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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Dec 1983
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Oct 1983
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Jul 1983
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Mar 1983
Selecting the target year
Growth and Nutrients Uptake as Affected by Ammonium sulfate and Urea in the Paddy Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 391~418
Urea and ammonium sulfate without and with sulfur group, respectively, were compared with respect to their nutritive effects on the rice plants, Suweon 264 and Jinheung, under the nursery trial on the protected upland and lowland seedbed, the pot trials with their various combination ratios and with added sodium sulfate to urea and the trials on the paddy fields which have undergone urea and ammonium sulfate application for many years. The rice seedlings fertilized with ammonium sulfate surpassed those with urea in growth performance and nutrients absorption of the rice seedlings at nursery period. Such stimulating effect of ammonium sulfate on the growth and nutrients uptake was more remarkable under the upland nursery than under the lowland one. The pot trial with the various combination ratios of urea and ammonium sulfate revealed that the chlorophyll content in leaf blade increased with the increment of sulfate ratio in the combination and the sole application of urea caused the chlorosis of leaf which was more conspicuous in Suweon 264 than in Jinheung. Fertilized with the same active ingradient amount of nitrogen, the rice plants supplied with ammonium sulfate surpassed those with urea in the chlorophyll content consistently under the nursery, the pot and the paddy field trials. The photosynthesis of flag leaf at heading stage increased with the combination rate of ammonium sulfate in the pot trial. The sulfur applicated as supplementary element of nitrogen in the nursery, the pot and the field trials were observed to be in positive relationship to the nitrogen and potassium content, but to be in negative correlation to the calcium content. The sulfur content in the rice plants was higher at early growth stage and decreased with the advance in growth stage. The nitrogen content also showed a similiar tendency to the sulfur content, and the N/S ratio was higher at early growth stage than at later one. The N/S ratio was negatively correlated with the chlorophyll content. In the field experiment, ammonium sulfate surpassed urea in the number of productive tiller, dry matter production and unhulled rice yields, but much stimulating effect of ammonium sulfate on the grain production was shown to be less effective than that on the straw production. The nitrogen and major nutrients content in the rice straw at harvest were higher in the paddy field with long-term ammonium sulfate application than in that with long-term urea application, suggesting that the former might have greater potentiality in nutrients supply than the latter.
Shattering Grain Loss in Relation to the Impulse During Harvest and Year-Variation of Grain Tensile Strength in Rice
Yong Woong, Kwon ; Jin Chul, Shin ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 419~424
Tensile strength and shattering losses of rice grains in a binder harvest and in a free falling test were examined. Indica
Japonica varieties, Milyang 23, Hangangchal, and Taebaek, and a Japonica variety, Jinheung were used for this study. The average tensile strength varied with varieties, showing 0.743N (Newton) in Milyang 23, 1.078N in Hangangchal, 1.573 N in Taebaek, and 1.775 N in Jinheung. Extrapolation of the average tensile strength for the zero field loss of grain indicated about 1.7 N. Moisture content of straw at the cutting position in a binder harvest was 76.0 to 86.7% in culm and 76.7 to 77.8% in leaf sheath. The percent loss of grains occurring in binder barvest in the field was equivalent to the degree of shattering in the panicle-falling test onto the concrete floor at the height of about 40cm. The grain shattering (Y) was closely related to the impulse (X), the change in momentum: Y=-25.73+4958.4X, (
=0.987) for Milyang 23, Y=-12.97+2258.3X, (
=0.979) for Hanagangchal, Y=-5.24+840.4X, (
=0.976) for Taebaek. The tensile strengths of grains and their variance varied singnificantly yearly even in the same variety. The magnitude of year-variance was somewhat smaller for the easily shattering variety.
Studies on the Application of Tissue Culture for Plant Breeding I. Effect of genotype and other combined factors on the callus induction and plant regeneration in anther culture of rice
Kim, K.H. ; M.C. Rush ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 425~430
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) anthers collected from different genotypes were cultured to investigate the priority to increase callus production rate among several factors affecting on callus formation. Rice varieties, F
hybrids and F
plants differed greatly in their abilities to produce callus from anthers, and it was confirmed that the culturability of rice anther was a heritable characteristic. Cold shock treatment before plating anthers promoted callus formation rate, but combined effect with genotype having high culturability was more significant. The response to sucrose concentration in culture medium in callus induction rate was different between rice genotypes, but combined effect with genotype was not significant. Single supplement of NAA to R
medium increased callus production rate remarkably only in rice genotype having high culturability. Conclusively selection of genotypes is most important to increase callus initiation frequency from rice anthers.
Effects of N. P. K and Organic Matters for 15-years Successive Application on Paddy Soil Properties. Plant Growth and Yield of Rice Plant
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 431~438
Experiments were conducted to know the effects of 15 years successive application of fertilizers and organic matters on the soil properties, plant growth and yield of rice. Application of fertilizers and organic matters for 15 years in same plots were increased soil pH, OM, and CEC, but decreased
and Ca content in paddy soil. Organic matter application for 15 years was increased OM about 0.5% compare to non-applied plot. Particulary lime application was increased soil pH,
, Ca and CEC in paddy soil. NPK+compost and NPK+straw application were increased number of panicles and number of spikelets per unit area, but decreased ripening ratio compare to NPK applied plot. Average grain yield for 15 years in the non-fertilized, -N, -P, -K, NPK+compost, NPK+straw and NPK+lime applied plot was 47, 51, 88, 95, 113, 117, and 106% of yield conpare to NPK applied plot, respectively.
Studies on Grain-filling in Wheat II. Effects of Temperature and Soil Moisture on the Growth and Grain-filling in Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 439~444
Effects of temperature and soil moisture on the growth and grain-filling of two wheat cultivars were investigated. Two levels of temperature; day 3
and day 2
and two levels of soil moisture; stressed (45-50% of F.C.) and non-5tressed (50-60% of F.C.) were imposed in the green house from heading date to the maturity and grain weight, chlorophyll content of flag leaf and leaf area index(LAI) were observed at weekly interval. Grain maturation was faster in the high temperature than those in the lower temperature. Chlorophyll content of flag leaf and LAI decreased rapidly in the high temperature and chlorophylls disappeared at the 20 days after heading. In lower temperature condition, slower decrements were shown in chlorophyll content and it remained until 45 days after heading. Grain weights in the high and optimum temperature conditions reached to maximum values at 29 days and 45 days after heading, respectively. Differences of grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf were not significant between stressed and non-5tressed soil moisture condition.
Effect of Harvest Date after Heading. Storage Temperature and Duration on the Dormancy and Germination Percentage in Barley Cultivars
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Eun-Sup Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 445~450
To investigate the effect of harvest time after heading, storage temperature and duration on the dormancy and germination in barley cultivars, the kernels were collected at 5 day intervals from 20 days after heading until 35 days. The kernels were dried at 2
for 7 days and storaged in freezing chamber (-15
). The kernels germinated better at 15
, and 1%
and 3 ppm GA
treatments gave much higher germination percentage than non-treatment;
treatments were good for promoting germination of immature harvested kernels. Germination rate index were significantly correlated with germination percentage under
temperature conditions. Hangmi, Jogangbori and Muanbori had deep or slight dormancy at the different harvesting time, especially Dusan #8 had the deepest dormancy. The dormancy broke more rapidly under 3
storage conditions, so high temperature accelerated dormancy breaking. Those results showed that dormancy was various with the cultivars, harvesting time, storage temperature and storage duration.
Studies on the Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of the Drought Resistance in Winter Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 451~457
This study was conducted to estimate the effect of the drought on the changes of chlorophyll, protein and proline content of upper three leaves, and the grain yield components of barley plant (CV. baegdong) subjected to water stress at four stages: late vegetative, boot, anthesis early grain filling. 1. In comparison with leaf posititions in water stress, the first leaf below flag leaf maintained the highest relative turgidity, chlorophyll and protein content and showed the least proline accumulation. And, in terms of growth stages in water stress, chlorophyll was shown to be highest at anthesis stage, protein being highest at boot stage and proline being least at boot stage. 2. In boot stages, culm and spike length, and Number of grains per spike were remarkably decreased. And the weight of 1000 grains was at least level in the early grain filling stage, and also the grain size was comparatively decreased at boot and two following stages. 3. The protein content of grain by water stress, apart from early grain filling stage, was not significantly affected by water stress at different growth stages. 4. The rate of sterility was particularly increased at boot and anthesis stages. 5. It was eventually concluded that the boot stage among four growth stages, and the flag leaf in 3 leaf positions were mostly damaged by water stress at reproductive growth stage.
Relationships between Lodging and Root Characteristics of Soy bean Plants
Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 458~461
The field experiment was carried out in order to find out the factors affecting lodging of Korean soybean varieties. Among the variety groups which were grown under the same cultural conditions, 25 Korean local varieties were selected by 5 lodging degree, and investigated their root characteristics in relation to lodging. The results obtained were as follows; There were no significant relationships between root dry weight, number of primary roots, number of adventitious roots and lodging. There also were no clear relationships between shoot/root weight ratio and lodging. However, it was recognized that the shoot weight/number of thick roots was highly related to soybean lodging. The susceptible varieties to lodging showed less shoot/thick root ratio.
Basic Studies on the Native Colored-Soybean Cultivars IV. Sensory Analysis and Interpretation of Related Component in Seeds of Collected Colored-Soybean Cultivars
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 462~468
Collected 38 colored soybeans, which was cultivated under the conventional field conditions, were investigated about their organeloptic parameters and correlations among factors such as organeloptic score, texturometer parameters and chemical components of seeds. Most of the organeloptic parameters were affect much more by the characteristics of each cultivars than by grain weight, and then showed significant differences with the effect of interactinon between grain weight and cultivar, too. Also among contribution degrees of texturometer scores to overall acceptance, cohesiveness was higher in small, medium and super grains, however in large grains, hardness. And among sensory attributes, suitable toughness was contribute most positively to acceptance.
The Relationship between Growth Duration and Yield in Soybean in the Sub-tropics
Kim, S.D. ; T.S. Toung ; S. Shanmugasundaram ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 469~472
Seasonal variations influence the growth duration and yield of soybeans in the tropics and subtropics. Results of different yield trials were used to determine the relationship between yield with days to
in different seasons. Similarly relationship for 100 seed weight was examined. Multiple regression equations suggest that increase in yield can be obtained by increasing the days to
regardless of seasons. However, increasing the days to
invariably reduced the yield. The longer the time from
, the higher the 100 seed weight. Since the population examined was heterogeneous for photoperiod sensitivity, the need to examine photoperiod sensitive and insensitive selections separately is discussed.
A Study on Genetic Nature of Korean Local Corn Lines
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 473~480
To obtain basic information on the Korean local com lines a total of 57 lines were selected from 1,000 Korean local collection at Chungnam National University, and classified by principal component analysis, and genetic nature was investigated. There were a great variation in mean values of plant characters of the lines. The mean values of plant characters except for density of kernels varied with types of crossing. All characters except for tasselling dates were reduced in magnitude when selfed, while those characters were increased when topcrossed. The inbreeding depression varied with plant characters and lines. The characters such as yield, kernel weight per ear, ear weight and plant height showed great degree of inbreeding depression. Group I showed high inbreeding depression in such characters as 100 kernel weight, leaf number, plant height and days to tasselling, while group II showed high inbreeding depression in other plant characters. Heterosis of plant characters varied also with lines. The ear weight, kernel weight per ear, yield, 100 kernel weight, and plant height were some of the plant characters showing high heterosis. Group II showed high values of heterosis in such characters as ear length, ear diameter, ear weight, kernel weight per ear, 100 kernel weight and leaf length, while group I was high in heterosis in other plant characters. The degree of homozygosity was highest in ear weight (79.1%) and lowest in ear number per plant (-2.1%). Group II showed higher degree of homozygosity than group I. Correlation coefficients between characters of sibbed and topcrossed lines were positive for all characters. Highly significant correlation coefficients between sibbed and topcrossed lines were obtained especially for characters such as ear number per plant, plant height, leaf length and yield per plot.
Synchronization of Flowering for Hybrid Com Seed Production by Clipping Young Plants Clear Polyethylene Mulching and Planting Date
Young-Soo Han ; Keun-Yong Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 481~487
The need to synchronize flowering in two lines of different maturities is frequently encountered in hybrid com (Zea mays L.) seed production. To establish the methods for synchrony of flowering in parent lines of different maturities be effects of clipping at 4 and 6-leaf stages of growth and two levels, clear polyethylene mulching and five different planting dates on flowering date growth and seed yield of two dent com inbred lines of different maturities were evaluated Clipping just above the shoot-apex delayed pollen sheeding 6 to 9days and silking 5 to 13 days but reduced stand and seed yield 30 to 70% and 67 to 81%. respectively. Clipping 5cm above the shoot apex delayed flowering 1 to 4 days without stand reduction but reduced yield 3 to 29%. Laterclipping was slightly more effective for delaying flowering than earlier clipping but reduced stand more severely when clipped just above the shoot apex. Under clear polyethylene film mulching, flowering of two lines was 13 to 15 days earlier and seed yield of B68 (late line) was significantly increased. As planting was delayed from April 18 to June 13, the number of days from planting to flowering of two lines decreased due to increase in air temperature. However, growing degree days (GDD) from planting to flowering of each lines was similar regardless planting dates indicating that GDD can be satisfactoryly used for choosing the planting dates of parent lines of different maturities. Seed yields of two lines were decreased with delaying planting dates.
Studies on the Combining Ability and Inheritance Agronomic Characters in Burley Tobacco (N. tabacum L. Cv. Burley) I. Heritability and Inheritance of Major Agronomic Characters
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 488~496
Narrow and broad sense heritabilities for the characters ranged from 0.1618 to 0.6914 and from 0.7494 to 0.9357, respectively, in
full diallel crosses. Plant height and days to flowering had the highest heritabilities and yield and quality the lowest. Partial dominance was exhibited by plant height, number of leaves, leaf area per plant and days to flowering. Over dorminance was detected by leaf width and yield of cured leaf. Leaf length and quality would be considered being controlled by a complete dominance effect.
Studies on the Optimum Light Intensity for Growth of Panax Ginseng II. Effect of Light Intensity on the Contents of Saponin and Free Sugar in the Ginseng Leaf
Jong-Chul Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 497~503
This study was conducted to define the effects of light intensity on the amount of saponin and free sugar and the ratio of triol group saponin and diol group saponin (PT/PD) in the leaf of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. 4-Year-old ginseng plants were grown under the shadings of different light transmittance rate(LTR) of 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% for 5 months and the leafiets were sampled from 2nd low at late August to determine the amount of saponin and free sugar.-Rd was main ginseuoside in the diol group saponin but in triol group saponin, ginsenoside-Re showed highest value and next was ginsenoside-
respectively. Up to 20% of light transmittance rate (LTR), the ginseng leaves grown under high light intensity showed an increase in the amount of total saponin and the ratio of PT/PD but the amount of total saponin and the ratio of PT/PD but the amount of total saponin and the ratio of PT/PD was decreased at the ginseng leaves grown under the shading of 30% LTR. The ginseng leaves grown under the shading of 20% LTR showed a significant increase in the amount of glucose and fructose but a significant decrease of sucrose content. A significant positive correlation (
) was recognized between the of amount of total saponin and glucose.
Studies on the Vegetative Propagation of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) II. Effects of Synthetic Auxins on the Rooting and the Root Growth after Rooting from Ginseng Stem Cutting.
Jaeseng, Jo ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 28, issue 4, 1983, Pages 504~508
To define the effects of synthetic auxins on rooting from the ginseng stern cutting and the root growth in diameter after the rooting of the cuttings, stern cuttings with palmate leaves obtained from seedlings and 2-year old ginseng plants were planted in rooting media treated with solutions of the synthetic auxins. All the roots induced from the cuttings were adventitious fibrous roots at first, but a few adventitious roots of the cutting were thickened in diameter to over 2 to 3mm at 120 days after cutting and the rest of them disappeared. IBA was the most effective auxin for rooting and root growth in diameter after rooting from the cuttings. The shape of the roots that thickened in diameter could be divided into two types. Both types of thickened roots were fully lignified at 120 days after cutting and those thickened roots did not dry up or die by July of the next year, however no rhyzomes or shoot primodia were induced from them.