2-6, 3-9, and 4-5 days, respectively, Growth stage sensitive to delay of heading delay at water treatment were tillering stage, meiotic stage, and booting tage in that order, delay of heading was greater in indica corssed japonica(Suweon 264), japonica(Suweon 235), and cold tolerant indica(Lengkwang) varieties in that order. Delay of heading due to cold water treatment was positively correlated with culm length reduction and spikelet sterility. 7. Elongation of culms and exertion of panicles of rice varieties treated with low air temperature 17\circ_C. Culm length reduction rate of tall varieties was lower than that of short statured varieties at low temperature. Panicle exertion was most severaly retarded with low temperature treatment at heading stage. Generally, retardation of panicle exertion of 1/1 varieties was more severe than that of japonica varieties at low temperature. There was a positive correlation between panicle exertion and culm length at low temperature. 8. The number of panicles was increased with cold water treatment at tillering stage, but reduced at meiotic stage. As time of cold water treatment was conducted at earlier growth stage, culm length was shorter and panicle exertion poorer. 9. Sterility of all rice varieties was negligible at 17\circ_C for three days but 30.3-85.2% of strility was observed for nine-day treatment at 17\circ_C. Among the tested varieties, sterility of Suweon 264 and Milyang 42 was highest and that of Suweon 290 and Suweon 287 was lowest. The most sensitive growth stage to low temperature induced sterility was from 15 to 5 days before heading. There was positive correlation between sterility of rice plants treated with low temperature at meiotic and heading stage. 10. Percentage of spikelet sterility was greatest at cold water treatment at meiotic stage (auricle distance -15～-10cm) and it was higher in 1/1 (Suweon 264, Joseng tongil), japonica (Nongbaek, Towada), and cold tolerance indica(Lengkwang) varieties in the order. Level of cold water and position of young-ear affected on the sterility of varieties at meiotic stage; percentage of spikelet sterility of variety, Lengkwang, of which young-ear was located above the cold water level was high, but that of short statured variety, Suweon 264, of which young-ear was located in the cold water was lower. 11. Percentage of ripened grains was not reducted at 15\circ_C air temperature for three days at full heading stage in all varieties. However, at six-day low temperature treatment Suweon 287, Suweon 264 showed percentage of ripended grains lower than 60%, but at nine-day low temperature treatment all varieties showed percentage of ripened grains lower than 60%. Low temperature treatment of 17\circ_C from 10 days after heading for 20 days did not affect on the ripening of all varieties. 12. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in whole plants was higher at average air temperature of 25\circ_C, but concentration of the elements was lower compared to those at 19\circ_C. However, both total uptake and concentration of manganese were higher at 19\circ_C compared to 25\circ_C. 13. Higher application of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicate, and compost increased yield of rice due to increased number of panicles and spike let fertility in cold water irrigated paddy.
Studies on Genetice of Blast Resistance in Rice L Inheritance of Resistance to Specific Races of Blast Fungus and Relationship between Their Resistance and II, VIII, XI and XII Linkage Groups in Some Rice Varieties
Young-Am Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 32~39
In order to study the genetic system of the blast resistant varieties, the conidial suspension of mutant races of T-2
was inoculated at 4-5 leaf stage by injector for F_2 seedlings from the crosses between seven resistant varieties and four maker lines easily detectable at seedling stage. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The fertility of cross between Semi-dwaf testers and Indica resistant varieties except Carreon was about 74 percents. 2. The segregation modes of resistance varied with varieties and blast races. However, the resistance was expressed as dominance in all cases. Tetep, Tadukan and Carreon showed more complicated segregation for resistance than that of the bred lines. 3. For blast races used, four segregation ratios such as 3:1, 9:7, 13:3 and 37:27 were found in the Tatukan, Tetep, and IR747, and three segregation ratios such as 3:1, 13:3 and 15:1 in the Carreon, and two segregation ratios of 3:1 and 13:3 with Suweon 287, Suweon 288, and Iri342. 4. In the segregation of the resistance to the each races, the ratios of 3:1, 13:3, 15:1 were fitted to T-2
, and the ratios of 3:1, 13:3, 9:7 and 37:27 to N-2
. 5. Suweon 287, Suweon 288 and Iri342 carried one simple dominant gene and inhibitor gene was considered in some cross combinations. Meanwhile Tadukan, Tetep and IR747 seemed to carry one to three resistant genes, and in some cross combinations, the expression of these genes were simple dominant, inhibiting, duplicating and complimentary action. 6. Resistance genes to blast races, T-2
in the Tadukan, Tetep, Carreon, Suweon 287, Suweon 288 and Iri342 were found to be independent with the linkage group of II(lg), VIII(la), XI(bc), and XII(gl).bc), and XII(gl).
Paddy Weeds Serving as the Possible Reservoirs for Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight
Sang-Yull Jae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 40~44
This study was conducted to identify the possibility of paddy weeds served as the host plant of bacterial leaf blight, using various bacterial groups and inoculation methods. The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1. Alopecurns spp., Setaria viridis P. Beauv., and Leersia juponica Makino were identified the most susceptible to bacterial leaf blight, similar to Milyang 23 which was used as a susceptible check variety. The others such as Digitaria adscendens Hem., Eleusine indic aGaertin., Cyperns serotinus Rottb, Cyperns difformis L. showed slight infection but most of broadleaf weeds were resistant to bacterial leaf blight. 2. Weed species showing early susceptibility maintained their susceptibility throughout the growth stages. Group I of bacterial leaf blight was the most effective to develop infection symptom to weeds. 3. Pin and scissor inoculation methods were more effective mean for infection than spray method which was used without wound.
Diurnal Changes in Stomatal Diffusion Resistance and Distribution of Stomata on Different Leaf Positions in Barley and Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 45~50
Diurnal changes in leaf stomatal resistances were measured on leaf positions and both surfaces to investigate the stomatal response to irradiance in wheat, var. Chokwang and barley, var. Dongbori 1. Stomatal frequency and size were also determined to explain the control mechanism of gas exchanges in two species. The leaf diffusive resistances of two species decreased, as the sun rose, to minimum at 10 to 11 o'clock a.m. and increased gradually in the afternoon, even faster at sunset. As the adaxial irradiance increased, stomatal resistances decreased sensitively in the range of 30uEm
quantum flux density. The stomatal opening of the abaxial surface began at lower irradiance and was completed earlier than the adaxial surface. The adaxial irradiances decreased in order of leaf position, flag, the 2nd, the 3rd leaf, and the stomatal resistances increased in the same order. Even under the same irradiance, the stomatal resistance of lower leaves were higher than those of upper leaves. The stomatal frequencies of lower leaves were less, but the stomatal size was greater than those of upper leaves. Consequently, the relative leaf area occupied by stomatal pores were constant among leaf positions in two species.
Distribution and Inheritance of Trypsin Inhibitor Variant in Soybeans Grown in Korea
Byong-Ho Chang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 51~55
Seed proteins of 51 varieties of soybean were separated by disc electrophoresis. Nine varieties had Rf 0.79 electrophoretic band, and 42 varieties had Rf 0.83 band. The frequency for Rf 0.79 was 0.176 and the frequency for Rf 0.83 was 0.824. The F_1 seeds of crossed between Kumgangdaepp (Rf 0.79) and Uidu (Rf 0.83) possessed both bands. Analysis of 96 F_2 seeds showed a ratio of 22 : 53 : 21 (Rf 0.79 : Rf 0.79/Rf 0.83 : Rf 0.83), suggesting single gene control with two co dominant alleles.
Investigation on Korean Local Maize Lines V. Variabilities of Plant Characters of Multi-eared and Tillered Lines(MET)
Bong-Ho Chae ; Keun-Yong Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 56~68
A maize line was selected in 1979 among 1000 Korean local maize lines collected in 1977. The selected maize line was characterized by having three to four tillers and eight to 10 ears on each individual plant. The line was assumed to have a great potential as a silage crop. The investigation was conducted as one of the serial studies on the Korean maize collected lines to provide basic information on the genetic variabilities of the multi-eared and tillered (MET) line and on other agronomic characters, prior to use the line as material for future breeding works for silage crop. The MET line and Suwon #19, single cross hybrid, as check variety were planted on May 1, 15 and 30, in three different levels of plant populations. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The genetic variabilities of multi-ear and tillering habits were greater than environmental variabilities. 2. Total dry leaf weight of individual plant of MET line was also significantly higher than that of Suwon #19. 3. The mean number of tillers and ears bearing on the individual plant of MET line varied greatly with plant densities. The number of tillers and ears was on the average 2.9 and 7.0, respectively, when planted in 60cm. by 60cm. 4. The total dry matter and dried stem weight of the individual plant on MET line were comparable to those of Suwon #19. 5. The kernel weight from the individual plant of MET line was 5 to 40% less than that of Suwon #19, depending upon the plant densities. 6. The Kernel to stover ratio was higher for Suwon #19 than for the MET line. (41% to 35%). 7. The MET line had shown first tiller two weeks after planted on May 1. The second and third tillers appeared three to five days after the appearance of the first tiller. 8. The MET line was very specific in tillering habits. All the tillers were borne on the first few nodes of main stem below the soil surface. 9. The tillering habits of MET line were vigorous in the early part of the growing season, but less vigorous in the later part of the growing season. The number of efficient tillers bearing useable ears, was around two to three, when planted in 60cm. by 60cm. 10. The difference of plant height between main stem and first few tillers was around 10cm. 11. The ear size of MET line was around one-third of the major corn belt hybrids. The shape of ear of MET line was conical, with different diameter. 12. The kernel of the MET line was flinty with small soft starch patches on the endosperm part. 13. The 100 kernel weight was around 15gr., which is about one half of the major high yielding hybrids. 14. The ear height of MET line was comparatively higher than that of Suwon #19. 15. Significantly high and positive phenotypic correlation coefficients were obtained among major plant characters. 16. The growth rate of MET line was slower than that of Suwon #19. 17. MET line and Suwon #19 were both heavily infected with black streaked mosaic virus.
Physio-Ecological Studies on Stevia(Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni)
Kwang-He Kang ; Eun-Woong Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 69~89
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a perennial herb widely distributed in the mountainous area of Paraguay. It belongs to the family Compositae and contains 6 to 12 percent stevioside in the leaves. Stevioside is a glucoside having similar sweetening character to surgar and the degree of sweetness is approximately 300 times of sugar. Since Korea does not produce any sugar crops, and the synthetic sweetenings are potentially hazardous for health, it is rather urgent to develop an economical new sweetener. Consequently, the current experiments are conducted to establish cultural practices of stevia, a new sweetening herbs, introduced into Korea in 1973 and the results are summarized as followings: 1. Days from transplanting of cuttings to the flower bud formation of 6 stevia lines were similar among daylengths of 8, 10 and 12 hours, but it was much greater at daylengths of 14 or 24 hour and varietal differences were noticable. All lines were photosensitive, but a line, 77013, was the most sensitive and 77067 and Suweon 2 were less sensitive to daylength. 2. Critical daylength of all lines seemed to be approximately 12 hours. Growth of plants was severely retarded at daylengths less than 12 hours. 3. Cutting were responded to short daylength before rooting. Number of days from transplanting to flower bud formation of 40-day old cuttings in the nursery bed was 20 days and it was delayed as duration of nursery were shorter. 4. Number of days from emergence to flower bud formation was shortest at short day treatment from 20 days after emergence. It was became longer as initiation of short day treatment was earlier or later than 20 days. 5. Plant height, number of branches, and top dry weight of stevia were reduced as cutting date was delayed from March 20 to May 20. The highest yield of dry leaf was obtained at nursery duration of 40-50 days in march 20 cutting, 30-40 days in April 20 cutting, and 30 days in May 20 cutting. 6. An asymptotic relationship was observed between plant population and leaf dry weight. Yield of dry leaf increased rapidly as plant population increased from 5,000 to 10,000 plants/10a with a reduced increasing rate from 10,000 to 20,000 plants/l0a, and levelled off at the plant population higher than 20,000 plants/l0a. 7. Stevia was adaptable in Suweon, Chengju, Mokpo and Jeju and drought was one of the main factors reducing yield of dry leaf. Yield of dry leaf was reduced significantly (approximately 30%) at June 20 transplanting compared to optimum transplanting. 8. Yield of dry leaf was higher in a vinyl house compared to unprotected control at long daylength or natural daylength except at short day treatment at March 20. Higher temperature ill a vinyl house does not have benefital effects at April 20 transplanting. 9. The highest content of stevioside was noted at the upper leaves of the plant but the lowest was measured at the plant parts of 20cm above ground. Leaf dry weight and stevioside yield was mainly contributed by the plant parts of 60 to 120cm above ground but the varietal differences were also significant. 10. Delayed harvest by the time of flower bud formation increased leaf dry weight remarkably. However, there were insignificant changes of yield as harvests were made at any time after flower bud formation. Content of stevioside was highest at the time of flower bud formation and earlier or later harvest than this time was low in its content. The optimum harvesting time determined by leaf dry weight and stevioside content was the periods from flower bud formation to right before flowering that would be the period from September 10 to September 15 in Suweon area. 11. Stevioside and rebaudioside content in the leaves of Stevia varieties were ranged from 5.4% to 14.3% and 1.5% to 8.3% respectively. However, no definit relationships between stevioside and rebaudioside were observed in these particular experiments.
Breeding of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for Oil Quality Improvement II. FattyAcid Composition of Sesame Seeds under Different Climatic Conditions and Locations
Jung-Il Lee ; ; Seong-Geun Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 90~95
This study was conducted to ascertain the seed quality of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under different environmental conditions. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The sesame seeds harvested in the central noethern area of Korea showed higher linoleic acid content than did those in the southern area. 2. The linoleic acid content was highly negatively correlated with the accumulated temperature during maturity (r=-.595) and the correlation coefficient between Linoleic acid content and the accumulated solar radiation during maturity was highly significant (r=.613). Thus, the relative low temperature and high solar radiation during the maturity would be importnat factors for the increase in the linoleic acid content of sesame seeds. 3. The oleic acid content was higher in the southern area than in the central northern area. 4. The oleic acid content was highly correlated with the accumulated temperature (r=.644) and the accumulated solar radiation (r=-.456), respectively. 5. The linoleic and oleic acid are important components of sesame seeds, and these show a relative relationship to determine the oil content of the seeds. 6. The oil quality in the central northern area was superior to that in the southern area.
Effect of Shifting Planting - time and Different Nitrogen Level on the Yield and Characteristics of Plant Growth in Safflower, Carthamus Tinctorius L.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 96~102
Effect of shifting planting-time and different nitrogen on the yield and characteristics of plant growth in safflower, Chrthamus Tinctorius L. This study was carried out to investigate the optimum sowing-date and the ecological variations due to differerent amount of nitrogen for safflower on the Experiment Farm of Sang Ji college from March 17 to may 16, 1980, sowing seeds with an interval of 10 days and the amount of nitrogen were applied in 5 levels (Non, half-standard, standard, one and half-ordinary amount-No and twice amount). The triple super phosphate and pottassium chloride were applied only in standard amount. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. As sowing-date was delayed, the germination-ratio decreased, germinating speed increased, and the time required to attain the most vigorous germinating stage and days required for germination shortened. 2. Plant height, number of branch and stem diameter showed a decrease as sowing-date was delayed. And at the same time, plant height and number of branch showed a tendency to increase as amount of nitrogen was increased. 3. As sowing-date was delayed, the number of pods and the weight of 1000-grains were decreased. Moreover, the earlier sowing-date was, the more it increased. And as amount of nitrogen was increased, number of pods and yield also were strikingly increased. 4. The fresh-weight of flower with orange and orange-red colour, as influenced by the different sowing-date, was found out to be largest at the begining of April. But increasing amount of nitrogen did not show influence upon the promotion of flowering. 5. Judging from the results reported above, the optimum sowing-date of safflower seemed to be the begining of April; also the culture of safflower seemed to be the effects of much amount of nitrogen.
Effects of Lime and Borax on the Abscission of Tobacco Green Leaves, Yields and Quality
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 103~109
This experiment was carried out to study the influence on the abscission of tobacco green leaves, yields and quality by the application of lime and boras. The results obtained are as follows; 1. The breakdown of tobacco green leaves occurred from 40 to 80 days after transplanting. According to the progress of growing stage, the breakdown leaves advanced to upper leaves in stalk position. 2. The number of breakdown leaves were increased by application of lime and application of borax have a remarkable effect for the control of breakdown leaves. 3. Application of lime were decreased to total-sugar, lignin and borone but borax were increased to borone and lignin content in leaf tobacco at 50 days after transplanting time. 4. It was found that perfective prevention of breakdown leaves could not deped on annual application of borax. 5. The optimum amount of lime and borax were found that lime was 120kg/10a and borax was 1.2kg/10a for the prevention of breakdown leaves, yields and quality.
Studies on the Tissue Culture of Korean-Ginseng III. Effects of NAA on the Callus Induction and Organ Differentiation trom Korean-ginseng Explants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 110~114
These experiments were carried out to define the effects of NAA, 2, 4-D and Benzyladenine on the callus induction and the organ differentiation from the explants and to find out the vegetative propagation method of Korean ginseng. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. NAA was significantly effective in forming roots from the ginseng stem segment and the number of roots was increased by increasing NAA concentration in the medium. The roots were formed from both distal and proximal ends of the ginseng stem segments grown on the medium containing more than 2mg/L of NAA. 2. The amount of callus growth increased proportionatly with NAA concentration in the range of 4.0mg per liter in the medium. The callus was easly induced from stem segment than leaf segment and 2, 4-D was more effective in callus induction and growth than NAA. 3. The benzyladenine showed the significant inhibition effect in forming roots from ginseng explant. The callus was not induced with BA alone, but in BA and 2, 4-D or BA and NAA added medium, the callus was easily induced and its growth was also accelerated. The interaction effects between 2, 4-D and BA on the callus induction and growth were significantly higher than those between NAA and BA. 4. As the ginseng embryos were cultured on the M.S. medium supplemented with 2mg per liter NAA, number of shoots was significantly increased and the percentage of embryo which had shown more than 4 shoots later was 22.2%. On the medium containing 8mg per liter NAA, the ginseng embryo showed the normal growth of shoots and leaves, but increased roots and callus induction on the basal part of shoots. 5. When the shoots with 3 leaflets were cut in 1.5cm long and grown on the Blayde's medium containing NAA 1.0mg per liter, roots were formed at the proximal end of shoot, and a new ginseng seedling was successfully obtained.
Root and Top Growth of Panax ginseng at Various Soil Moisture Regime
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 26, issue 1, 1981, Pages 115~120
Effect of soil water on the growth of Panax ginseng(2 years old) was investigated through pot experiment. the results were as follows. 1. Optimum soil moisture content for root yield appeared to be 65.5% of field capacity(22.1% fresh weight basis) and at 31.5%(10.7% fresh weight basis) relative growth rate was nil. 2. Under suboptimum condition of soil moisture, emergence of shoot and leaf unfolding was delayed. The rate of emergence of shoot and leaf area was also decreased while missing shoot rate was increased. 3. Root yield was positively correlated with leaf area per plant(r=0.91 **), stem diameter (r=0.73**), stem length(r=0.71 **) fresh top yield(r=0.93**) and negatively with missing shoot rate(r=-0.77**). 4. Fresh root weight showed negative correlation(r=-0.80**) with water content of root indicating that tissue is more compact when grown at sufficient water.