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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1982
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 1982
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 1982
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 1982
Selecting the target year
Variation of Rice Production for Two Decades before and after Breeding Tongil Variety in Korea
Eun-Woong Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 183~192
The variability of rice productivity during last 2 decades (1961-1980) of ten years before and after the introduction of"Tongil" was reviewed from the epochal, regional and varietal points of view. During that period the cultivated area of paddy rice have remained almost unchanged, while the total rice production have got elevated from 3, 463 million metric tons in 1961 to 6.006 million metric tons in 1977, recording 73.4% increase. This remarkable increase in rice production is considered to be attributable much to the development and release of new high yielding variety, "Tongil", coupled with the amelioration of cultural techniques. However, in 1978 Tongil type varieties experienced the epidemic outbreak of blast disease due to the shifted race population of blast fungus and in 1980 recorded poor rice production as low as in 1960's due to the unfavorable weather stress throughout the rice growing season, giving rise to many problems awaiting solutions for securing the stabilized high production of rice. The rice yield has continued the gradual increase during last two decades but its difference between farmer and research organization have got wider from 79kg/10a during 1960 to 1971 to 101kg/l0a during 1972 to 1980, and also the inter-regional differences have been increased from 50-60kg/10a to 80kg/10a during those periods. Therefore, this proves that we have raised the upper boundary of rice yield by increasing the yield potential of rice variety but have not changed those absolute deviations. Estimates indicate that the increased rice production during that period was indebted 40 percent to the varietal improvement and 13 percent to the ameliorated agro-technologies, and the rest, 47 percent, could be ascribed to the other factors besides varieties and cultural technologies such as the improved agricultural environments, etc. Of course, even though it cannot be expected to unify the cultural environments and the cultural technologies, provided that much efforts are to be endeavored to minimize the yield difference of 20 percent between farmer and research organizations and the inter-regional yield difference of 20 percent, much increased rice production can be expected to be achieved with the current level of cultural technology and the yielding potential of the present rice varieties. In order to expedite the above effects on rice production the followings are to be put into practices consitently and steadfastly. 1. Reinforcement of breeding for varieties with high yielding potential and less susceptible to climatic-stress and pests, and of basic physicoecological studies of rice plant for improving the cultural technologies. 2. Continuous endeavor to secure the stabilized cultural environments by improving the soil fertility and increasing the drainage and irrigation facilities. 3. Political back-up to encourage the farmers' incentives for production 4. Precise surveys for agricultural statistics to facilitate the long-term planninge long-term planning
Study on the Elongation of Crown Root in Rice Plant (Oryza sativa L.)
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 193~197
1t is well known that the stem is filed with shoot units in the rice plant and each internode bears several crown roots. But it has not yet been ascertained that what controls the differential elongation of the crown roots in the same internode. Thereupon, author had been carried out this experiment to ascertain what controls the elongation of the crown roots in the same internode, especially on the conception of sink-source by leaf-cutting method. Generally, one shoot unit has two important sinks: one axillary bud (tiller) and several crown roots. When we removed the axillary bud, namely shoot unit has one sink: several crown roots, the crown roots formed near the midvein (source) were longer than the crown roots born near the axillary bud. And when the shoot unit has two sinks: one axillary bud and several crown roots, the other way, the crown roots formed at the prophyll unit of the tiller were longest, and the crown roots formed near the midvein were shortest and the crown roots born the near the tiller showed interim length. Juding from the present results, we can suppose that, when shoot unit has two sinks, axillary bud is superior sink than the crown roots. So that axillary bud grows faster than crown roots and tiller becomes a new source. Therefore the crown roots which formed at the new source and the crown roots born the near the new source are longer than others.
Studies on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Flag Leaf and Chaff of Rice Plant in Cold Injury Location I. Difference of Some Inorganic Elements of Grain Chaff Having Different Rice Variety and Elevation
Jong-Hoon Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 198~205
In 1980, rice was considerably damaged by abnormal low temperature. In this paper, to determine the effect of low temperature on the growth and nutrition of rice, the experiment were carried out: varietal response to low temperature in the region with different elevations. Regional differences of heading response to low temperature were observed among varieties. The difference of days between regions were bigger in tongil lines than Japonica lines. Especially, Milyang 42 and Hangangchalbeo might belong the cold suceptible group, since the varieties were severely delayed their heading in the high mountainous region as comparred to plain region. The delay of heading with low temperature was brought out grain sterility, and fertility and ripening ratio is influenced cold tolerance and elevations, and it's decreased yield. Varieties with higher grain sterility by low temperature have higher total nitrogen content, but tended to have lower potassium and phosphate contents in the flag leaf. High content of total nitrogen, low contents of potassium and silicate were observed in the sterilized grain chaff an the opposite result were noted in the ferilized grain chaff at the ripening stage. The results reveal that the balance of these mineral element may play an important role in ripening and possibly cold tolerance.
Studies on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Flag Leaf and Chaff of Rice Plant in Cold Injury Location II. Influence of Different Transplanting Date on Nutrient Uptake of Flag Leaf and Chaff of Rice Plant
Jong-Hoon Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 206~217
This experiment was conducted to study about nutrient absorption of flag leaf and chaff of rice plant different transplanting date with elevations. Heading stage was delayed by destructive cold temperature or late transplanting. Plant analyses revealed that above poor plants also had higher total nitrogen content, but ower silicate in the flag leaf and sterile chaff. Total nitrogen and silica contents to accumulated in flag leaf between yield was significant high correlation. The chaff of late transplanting and sterility was high total nitrogen. Relationship between silicate absorption and total nitrogen of chaff was significant high correlation. Ripening temperature after heading stage was influenced total nitrogen of chaff. Phosphate, potassium, calssium and silicate contents of chaff increased hight ripening temperature but total nitrogen decreased. Therefore, inorganic element contents of chaff was closely connected with grain sterility.
On the Root Development of the Rice Plants(Oryza sativa L.) in Different Varieties Cultivated at the Saline Paddy Field
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 218~222
It has been ascertained by a few researchers that soil salinities of the saline paddy fields have some effects upon the root development of the rice plants. But much is not known about the root formations of the rice plants in different varieties cultivated at the saline paddy field. Therefore this experiments were conducted to study the salinity tolerance of rice plants via variety test. Tested varieties were Akibare, Jinheung, Milyang #30, Josaeng Tongil, Suweon #264 and Suweon #287. And testing methods were cultivation experiment at the saline paddy field and leaf-cutting method at the laboratory. The results of cultivation experiment showed Milyang #30 and Josaeng Tongil were superior to others in root formation, and those of leaf-cutting method revealed that Josaeng Tongil and Mi1yang #30 were also superior to others in root formation and root length.
Study on the Effect of Water Management to Root Development of Rice Plants (Oryza saliva L.) at the Saline Paddy Field
Bong-Ku Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 223~228
Experiments were conducted to study the interrelationships between root development of rice plant and water managements at saline paddy field where has been grown rice plant for 3 years, and to compare the root development between two fields, saline and matured. Under the conditions of non interval and two day interval flooding at saline paddy fields, root systems developed well at surface soil, however, root systems developed well and distributed evenly through surface and sub-soil at saline field where underground drainage was performed, and at matured field. Root developments at field flooded with no interval and with two-day interval were poor as compared with those of saline paddy field of underground drainage and matured field. Regardless of water managements and fields, the ratio of stunted crown roots developed after panicle fromation stage was higher than that developed at early or middle growth stage.
Effect of Meteorological Condition during Ripening on the Grain Shattering of Rice Plant
J. C. Shin ; Y. W. Kwon ; C. J. Chung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 229~234
Environmental factors are known in general to influence much on the development of abscission layer and thereby on shedding of plant parts. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of meterological condition during ripening on the grain shatterability of rice plants at harvest. Different meteorological conditions were obtained by shifting transplanting timing of 40 days old rice seedlings 4 times with a 15 days-interval. Grain shatterability was measured as tensile strength of rice grains: it varied within a range of 214g. to 251g. in a practically non-shattering Japonica variety'Jinheung' and l27.5g. to 204g. in an easy shattering Indica \times Japonica progeny variety'Taeback'. In view of field loss of rice, the variation in tensile strength with time of transplanting and harvest did not matter in Jinheung, but was an important factor in Taeback. In Taeback the tensile strength was significantly correlated positively with mean, maximum and minimum air temperature and relative humidity during a certain period of grain ripening, especially during 30 days period before harvest, but diurnal range of air temperature showed a significant, negative correlation with it. The tensile strength seemed to be more closely related with min. air temperature than max. air temperature, and it was not significantly correlated with radiation amount during any period of pre-harvest. Meteorological effect on grain shatterability may vary with variety, but temperature regime during ripening appears to play major role among the meteorological factors in easy shattering and more thermophilic Indica \times Japonica varieties: lower the temperature, greater the shatterability.
-Monosomic Analysis of Plant Height in Triticum Cultivar Crosses Involving 'Diplomat' and 'Caribo' Monosomic Lines
Young-am, Chae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 235~237
progenies from the crosses between 'Caribo' monosomic lines and 'Diplomat' revealed significant differences in plant height in 7
populations. Well known effects of monosomic constritution of group 2 homoeologues and chromosome 5A sufficiently well explain reduced or increased plant height in these crosses respectively. Minor gene effects were recognized from 'Diplomat' chromosomes 3B, 6A and 7A and interpreted to explain or to contribute to genetic control of the rather small differences in plant height between cv. 'Caribo' and 'Diplomat'.
Relationship among Elongation Periods of Young Spikes, Internodes and Leaf-sheaths in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 238~242
The growth of spike, internode and leaf sheath in winter wheat(Tritican vulgale Vill.) was investigated by measuring them 10 times from April 15 to May 30, with 5 days intervals, in 1980. The variety used was Glumil(Suweon #215) which was newly developed at Wheat and Barley Research Institute in Suweon, Korea. During the periods investigated, the spike elongated from 0.6cm to 8.3cm. The spike began to elongate rapidly from 20 days before heading (April 25) and finished nearly off the elongation at 5 days before heading (May 10). The length of the spike showed highly significant correlation with that of 3rd internode (
), and. with that of first leaf sheath(
) from the top of wheat plant. Correlation between the length of the 3rd internode and that of the first leaf sheath was also very high(
). A major elongation of the spike occurred concurrently with the elongation of the third internode and with that of the first leaf sheath.
Proposal of Gene Transfer Scheme from Diploid (Avena strigosa) to Cultivar Hexaploid (A. sativa) in Oats
Young-Am Chae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 243~246
A proposal of gene transfer scheme from diploid to hexaploid in oats was described. The main idea of this scheme are (1) use Avena magna which has two genomes partially in common with two genomes of the hexaploid Avena sativa or a common genome and the rest genomes partially commonn, and which lead to more regular pairing between them rather than AABB genome type to get 6x-amphiploid as a bridge between ploidy level. Cross between Avena strigosa and Avena magna is compatible and further give 42% seed set, (2) extract tetraploid derivatives which have in corporated desired genes from Avena strigasa to Avena magna, (3) Synthetic petaploid provide 2n=21 chromosome number in female gametes, which lead to complete pairing or nearly so in progenies with Avena sativa, (4) eventually homozygous lines will be produced by selfing the heterozygous (regarding to
genome) at final step.
Studies on Combine Harvesting Methods of Barley in Double Cropping Paddy II. Determination of the Optimum Harvesting Date by Combine with Desiccant (Reglone) Application Based on Grain Yield and Quality
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 247~253
This experiment was conducted to find out the optimum date for Combine harvesting of barley in the double cropping paddy field. By the consideration of moisture contents of grain, grain loss, rate of unhulled grain, and discoloring of external plant parts, the optimum date for harvesting was observed to be about 41 days after heading under natural condition. On the other hand, when desiccant was applied on the 34 days after heading, it could be shortened natural harvesting time for 3 days without any yield loss and grain qualities, too.
Varietal Difference of Lodging Occurence in Soybean Plant
Hong-Suk Lee ; ; Kwang-Ho Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 254~260
Ten soybean varieties were cultivated to know the varietal differences of lodging patterns of soybean plants under three different plant populations in two growing seasons in 1981. Lodging plant percentage was increased in higher plant populations and lodging responses to plant populations were different between soybean varieties. Lodging plant percentage was also increased by the growth of soybean plant and the patterns of lodging development along with the growth stages could be classified into four types by the varieties used, relatively lwoer iodging plant percentage from early to later growth stage but high in late and relatively high in middle stage but low in later stage. Williams, indeterminate type, and Kang-lim, determinate type, showed resistance to lodging under six different cultural practices, but Jang-yeop-kong, Dan-yeop-kong and Hwang-keum-kong showed resistance to lodging under specific cultural conditions among ten varieties used. Most of the plants lodged showed main stem bending in parts above first stem node in higher plant population and lodging resistant varieties showed lower frequency of stem bending lodging compared with those of lodging susceptible varieties.
Study on the Germinability of Sesame Seeds at Lower Temperature
Jung-Il Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 261~267
The objective of this study was to test germinability of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) varieties at low temperatures. Seeds of III sesame varieties representing different maturity groups and countries were tested at four different temperatures between
. Average germination percentages of III varieties were 92%, 57% and 3.3% at
.respectively. The highest daily germination percentage was observed after 4 days of incubation at
, while it was after 8 days at
. A regression analysis indicated that
as the minimum temperature for satisfactory germination in field conditions. In general, Korean local collections had better germinability than introduced varieties from 6 countries at different latitudes. 'San dong', a Korean local cultivar. showed the highest germination percentage (24%) at
when the average germination percentage of all varieties was as low as
. Early maturity varieties germinated better at
than medium or late maturity groups, but no difference was observed at
. Although larger seeds showed better germinability within a variety, there seems to be no relationship between seed size and germinability in sesame.in sesame.
Effects of Planting Date on Agronomic Characteristics and Varietal Differences in Sesame Varieties
Jung-Il Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 268~275
This study was conducted to obtain basic informations for breeding and improving cultural practices of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) through investigation of several agronomic characters of 82 major varieties plants in April 20, May 15 and June 20. Stem diameter and plant height were largest in early planting(April 20). On the contrary, they were smallest in late planting(June 15). Therefore, the later planting, the poorer the vegetative growth on the basis of stem diameter and plant height. Number of capsules per plant and number of grains per capsule were 88 and 54, respectively, in the early planting, while they were decreased to 25 capsules and 40 grains in late planting. The percentage of ripeness and 1000 grain weight 78 and 2.3g in the April 20planting while they were 58% and 2.1g in June 20 planting indicating the later planting, the lower the ripeness. Grain yield per m1 in April 20 and June 20 planting was 112 and 18g respectively. Consequently, grain yield significantly decreased as planting delayed. On the basis of the vegetative and reproductive growth, varieties could be classified into early, conventional, late and indetermediate planting adapted groups. The major yield components were highly and postively correlated with accmulated sunshine hours and temperatures confirming that grain yield was closely related with sunshine and temperature. Among the varieties tested, Gurye and Local 135 had more than 150 capsules. Haenam and Woogang had more than 75 grains per capsule. Since grain yield oflate planted sesame were significantly different among the varieties, breeding of sesame for after barly cropping would be more effective under late cultural condition of after barly.
Yield Formations of Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.) as Affected by Different Conditions of Soil Drainage
Don-Kil Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 276~282
To estimate the responses of sesame plant in growth and yielding traits to different soil drainage conditions, a pot trial was conducted by using of sesame variety "Suweon-9" were introduced with 5 different mixing combinations of clay and sea-sand soils as 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 percents in volumetric ratio. Also two irrigation methods as 20mm/6 days interval and 10mm/3 days interval were detected. As a result, water drainage was linearly decreased with increament of clay contents. And the excess drainage condition(such as pure sand soil) required more irrigation, however in crop growths, no significant differences among various soil drainage conditions except the pure sand were recognized. On the other hand, number of capsules per plant, among other yielding components, was most contributed factor to the yield, which was effectively given from the soil mixed with clay and sea-sand as 75% and 25%, respectively. Therefore, much similar responses were also detected from the seed yields per a sesame plant. However, the number of seeds per capsule and maturity function were more effectively composed under the soil mixed with clay and sea-sand as 25% and 75% respectively better than under the soil of 75% and 25%. As a conclusion, the yielding responses of sesame plant was advanced more effectively at the soil conditions of water conserved type (e.g. 25%/75% in clay/sand ratio) than of water-draining type (e.g. 75%/25% in clay/sand ratio).nd ratio).
Improvement of Cultural Practices for a New Aromatic Tobacco III. Effect of the Vinyl Pot Size and Plants per Hole on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Quality
Yu-Sun Ban ; Ik-Sang Yu ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 27, issue 3, 1982, Pages 283~288
This experiment was carried out to improve the cultural practices of seedlings and to investigate the proper planting density in aromatic tobacco, Sohang. Two different cultural practices of seedling were employed; Temporary transplanting (TT; Conventional practices) and non temporary transplanting (N.T.). Vinyl pot sizes were
Plants per hole were 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. There were little difference among the vinyl pot sizes in all characters except the survival ratio. But it may be little problem on cultural practices by 7 plants per hole in
5cm vinyl pot. There were not significant in price per kg, yield per 10a and value per 10a between two cultural practices of seedlings and among three pot sizes. Mildness and filling power were increased by increasing the plants per hole. Combustibility of 5-9 plants were better than those of 1-3 plants per hole. The growing of 6 seedlings per hole in
5cm vinyl pot by non temporary transplanting resulted the best cultural practices for an aromatic tobacco, Sohyang.