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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1982
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 1982
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 1982
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 1982
Selecting the target year
Past and Present Meteorological Stress in Crop Production and Its Significance
Eun-Woong Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 291~295
The biosphere of the earth is not only about to overpass the limit to meet the food demand of the world but also the stability of its food production has been also jeopardized by the disasters and pests, especially by the unpredictable weather disasters. In addition the agricultural and industrial pollution against biosphere aggravates the unstability of agricultural production and constitutes a threat in securing the food of the world. In Korea the yield level of crops has been greatly enhanced by the improved agrotechnologies and varietal improvement, but the yield variability due to unfavorable weather events and pests remained unchanged with the change in time. Among weather-related disasters the drought and flood damages has occurred most frequently and impacted most greatly on the agricultural production and its stability. During last decade (1970-l980) the rice production experienced the average annual loss of 0.544 million metric ton which was composed of 0.21 million M/T by climatic disaster, 0.21 million M/T by disease and 0.12 million M/T by insects, and the annual loss of upland crop production from climatic disasters amounted to 0.06 million metric tons. Especially in 1980, the global climatic disasters due to cold or hot temperature endangered the agricultural production all over the world and also the rice production of Korea recorded the unprecedented yield reduction of about 30 percent due to cool summer weather. Nowadays, the unusual weather conditions are prevaling throughout the world, and agro-meteologists predict that the unpredictable cool summer and drought will often attack the rice and other crops in 1980's. To meet the coming weather unstability and to secure the stable crop production, multilateral efforts should be rendered. Therefore, the Korea Society of Crop Science, which commemorates the 20th anniversary of its founding, prepared the symposium on Meteological Stress in Crop Production and its Countermeasures to discuss the decrease in agricultural production due to weather-related disasters and to devise the multilateral counter-measures against the unfavorable weather events.
Effects of Climatic Condition on Stability and Efficiency of Crop Production
Robert H. Shaw ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 296~313
At a time when world population and food supply are in a delicate balance, it is essential that we look at factors to improve this balance. We can alter the environment to better fit the plant's needs, or we can alter the plant to better fit the environment. Improved technology has allowed us to increase the yield level. For moderately detrimental weather events technology has generally decreased the yield variation, yet for major weather disasters the variation has increased. We have raised the upper level, but zero is still the bottom level. As we concentrate the production of particular crops into limited areas where the environment is closest to optimum, we may be increasing the risk of a major weather related disaster. We need to evaluate the degree of variability of different crops, and how weather and technology can interact to affect it. The natural limits of crop production are imposed by important ecological factors. Production is a function of the climate, the soil, and the crop and all activities related to them. In looking at the environment of a crop we must recognize these are individuals, populations and ecosystems. Under intensive agriculture we try to limit the competition to one desired species. The environment is made up of a complex of factors; radiation, moisture, temperature and wind, among others. Plant response to the environment is due to the interaction of all of these factors, yet in attempting to understand them we often examine each factor individually. Variation in crop yields is primarily a function of limiting environmental parameters. Various weather parameters will be discussed, with emphasis placed on how they impact on crop production. Although solar radiation is a driving force in crop production, it often shows little relationship to yield variation. Water may enter into crop production as both a limiting and excessive factor. The effects of moisture deficiency have received much more attention than moisture excess. In many areas of the world, a very significant portion of yield variation is due to variation in the moisture factor. Temperature imposes limits on where crops can be grown, and the type of crop that can be grown in an area. High temperature effects are often combined with deficient moisture effects. Cool temperatures determine the limits in which crops can be grown. Growing degree units, or heat accumulations, have often been used as a means of explaining many temperature effects. Methods for explaining chilling effects are more limited.
Microclimate and Rice Production
Uchijima, Zenbei ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 314~339
Fluctuating climate is still most important environmental constrain, although improved modem agricultural technology has succeeded to increase crop production in the world. To stabilize the food production under fluctuating weather conditions, it is very needed to obain the quantitative information of interactions between crops and climate. The main purpose of this paper is three hold. Using the JIBP-data, the dry matter accumulation of rice crops is studied in relation to weather indexes (\SigmaTa and \SigmaSt). Temperature dependence of the yield index of rice is analyzed as to air temperature and water temperature. \SigmaT
-fluctuations are studied using meteorological data at various stations. The possible shift of \SigmaT
-isopleths due to climate fluctuation is evaluated. The second interest is in the plant climate of rice crops. Using results of canopy photosynthesis, it is pointed that the canopy structure has most important implication in plant climate. Leaf-air, stomatal, and mesophyll resistances of rice crops are described in relation to weather conditions. The change in light condition and aerodynamical property of rice crops with the growth is illustrated. The energy partition is also studied at different growing stages. Third point is to show in more detail effective countermeasures against cold irrigation water and cool summer. Heat balance of warming pond and polyethylene tube as a heat exchanger is studied to make nomo-grams for evaluating the necessary area and necessary length. Effects of windbreak net on rice crops are illustrated by using experimental and simulation results.lts.
Agriculture Pollution and its Countermeasures with Special Consideration of Pesticides
Li, Gwo-Chen ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 340~360
Because of the continuing rapid increase in pesticide usage in Taiwan, much attention has been focus on pesticide contamination of food and effect of pesticides on human and environmental health. The Plant Protection Center (PPC) conducts safety evaluation of pesticides usee! in Taiwan. The pesticides are classified into different groups based on their acute toxicities. Pesticides which are classified into extremely toxic group are not allow to used on short term crops or the continuously harvest crops. The acute toxicity of pesticides to the beneficial insects are also studied, special attention has been paid to the two predators of rice brown planthopper. 60% of cultivated land in Taiwan are paddy field; therefore, acute fish toxicity was taken into consideration when a pesticide was applied for registration to be used in the paddy. Fish toxicities were evaluated by the dangerous rating value which is the amount of pesticide residue in the field water over the TLM value. Mutagenicity of pesticides was continuously evaluated by using Arne's microbial testing method. Island wide survey of residual levels of pesticides of known pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbon . insecticides, mercurial compounds in soil, water and biological samples were carried out constantly. The potential of a new1y Imported esticides to pollute the environment were studied by using model ecosystem. Ecological magnification (EM) of a chemical was calculated from model ecosystem. A chemical was considered as a pollutant when its EM value over 5000. In order to ensure the levels of pesticides residue of the crop within the safety limit. The 'tolerance' of pesticides on different crop groupings were established base on 1) acceptable daily intake value of individual pesticides, 2) average daily consumption of each crop groupings by Chinese person, 3) Actual residues of pesticides. on different crops obtained from supervised trials. Total about 79 pesticides for which the tolerances have been established on different crop groupings. Because the intensive agricultural system was adopted in Taiwan. The phytotoxicity of pesticides to the non-target crops was therefore become one of the important factor in the safety evaluation of pesticide usage. These will include 1) direct injury, 2) injury caused by pesticide polluted irrigation water, 3) injury caused by the pesticide polluted soil, 4) reduction of growth caused by the effect of pesticide on the soil microorganisms. This paper will reviewed all the aspects mentioned in the previous .paragraphs. Most the works have done in Taiwan by the PPC.y the PPC.
Meteorological Condition and Pest Management
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 361~370
The effects of climatic factors on organisms lire variable and complex, and it, however, can be interpreted in terms of those on the distribution and those on the population densities. The distribution of an organism may largely be determined by the temperatures, except some temporal organisms which are depended on the air mass movements. Population density of an organism is determined by various climatic factors, such as previous winter temperature, temperature of growing season and rainfall. The start of growing season of the rice plants has been shifted to earlier since last decade in Korea. This may mean that the overall climatic condition during the growing season might be considerably different from those in past years, and such a difference in climatic conditions might have close relation with the recent status of the diseases and insect pests through direct effects on the physiology and population dynamics of the organisms, as well as through on the biotic associations of the pest organisms. The white back planthopper and brown planthopper have become the key insect pests in Korea in recent years. They are migratory and have high reproductive pontentials and more generations than average residential insects. The synchronization of the migrants and physiological condition of the rice plants seems to be the important factors in relation to the recent outbreaks of these insects; the high reproductive rate can be obtained with the growth stage of rice being 30-50 days after transplanting. The modication of the microclimate associated with high plant density and some other introduced new cultural techniques also have some relation with the outbreak. The key diseases of the rice are the blast disease, sheath blight and the bacterial leaf blight. For the rice blast, the seedling blast and leaf blast during the early growing season and the neck blast, have become more serious, the former may be related to hotbed nursery and the later may be related to the high humidity in early August, and synchronization of the heading time which has been shifted to early part from middle or late part of August. In general, for the rice diseases, the development of the new races have been the most serious which are largely resulted from the introduction of the new varieties, but it also seems to be related with the prolonged periods of the favorable condition associated with the shifted growing seasons. In general, the diseases and insect pest problems have become much more variable and complex, and control measures should be based on the thorough knowledge of the ecology of the pest organisms, that is, effects of various environmental factors on the disease cycle; spore release, spore deposition, infection, colonization and sporulation of the disease organisms, and those on the development, reproductive potentials, dispersal, age specific responses of the insects. The well organized real-time pest management systems, such as alfalfa weevil management system developed at the Purdue University in U.S., is the prime importance for the implementation of the pest management principles.
Meteorological Constraints and Countermeasures in Rice Breeding -Breeding for cold tolerance-
Mun-Hue Heu ; Young-Soo Han ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 371~384
Highly cold tolerant varieties are requested not only at high latitute cool area but also tropical high elevated areas, and the required tolerance is different from location to location. IRRI identified 6 different types of cold tolerance required in the world for breeding purpose; a) Hokkaido type, b) Suweon type, c) Taipei 1st season type, d) Taipei 2nd season type, e) Tropical alpine type and, f) Bangladesh type. The cold tolerance requested in Korea is more eargent in Tongil group cultivars and their required tolerance is the one such as the physiological activities at low temperature are as active as in Japonica group cultivars at least during young seedling stage and reproduction stage. With conventional Japonica cultivars, such cold tolerant characters are requested as short growth duration but stable basic vegetative growth, less sensitive to high temperature and less prolonged growth duration at low temperature. The methods screening for cold tolerance were developed rapidly after the Tongil cultivar was reliesed. The facilities of screening for cold tolerance, such as, low temperature incubator, cold water tank, growth cabinet, phytotron, cold water nursery in Chuncheon, breeding nursery located in Jinbu, Unbong and Youngduk, are well established. Foreign facilities such as, cold water tank with the rapid generation advancement facilities, cold nurseries located in Banaue, Kathmandu and Kashimir may be available for the screening of some limitted breeding materials. For the reference, screening methods applied at different growth stages in Japan are introduced. The component characters of cold tolerance are not well identified, but the varietal differences in a) germinability, b) young seedling growth, c) rooting, d) tillering, e) discolation, f) nutrition uptake, g) photosynthesis rate, h) delay in heading, i) pollen sterility, and j) grain fertility at low temperature are reported to be distinguishable. Relationships among those traits are not consistent. Reported studies on the inheritance of cold tolerance are summarized. Four or more genes are controlling low temperature germinability, one or several genes are controlling seedling tolerance, and four or more genes are responsible for the pollen fertility of the rice treated with cold air or grown in the cold water nursery. But most of those data indicate that the results may come out in different way if those were tested at different temperature. Many cold tolerant parents among Japonicas, Indicas and Javanicas were identified as the results of the improvement of cold tolerance screening techniques and IRTP efforts and they are ready to be utilized. Considering a) diversification of germ plasm, b) integration of resistances to diseases and insects, c) identification of adaptability of recommending cultivars and, d) systematic control of recommending cultivars, breeding strategies for short term and long term are suggested. For short term, efforts will be concentrated mainly to the conventional cultivar group. Domestic cultivars will be used as foundation stock and ecologically different foreign introductions such as from Hokkaido, China or from Taiwan, will be used as cross parents for the adjustment of growth durations and synthsize the prototype of tolerances. While at the other side, extreme early waxy Japonicas will be crossed with the Indica parents which are identified for their resistances to the diseases and insects. Through the back corsses to waxy Japonicas, those Indica resistances will be transfered to the Japonicas and these will be utilized to the crosses for the improvement of resistances of prototype. For the long term, efforts will be payed to synthsize all the available tolerances identified any from Japonicas, Indicas and Javanicas to diversify the germ plasm. The tolerant cultivars newly synthsized, should be stable and affected minimum. to the low temperature at all the growing stages. The resistances to the diseases and insects should be integrated also. The rapid generation advancement, pollen culture and international cooperations were emphasized to maximize the breeding efficiency.
Improvement in Rice Cultural Techniques Against Unfavorable Weather Condition
Yong-Woong Kwon ; Jong-Hoon Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 385~397
The climatic impacts have been the environmental constraints with soil characteristics to achieve self sufficiency of food production in Korea. In this paper, the distribution and appearance of impacts and the changes in climatological status due to recent trend of early transplanting of rice are widely discussed to derive some countermeasures against the impacts, being focussed on cultural A long term analysis of the climatic impact appearances of the last 74 years showed that drought, strong wind, flood, cold spell and frost were the major impacts. Before 1970's, the drought damage was the greatest among the climatic impacts; however, the expansion and improvement of irrigation and drainage system markedly decreased the damage of drought and heavy rain. The appearance of cold damage became more frequent than before due to introduction of early transplanting for more thermophilic new varieties. Tongillines which were from Indica and Japonica crosses throw more attention to cold damage for high yields to secure high temperature in heading and ripening stages and lead weakness to cold and drought damage in early growth stage after transplanting. The plants became subject to heavy rain in ripening stage also. For the countermeasures against cold damage, the rational distribution of adequate varieties according to the regional climatic conditions and planting schedule should be imposed on the cultivation. A detoured water way to increase water temperature might be suggestable in the early growth stage. Heavy application of phosphate to boost rooting and tillering also would be a nutritional control method. In the heading and ripening stages, foliar application of phosphate and additional fertilization of silicate might be considerable way of nutritional control. Since the amount of solar radiation and air temperature in dry years were high, healthy plants for high yield could be obtained; therefere, the expansion of irrigation system and development of subsurface water should be performed as one of the national development projects. To minimize the damage of strong wind and rainfall, the rational distribution of varieties with different growing periods in the area where the damage occurred habitualy should be considered with installation of wind breaks. Not only vertical windbreaks but also a horizontal wind break using a net might be a possible way to decrease the white heads in rice field by dry wind. Finally, to establish the integrated countermeasures against the climatic impacts, the detailed interpretation on the regional climatic conditions should be conducted to understand distribution and frequency of the impacts. The expansion of observation net work for agricultural meteorology and development of analysis techniques for meteorological data must be conducted in future together with the development of the new cultural techniques.
Meteorological Constraints and Countermeasures in Major Summer Crop Production
Shin-Han Kwon ; Hong-Suk Lee ; Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 398~410
Summer crops grown in uplands are greatly diversified and show a large variation in difference with year and location in Korea. The principal factor for the variation is weather, in which precipitation and temperature play a leading role and such a weather factors as wind, sun lights also influence production of the summer crops. Since artificial control of weather conditions as a main stress factor for crop production is almost impossible, it must be minimized only by an improvement of cultivation techniques and crop improvement. Precipitation plays a role as one of the most important factor for production of the summer crops and it is considered in two aspects, drought and excess moisture. This country, which belongs to monsoon territory, necessarily encounter one of this stress almost every year, even though the level is different. Therefore, the facilities for both drought and excess moisture are required, but actually it is not easy to complete for them. On this account, crops tolerant to drought, excess moisture and pests should be considered for establishing summer crops. For the districts damaged habitually every season, adequate crops should be cultured and appropriate method of planting, drainage and weed control should be applied diversely. Injuries by temperature is mainly attributed to lower temperature particularly in late fall and early spring, although higher temperature often causes some damages depending upon the kind of crops. Sometimes, lower temperature in summer season playa critical role for yield reduction in the summer crops. However, certain crops are prevented to some extent from this kind of stress by improving varieties tolerant to cold, hot weather or early maturing varieties. As is often the case, control of planting time or harvesting is able to be a good management for escaping the stress. Lodging, plant diseases and pests are considered as a direct or indirect damage due to weather stress, but these are characters able to be overcome by means of crop improvement and also controlled by other suitable methods. In addition, polytical supports capable of improving constitution of agriculture into modern industry is urgently required by programming of data for the damages, establishment of damage forecasting and compensation system.
Meteorological Constraints and Countermeasures in Winter Crop Production
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Eun-Sup Lee ; Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 411~434
Yield loss of wheat and barley due to meteorological constraints has been analyzed in order to get the basic information, which will lead to the counter-measures for dissemination of agricultural technology and administration. These meteorological damages were analyzed on the results of percentage yield loss and mechanism of damage and the aspects of constraints were explained. The annual yield loss of wheat and barley were 21.7% by meteorological stress: Cold damage, 5.9% ; excessive soil moisture, 5.6% ; lodging, 2.9% ; drought, 3.0% ; disease, 4.3% etc. Those damages by the stresses mentioned above and rain damage were analyzed in relation to the growth stages and the degrees of damage. The predispositions and the growth of wheat and barley to those meteorological stress are also discussed. Varietal resistances of wheat and barley to those stresses were indexed and the physiological and morphological characteristics of these resistant cultivars are described. Cultural practices to minimize the damages were also reviewed.
Changes in Variety and Cultural Practices of Rice Since 1962 in Korea
Jong-Hoon Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 439~451
In fact, rice cultivation technique from 1962 to 1970 was very slight, but this technique from 1970 to now was remarkably developed in Korea, it was due to development of high fretilizer responsive and lodging resistant variety, Tongil; ie. Ind.
Japonica remote-cross rice variety. The main factors of this development is as follow: Firstly the most farmer (more than 90%) used newly developed seedling growth method; polyethylene film covered protected nursery bed. Secondly date of transplanting (middle or late part. of May) was earlier 10-15days than before 1970. Thirdly new varieties were highly lodging resistant at high fertilizer level
. However, this level is 50% increased one than it for Japonica varieties. At forth planting density increased up to 75-80 hills per
. Added to these factors, farm labor shortage and wage increase due to economic development gave a chance for introduction of transplanting machine to farmer in 1977. It's use increased for 100, 800 ha in 1981. The most of farmers are using herbicides and weed control system dependoing on wood composition has been established and disseminated to farmer.
Changes in Variety and Cultural Practices of Wheat and Barley Since 1962 in Korea
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Eun-Sup Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 452~461
Average yield of wheat and barley cultivars has been increased 3 percent every year by varietal improvement. The major characteristic changes of those improved cultivars were the early maturing and lodging resistance using dwarf genes, 70-90cm of culm length appearances, under the heavy fertilizer application. Looking back the cultural practices of wheat and barley for the last 20 years, the introduction of early maturing and lodging resistance cultivars around 1970 brought the changes of seeding rate from 65kg to 130- 200kg per hector and the tillering increased by heavy fertilizer. The utilization of livestock and man power for preparation of seedbed were gradually disappeared by increasing agricultural mechanization. The narrow-spaced seeding
and drill seeding
in upland, broadcasting or drilling on high ridge
with the power-toller and whole area broadcasting in paddy field were improved as the main cultural method. The use of agricultural machineries reduced the labour consumption of 940 man hours to 180 man hours per hector from seeding to harvest.
Changes in Variety and Cultural Practices of Soybean, Sweet Potato and Corn Since 1962 in Korea
Keun-Yong Park ; Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 462~469
Since 1962, varietal development and dissemination for summer upland crops have been actively initiated by the Crop Experiment Station, Office of Rural Development, Suweon, Korea. The major breeding objectives of soybeans have been to develop varieties which are early maturing, disease resistant, and adaptable to late planting for after-barley cropping. Development of eleven new soybean varieties including Hwangkeumkong, Jangyeobkong, Danyeobkong, and Kwangkyo has greatly increased the soybean yield throughout country. For com, after development of Hwangok #2, a synthetic, in early 1960's, nine corn hybrids-single crosses, double-crosses, and three-way crosses-such as Jecheon-ok, Hoengseong-ok, Kwangok, Suweon #19, etc., have been disseminated mainly to Kangweon province, a major corn producing area in Korea, and drew up the yield over 4 tons per hectare. The major breeding objectives of sweet potato have been to develop varieties which have high starch content and root yield. Hwangmi, Hongmi, and Shinmi are three sweet potato varieties developed and disseminated by the Crop Experiment Station, Office of Rural Development and are grown most widely in Korea. Most of researches on cultural practices of upland crops have begun on a full scale from early 1960's. In soybeans, for example, no fertilizer but for barley was applied although the effects of phosphate and potassium fertilizers were great on soybeans in after-barley soybean croppings. The effects of heavy application of phosphate and calcium fertilizers on soybeans in newly reclaimed soils were recognized. Recently a mixed fertilizer for soybean (N; 40, P:70, K:60 kg/㏊) was developed and sold for soybean growers. The optimum planting densities of 220, 000 plants/ha in full-season cropping and 330, 000 pts/ha in after-barley cropping of soybeans were known from repeated experiments. For higher yield, a means of cultural practices such as transplanting-pinching, direct planting-pinching, and hilling-up, etc., were developed along with barley-stubble planting with no tillage and integrated herbicide application for labour savings. For sweet potato, cultural practices for planting date, harvesting date, fertilizer, and planting density were fully established. For early marketing, a technique of vinyl-mulching on sweet potato has also fully developed. For com, planting density of 37, 000 pts/ha in early 1960's has been changed to 55, 000 pts/ha for grain production and 67, 000 pts/ha for silage. The amounts of fertilizers have also been changed from 120-120-120kg/ha (N-P-K) in early 1960s to 180-150-150 kg/ha. These increases in number of plants per unit area and fertilizer levels have resulted in greater production for both grain and silage. At the same time, the production techniques of F1 seeds have also improved.
Changes in Variety and Cultural Practices of Industrial Crops Since 1962 in Korea
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 27, issue 4, 1982, Pages 470~479
Researches on industrial crops in Korea before 1962 were concentrated on fiber crops such as cotton, kenaf, hemp, ramie and flax. Then research works on oil crops, sugar crops and other high income crops were followed. However, no land is shared for the production of kenaf, flax, sugar beet, sweet sorghum and sunflower at present in Korea, while the cultivation of cotton, hemp, ramie and mat rush is decreasing continuously to the marginal point. At present researches are emphasized on oil crops such as seasame, peanut and perilla and high income medicinal herbs of which cultivating acreages are increasing. Numerous varieties were released as a result of active breeding works on industrial crops since 1962, i.e. 3 sesame varieties including "Suweon 21", 3 peanut varieties including "Seoduntangkong", and 6 rape varieties including "Yudal" in oil crops, one cotton variety "Mokpo 7", one hemp variety "MS4-1", and one kenaf variety "Suweon 2" in fiber crops, and two stevia varieties "Suweon 2" and "Suweon II" in sugar crops. Quality improvement of rape seeds and development of hybrid rapes utilizing male sterile lines are the most significant results of breeding works, while the establishment of vinyl mulching cultivation of sesame and peanut are the most successful results in agronomic researches during the last 20 years.re the most successful results in agronomic researches during the last 20 years.