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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1982
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 1982
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 1982
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 1982
Selecting the target year
Differences among Major Rice Cultivars in Tensile Strength and Shattering of Grains during Ripening and Field Loss of Grains
Y. W. Kwon ; J. C. Shin ; C. J. Chung ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 1~10
Degree of grain shattering which is of varietal character is an important determinant for the magnitude of field loss of grains during harvest and threshing. Seven Indica \times Japonica progeny varieties and four Japonica varieties were subjected to measurements of tensile strength of grains, degree of grain shattering when panicles were dropped at 1.5m above concrete floor, and moisture content of grains (wet basis) during a period 35 to 63 days after heading. In addition, two varieties were tested for the relation of tensile strength of grains to the magnitude of field loss of grains in actual binder harvest. The 11 varieties differed conspicuously in tensile strength of grains and the degree of grain shattering: the weakest average tensile strength of grains of a variety was about 90g and the strongest about 250g with varying standard deviation of 30 to 60g. Three Indica \times Japonica varieties and one Japonica variety shattered I to 30% of the grains under the falling test. The threshold tensile strength of grains allowing grain shattering was estimated to be 180g on average for a sampling unit of 10 panicles, but only the grains having tensile strength weaker than 98g within the samples shattered. A decrease in average tensile strength by 10g below the threshold value corresponded to an increase of 3 to 5% in grain shattering. Most varieties did not change appreciably the tensile strength of grains and degree of grain shattering with delay in time of harvest and showed a negative correlation between the tensile strength and the moisture content of grains. The average tensile strength of grains was negatively correlated linearly with field loss in binder harvest. The average tensile strength for zero field loss in binder harvest was estimated to be 174g and a decrease in the average tensile strength by 10g corresponded to an increase of 40kg per hectare in field loss of grains. Instead of the average tensile strength of grains, the percentage of grains having tensile strength weaker than 100g is recommended as a criterion for the estimation of field loss of grains during harvesting operations as well as a basis of variety classification for grain shattering, since the standard deviation of tensile strength of grains varies much with variety and time of harvest, and individual grains having tensile strength stronger than 98 did not shatter practically.
Variation in Larvae Development and Moth Emergence of Striped Rice Borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) and Damages in Rice Cultivars under Different Levels of Nitrogen and Silicate Fertilizers
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 11~19
The average weight of larvae, the percentage of survival larvae and the percentage of moth emergence in first and second generation of striped rice borer showed lower values in Akibare(Japonica variety) compared with those in Milyang 23 (Indica variety). At higher nitrogen level the larvae weight in second generation of striped borer was increased. The percentage of survival larvae in second generation was gradually decreased by applying the silicate fertilizer in both cultivars. The moth emergences in both generations of striped rice borer were also lower at high levels of silicate fertilizer. The percentage of white head of rice plant was reduced by the application of silicate fertilizer. The ratio of SiO
to T-N of the rice stem was related negatively with the percentage of survival larvae and the moth emergence in second generation of striped rice borer, and also with the percentage of white head of rice plant.
Effect of Defoliation and Panicle Removal at Heading Stage on Grain Weight in Rice Plant
Kwang-Ho Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 20~27
Two rice varieties were planted and four degrees of defoliated tiller num ber ratio and another four levels of defoliation-panicle removal tiller number ratio were made at heading stage of know the possibility of translocation of photosynthetic products between tillers during grain filling stage of rice plant. The more tillers defoliated in a hill, the less matured grain ratio and the less grain weight per panicle of normal tillers were found. But the matured grain ratio and the grain weight per panicle of tillers defoliated partly in a hill showed higher than those of tillers of completely defoliated plant. No differences of the matured grain ratio and the grain weight per panicle were found between different levels of defoliation-panicle removal tiller number ratio in a hill. But the matured grain ratio and the grain weight per panicle of tillers of completely defoliated plant were significantly lower than those of tillers of partly defoliation-panicle removal treatments. These results indicated that the translocation of photosynthetic products between tillers was possible during grain filling period in rice plant. Source-sink relationship can be applied to interpret the result obtained in this study.
Some Morphological Characteristics of Grain and Chaff of Rice Grains Having Different Specific Gravity
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 28~34
This experiment was conducted to study on some morphological characteristics of rice grain and chaff with specific gravity. The size of grain was greater in grains with heavier specific gravity. Indica varieties were large in length, but short in width and thickness of grain, and was thin in grain form and small in volume of grain compared with Japonica variety. The coefficient of variability was high in grains with lower specific gravity. The accumulation of assimilation product was more influenced with width and thickness rather than length of grain. The percentage of fully ripened grain was high in small size variety. The green rice and imperfect grain showed higher distribution ratio in the lower specific gravity. The chaff of less filled grain had higher content of nitrogen and lower content of potassium and sillicate than the filled.
New Semi-dwarf and High Yielding Malting Barley Variety "Doosan #8"
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 35~40
New malting barley variety" Doosan #8" is a short culm, lodging registance, high tillering, good quality and high yielding variety. This variety was developed from the cross 'Tai Chung 2 rowed barley #1 \times Deba abed' made in 1972 at Sacheon Malting Barley Experiment station, Doo San Fann's Co. This variety was determined to recommend to the all malting barley production areas in southern part of Korea from 1981. of Korea from 1981.
Comparison of Growth, Yield and Malting Quality Characters of Two Row and Six Row Barley
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Byong-Hee Hong ; Eun-Sup Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 41~48
A comparison was made for growth and yield of two rowed and six rowed barley varieties to differentiate their fundamental characteris in relation with brewing quality. Heading and maturing time of two rowed barley varieties were similar to those of six rowed covered but were earlier than those of six rowed naked ones. Most of two rowed varieties were spring barley and low temperature susceptible, but they were relatively photoinsensitive compared to six rowed varieties. Eventhough malting barley has heavier stands and grains, they were quite similar in yielding ability with six rowed cultivars with decreased number of grains per spike. In quality characters, malting barley has better germination energy and rate, lower protein content than the common six rowed barley and decisively better for brewing that six rowed barley with higher malt yield, extract yield and quality and enzyme activity. In comparison of malting barley varieties produced in Korea and Japan indicated that those varieties produced in Japan were better in germination characters, extract yield and quality, Kolback index and enzyme activity than those produced in Korea.
Genetic Studies on Heading-to-Ripening Period and Its Relationship to Yield Components in Barley I. Studies on maturity criteria in barley
Eun-Sup Lee ; Hong-Suk Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 49~54
Experiments were carried out to establish physiological maturity determination criteria with reference to visibly easy measurement in barley in 1980 at Suweon. Thirty-three cultivars and lines from 500 crossing blocks were classified into 4 heading groups, and 5 variables; moisture content, discoloration of awn, exsertion, lemma and flag leaf were measured. There were highly negative correlations between heading date and ripening periods (r=-0.656
), so early heading types had longer ripening periods. Comparing with the variables used for maturity determination, moisture content and discoloration of lemma were most sensitive to development of grain-filling. Those two variables, alone or in combination could be used to screen many genotypes of barley for physiological maturity. In determination of maturity with reference to visibly easy measurement, color of lemma changed stably and was the most useful way and discolor of flag leaf increased the accuracy of determination. The color of lemma at this time was Grayish yellow, and the mean moisture content was about 33 percent in 33 barley cultivars and lines.
Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of the Spring Habits in Naked Barley IV. Electrophoretic Variations in Seed Proteins during Ripening
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 55~59
With naked barley varieties which are different in their spring habits, variations in seed proteins during ripening were checked by acrylamide gel electrophoresis. In case of 7% acrylamide gel among protein bands ⅰ-band was observed only in both Sedohadaka (intermediate type) and Wanju (spring type) throughout the ripening period, and j-band was detected in all the three varieties until 33 days after heading, but not in Nonsangwa (winter type) thereafter. In case of 6M urea-7% acrylamide gel z-band was traced only in Nonsangwa, contrary to i-band, throughout the ripening period. U-band was observed in all the three varieties until 23 days after heading, but not in Nonsangwa thereafter. X-band showed opposite from u-band. Throughout the ripening period Sedohadaka was significantly more similar in the electrophoretic patterns to Wanju than to Nonsangwa.
Studies on the Drought-Resistance of Major Food Crops II. Effect of Water Stress on the Activity of Nitrate Reductase and Protease, and the Accumulation of Free Proline in Barley and Wheat at Seedling Stage
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 60~65
In order to observe the degree and response of drought-resistance and its physiological mechanism in barley and wheat seedling stage, 5 species (16 cultivars) were tested for the changes of nitrate reductase and protease activity and the accumulation of free proline, by being subjected to water stress by withholding watering for 8 days at 10 days (at the 3rd leaf stage) after emergence and by imposing water stress to the excised first leaf by polyethyleneglycol solution (osmotic potential, -20 bars) for 48 hours. The average rate of decrease of all cultivars was 42% in nitrate reductase activity and 73% in protease activity. But proline content in water stress was increased 10 folds more than that of control. The decrease4 rate of nitrate reductase activity in 5 species was in the order of wheat < rye < covered barley < naked barley < two-row barley: wheat being the lowest. The decreased rate of protease activity in 5 species was in the order of wheat > rye > two-row barley > covered barley > naked barley: wheat being the" heighest. The accumulated amount of free proline in 5 species by water stress was in the order of wheat > covered barley > rye > naked barley > two-row barley. And the increased ratio (folds) of free proline of water stress to control was in the order of rye(13) > wheat. covered barley(11) > naked barley(99) > two-row barley(7): rye being the highest. In terms of the enzymatic activity and the physiotically adaptive metabolism during the processing leading to drought-resistance, the degree of drought-resistance of 5 species to water stress at seedling stage was shown to be in the order of wheat > rye > covered barley > naked barley > two-row barley.
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth, Forage Yield and Nitrogen Use of Sudangrass
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 66~71
Field experiments of nitrogen application (0, 100, 200, 400, 800kg N/ha year) were carried out to study the nitrogen response of Sudangrass at College Farm, Seoul National Univ., in 1979 and 1980. Dry matter yield and leaf area index increased up to 400kg N/ha in 1979 and 800kg N/ha in 1980. The forage yield of 1980 was less than that of 1979, due to the extraordinarily low temperature and the decreased solar radiation during summer. Total nitrogen contents in forage increased with nitrogen application, but maximum contents were found either 400 or 800kg N levels depend on each cutting stages. Nitrate nitrogen content in forage exceded over 2000 ppm at 800kg N application. Overall percentages of N recovery were below 50% with average 34%. Net assimilation rate and nitrogen use efficiency of Sudangrass were improved in higher temperature and more sunlight condition during regrowth period.
Studies on the Vegetative Propagation of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) 1. Effects of the NAA Concentration and the Rooting Media on the Rooting of the Ginseng Stern Cutting
Jae-Seong Jo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 72~77
To develop a new propagation method of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) by cutting, stem cuttings with leaflets obtained from ginseng seedlings were planted in rooting media treated with three levels of NAA concentration. NAA solution of 1.0 ppm was the most effective for the rooting of ginseng stem cuttings as well as for root growth after initiation of the roots from cuttings. A mixture of sand and leaf compost as a rooting medium for ginseng stem cuttings showed the best results in rooting percentage of cuttings and root growth after rooting. An acril film cap covering was very effective to prevent water loss by transpiration from the leaflets of stem cuttings and for rooting and root growth after rooting. Cuttings of leaf petiole with 5 leaflets from 2 year old ginseng plants showed good rooting as well as root growth after rooting in a mixture of sand and leaf compost treated with 1.0 ppm NAA.
Effects of Seed Sterilization on Seedling Blight in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 78~83
Seedling blight of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the most serious diseases in Korea. This study was performed to control seedling blight in the field where sesame has been cultured for 4 years of Industrial Crop Division at the Crop Experiment Station. The pathogenic fungi of seedling blight which is known Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectium and Rhizoctonia solani was inoculated to the wheat media and it was spreaded on the experimental field in the concentration of 109 of wheat media mixed with 10g of fine soil. Seed sterilization was the most effective method for seedling blight control for two year experiment. Seed sterilant Benlate-T was highly effective for con trolling seedling blight with infection rate of 4% and yield of 40.7kg per 10a comparing to the control with infection rate of 96% and grain yield of 6.4kg per l0a, the other chemicals, Busan 30, Vitathiram, Captan showed good effect to control seedling blight, but less effect to the Benlate-T. The spraying treatments on leaf surface 25 days after sowing were not effective to seedling blight.
Mathematical Analysis of Growth of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) II. A New Model for Growth Curve
Yu-Sun Ban ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 84~86
The experiment was conducted with three varieties (Hicks, Burley 21, and Sohyang) and cultivation type (Improved mulching, general mulching, and non mulching) of NC 2326 to model to curve of tabacco growth against time. The basic growth data were obtained by harvest method at intervals of ten days from transplanting at 7-8 times and analyzed by polynomial regression, orthogonal polynomial, and logarithmic transformation. It is shown that the C model of growth curve: T = A +
2K provides an excellent fit.
Heritabilities, Genetic Correlations and Path-coefficient Analysis of Some Economic Characters among Dihaploids from Anther Cultured (Nicotiana tabaccum L.)
Kwon-Yawl Chang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 87~93
Dihaploid lines derived from the another of the
of single cross, SC72
Hicks (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were estimated the variation, heritablities, genetic correlations and path-co-efficients on agronomic characters and chemical compositions. Dinaploids exhibited reduced vigor and growth when comparecd with the mid-parent value but had increased nicotine contents, and the range of dihaploids characters were deviated more than that of their parents. Heritabilities of days to flowering, leaves per plant, nicotine. contents, leaf size and plant height appeared high value, and the yield, value per kg. and reducing sugar contents were low. There were positive genetic correlations between yield, and value per kg., leaf width, leaves per plant and reducing sugar contents and negative genetic correlations appeared between nicotine contents and the other characters except for index of leaf shape. Path-coefficient analysis of genotypic correlation coefficients showed that leaves per plant and leaf width lave a high direct effect, and plant height and days to flowering have a high indirect effect on yield, respectively.
Relationship between Environmental Conditions and the Growth of Ginseng Plant in Field I. Productive Structures as Affected by Planting Positions and Ages
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 1, 1982, Pages 94~98
To understand the growth pattern of ginseng plant under shading, the vertical distribution of leaf area, leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf weight (SLW) and changes in light intensity as affected by planting position were investigated in 3 to 5 years old ginseng plant populations. Light intensity was vertically lowest at about 10cm above the ground and became low at the rear planting position in 3-year-old population. When culturing bed (96cm in width) were divided into three parts at intervals of 32cm from front to rear, the leaf area in 3-year-old population was largest in middle 1/3 part of planting bed. Light intensity affected the SLW positively, but LAI showed no distinct difference among planting positions. The light environment of 4-year-old population was worse than that of 3-year-old population and leaf area and LAI differed greatly among planting positions. In 5-year-old population, leaf dry weight and leaf area of furrow part (that is, the amount of leaves protruded from the plants which were planted in 1st, 2nd or 3rd lines into the furrow) increased. The dry weights of leaves and stem increased considerably as plant became aged, and were distributed mainly in upper layer.