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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 1984
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Oct 1984
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jul 1984
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Apr 1984
Selecting the target year
Frequency, Distribution of Stomata and Relationship Between Stomatal Frequency and Other Characters of Wheat Cultivars
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 307~314
One hundred winter wheat cultivars obtained from the world collections in Korea were planted in 1982. Stomatal frequency of flag leaf of these cultivars were measured, and among these 21 cultivars which showed different stomatal frequency were selected to investigate the relationship of their stomatal frequencies and other characters such as culm length, heading date and characters related to leaf. Stomatal frequency of flag leaf of 100 cultivars different significantly, ranging from 51 to 90 stomata mm
for the adaxial and 35 to 65 for the abaxial surfaces of leaf. Stomatal frequency was always greater on the adaxial than on the abaxial surface. Mean ratios (adaxial/abaxial) were 1.5 for the flag leaf and 1.3 for the from second to fouth leaves. Among 21 cultivars examined, stomatal size which measured guard cell length varied from 38.5 to 46.6
for adaxial surface and from 39.4 to 49.4
for abaxial. A negative correlation was obtained between stomatal frequency and its size. Stomatal frequency decreased from flag (L
) to lower leaves, progresively. Stomatal frequency on L
sheath was compared to those on L
abaxial surface of leaf. More stomatal frequency on top and center of adaxial surface showed than that on basal part of a leaf but the abaxial surface resulted in reverse of adaxial one. Cultivars with high stomatal frequency on flag leaf showed higher stomatal frequency on the other leaves and sheaths. Positive correlation between stomatal frequency and other characters such as, culm length, heading date and chlorophyll content showed statistical significance, whearas it revealed the negative correlation of stomatal frequency with leaf weight, leaf area and stomatal aperture. However, no relation appeared between stomatal frequency and leaf vein.
The Effects of Phosphate to the Growth and Oil Contents in Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 314~320
Effects of phosphorous fertilizer on the growth habit and yield of monoculm and branch types of two leading sesame varieties was investigated. The photosynthetic rate of at each growing stage was high at the flowering stage. The photosynthetic rate of monoculm sesame variety, Pungnyeon was high prior to flowering stage, while the Kwangsan variety, branch type was high after the flowering stage. The level of phosphate were most effective in increasing photosynthesis when standard level of fertilizer was applied in both varieties. Kwangsan variety showed higher photosynthetic rate per unit area, higher NAR, and CGR and higher LAR and RGR at the maximum flowering stage than the Pungnyoeon variety. Those characters attained maximum level when standard levels of phosphorous fertilizer were applied. The protein and oil content of seeds were higher in Kwangsan variety compared with Pungnyeon. However, the carbohydrate of seeds was high for Pungnyeon variety. The highest protein content was attained when standard level of fertilizer were applied. The oil content appeared to increase as the level of applied fertilizer increased. The results suggest that the vegetative growth and seed yields of sesame may be enough with present level of fertilizers. However, higher amount of phosphorous fertilizer may be required to increase the oil content of sesame seeds.
Varietal Difference and Growth Analysis of Border Effect in Rice Plant
Kwang-Ho Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 321~327
Grain yield of rice plants grown in outmost first and second rows in paddy field blocked by 50 cm wide levee was averaged 30 percent more than that in center rows, but yield increased percents in border rows were significantly different between varieties. Average border effect through 3 varieties were recognized only in first and second rows from levee, but most vigorous variety, Hangangchal, showed border effect up to fourth rows from levee. Rice plants grown in border rows had more number of panicles per hill and more number of spikelets per panicle. Total dry matter weight and average leaf area of rice plants in border rows differed with those in center rows from 30 to 60 days after transplanting. Early maturing variety showed the difference between border and center rows quickly concerning to total dry matter weight and leaf area. Rice plants grown in border rows showed higher values of CGR, RGR, NAR, and LAR through the growth duration except 1 or 2 growing periods.
Variation in Ploidy Level of Rice Plants Derived from Anther Culture
Rae-Kyung Park ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 328~333
Variation in ploidy level of regenerated plants from rice anthers and effective diploidization methods of haploid plants were studied to obtain basic information in rice breeding through anther culture. In a total of 574 plants derived from anther culture using 14F
hybrids as materials, there were 49.7% haploids, 48.6% diploids and 1.7% polyploids, respectively. The frequency of haploids in Japonica/Indica crosses was 60.6%, and that of Japonica/Japonica crosses was 43.0% in average. Inclusion of 2.4-D or NAA as phytohormone may increase the frequency of haploids, but kinetin may increase the frequency of diploids. The rate of auto-diploidization by tiller separation of haploid plants showed 8.2% in average. The rate of diploidization by leaf-sheath injection of colchicine showed 18.8% in average. Morphological characters of haploids plants showed that 64.6% in culm length, 63.4% in panicle length, 68% in flag leaf length, and 74.4% in flag leaf width compared to diploid plants. These apparent morphological differences will contribute to identify the ploidy of plants derived from rice anther culture.
Yield Response of Transplanting Dates in Rice Varieties Recommended at Different Years
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 334~341
Yield response of 30 rice varieties widely grown during the past 70 years in Korea was examined at the six transplanting dates from May 10 to June 29 at the 10 day intervals in 1982. Early japonica varieties grown before 1960s showed the highest yield at the June 9 and 19 transplantings and yields decreased with earlier or later transplantings except the earliest transplanting of May 10. However, yield of recent japonica varieties grown after 1960s was similar among the transplanting dates from May 10 to June 19, but yield was lower at the June 29 transplanting. In the indica/japonica varieties grown after mid- 1970s, yield was highest at the May 10, 20, and 30 transplantings and it decreased with further delay of transplantings largely due to the decreased panicle number, percent ripened grains, and 1,000 grain weight. This may indicate that recently developed varieties may be more adaptable toearly transplanting than older varieties. The number of panicles per hill was variable among the transplanting dates in all varieties, but it decreased as transplanting dates delayed after June 9. In japonica varieties the number of spikelets per panicle, percent ripened grains, and 1,000 grain weight increased as transplanting was delayed. However, in indica/japonica varieties the number of spikelets per panicle was similar among the transplanting dates and percent ripened grains and 1,000 grain weight decreased as transplanting date was delayed after June 9. The percent ripened grains of japonica varieties decreased with increase in the number of spikelets per hill but increased as heading date delayed. However, in indica/japonica varieties the percent ripened grains was not affected by both the number of spikelets per hill and heading date except that of June 29 transplanting of which percent ripened grains was extremely low because of delayed heading although the number of spikelets per hill was low. Grain/Straw ratio was not affected by heading date in japonica varieties, but it decreased significantly as heading date was delayed in indica/japonica varieties.
Saponin Contents of Root and Aerial Parts in Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium
Kwang-Tae Choi ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 342~349
In order to obtain the basic information for the development of ginseng varieties with high saponin contents. saponin contents and ginsenosides of Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng) and Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) grown under the same environmental conditions were analysed. Crude saponin contents of root and aerial parts were more in Panax quinquefolium than in Panax ginseng, and aerial parts had more saponin contents in comparison with a root. Protopanaxatriol saponin was greatly more in the aerial parts of ginseng while more amount of protopanaxadiol saponins were detected in the root. As for the ginsenosides, the patterns of ginsenosides detected in total saponin of the aerial parts were not different between two species, Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolium, but the root ginsenoside patterns were quite different. Ginsenosides such as Rg
were not detected in the root of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng).).).).
Comparison of Isozyme Patterns among Varieties of Ginseng. Panax spp.
Eung-Ryong Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 350~355
The present researches were carried out to classify the species of ginseng by electrophoretic methods with isozyme patterns of LAP. esterase, GOT, phosphatase, peroxidase and proteins. All variants of Korean and Japanese ginseng had identical band patterns of the investigated enzymes in roots as well as in seeds. However, American ginseng had different patterns from those of Korean or Japanese.
A Study on the Development of Internodal Vascular Bundles and Air Spaces, and its Relationships to Panicle Characteristics of Rice Varieties
Je-Cheon Chae ; ; Bong-Ku Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 356~361
The experiment was carried out in order to investigate the development of vascular bundles and air spaces of rice internode, and its relationships to the panicle characteristics of rice varieties. The results obtained were as follows; The number of total vascular bundles in upper 1st internode was significantly different among varieties, but there was no remarkable differences among varieties and nodal positions below the 2nd internode. In the 5th internode 21-31 air spaces according to varieties was developed, however, no air space was found in upper 1st and 2nd internodes at maturing stage. Significant varietal difference of air space was observed in upper 4th internode. The number of vascular bundles, internodal thickness were positively correlated with panicle length, the number of rachis branches, and the spikelets in rice varieties.
The Influence of Nutritional Condition of Rice Seedlings on the Rooting Capability at Low Temperature
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 362~365
Application of phosphate and silicate at the seed bed stage of rice seedlings was investigated to improve nutritional condition and rooting capability at low temperature. The amounts of applied phosphate were 15kg/10a with or without 200 kg/10a of silicate, and 30 kg/10a without silicate. Seeding dates were March 31, April 9 and April 19. The dry weight of the seedlings seeded earlier date under low temperature was lower than that of the seedlings seeded later dates. The application of phosphate and silicate increased the dry weight of newly developed roots after trasplanting, and increased the number of tillers. Therefore, heavy application of phosphate and silicate is recommendable to improve the predisposition of the rice seedlings grown under the low temperature condition for early transplanting.
The Climatic Influence on Spikelet Formation and Yield of Lowlam Rice II. Climatic Consumptive Effect for Spikelet Formation
Jong-Chul Lee ; ; Su-Bong Ahn ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 366~375
In order to confirm the effect of climatic consumption index (C C I) on the number of spikelets and yield of rice, 3 levels of shading rates such as 0, 25, 50% of full light were treated during the tillering stage, reproductive growth stage and ripening period, respectively, in a phytotron controlled with day/ night temperature of 20/10
, and field at Crop Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea. The results are as follows: 1. As solar radiation decreased during the reproductive growth stage in 30/20
or field condition, the number of spikelets per panicle was decreased due to the decrease of the number of differentiated secondary rachis branches and spikelets as well as the increase of the number of degenerated secondary rachis branches and spikelets. 2. Our results showed slight negative correlation between C C I of the reproductive growth stage and number of panicles per square meter and number of differentiated secondary rachis branches. On the other hand, there was highly significant positive correlation between C C I of the reproductive growth stage and the number of degenerated secondary rachis branches and spikelets, and negative correlation in number of differentiated spikelets. 3. The shading during the reproductive growth stage did not affect on the percentage of ripened grains and 1000 grains weight of hulled rice, whereas those were decreased with shading during the ripened period. 4. Influence of shading in each growing stage on the yield was severe in the order of ripened period, reproductive growth stage, tillering stage. 5. Respiration rate in Jinheung was higher than that of Tongil at low temperature, but reversed above 30
. Respiratory coefficients (Q
10/) of Tongil and Jinheung were 2.74 and 1.96, respectively. Respiration/ photosynthesis ratio in Jinheung was higher than that of Tongil at low temperature, while higher in Tongil above 32
. 6. Transportation of
14/C was restricted at 20/10
in Tongil, however, there was no differences at 30/20
in both Tongil and Jinheung. The influence of shading on the transportation of
14/C did not affect at 20/10
, but it was hampered with shading at 30/20
in both varieties.
Studies on the Flowering and Maturity in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) II. Capsule-Setting Habit by Different Plant Types
Jung-Il Lee ; ; Eung-Ryong Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 376~385
The habit of anthesis and maturity of sesame were investigated as a basic research for the improvement of high-yielding varieties and cultural practices. Eight different plant types were identified using typical cultivars among gene pool grown in Korea. Non-branching, Monocapsule, Bicarpels quadriloculi (NMB) type showed higher ratio for capsule setting compared with Non-branching, Monocapsule, Quadricarpels octoloculi (NMQ) type. Non-branching, Tricapsules, Quadricarpels octoloculi(NTQ) type presented lower ratio for capsule setting than non-branching, tricapsules, bicarpels quadriloculi(NTB) type. The number of flowers by flower setting position was the highest on lower part, intermediate on middle part, and the lowest on higher part in NMB and NTB type. However, the number of flowers was the highest on middle part, intermediate on lower part, and lowest on higher part in NMQ and NTQ type. BMB type appeared to have the highest ratio for capsule setting when compared with the other plant types. BTB type with many flowers and capsules exhibited higher percentage for capsule setting than BTQ type with lowest capsule setting percentage. Capsule setting percentage of branch appeared to be lower than that of main stern in the branching type. The branching type had more flowers and capsules than non-branching type. Tricapsules type had more flowers and capsules per plant than monocapsule type, and bicarpels quadriloculi type had more than quadricarpels octoloculi type. However, capsule setting ratio in non-branching type was higher than in branching type. The ratio was higher in monocapsule type than in tricapsules type. Bicarpels quadriloculi type had higher ratio of capsule setting than quadricapels octoloculi type. Number of capsules per plant and capsule setting ratio are supposed to be dominated by shape of capsule (number of carpels and loculi), not by branching or number of capsules per axil. The order of number of capsules per plant was as follows; BTB, BMB, NTB, BTQ, BMQ, NTQ, NMQ, and NMB types. However, the order of capsule setting ratio was as follows: BMB, NMB, NTB, NTQ, NMQ, BMQ, BTB, BTQ types. Consequently, branching, tricapsules, bicarpels quadriloculi(BTB) type was considered as a sourse of breeding for high yielding varieties by introducing the genes govering BMB type with one capsule per axil which has high capsule setting ability.
Studies on Heading Date of Wheat and Barley IV. The Influence of Temperature and Photoperiod on the Ecological Characteristics of Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 386~393
This study was carried out to identify the ecological characters easily changeable with the conditions of temperature and day-length and to ascertain the managable means which can optimize the barley plants to secure the maximae yield and early heading under controlled condition. Yield and yield components were greatly varied with temperature. Especially, effective tiller formation and grain filling of sub-tillers were more favorably affected by thermal treatment than those of main tiller. In thermic response, 'Kangbori' was less susceptible than others, while 'Sacheon #6' showed particular susceptability. The varietal differences of photoperiodic response were recognized on all investigated traits and their degree of response were similar to those with temperature. Among varieties, 'Kangbori' was comparably sensitive on several characters while 'Sacheon #6' displaying low light-sensitivity. The turning point at which heading might be radically stimulated was estimated as about 10.5 hour day-length in 3 tested varieties and above 18 hours of irradiance was considered ineffective for more rapid heading. The condition under which barley varieties may obtain maximal yield and resonably early heading was 15
in temperature and 12 to 15 hours of day-length, regardless of varieties. of day-length, regardless of varieties.
The Climatic Influence on Spikelet Formation and Yield of Lowland Rice III. Control of Number of Spikelets by Changing Transplanting Date
Su-Bong Ahn ; Jong-Chul Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 394~400
In order to find out the possibility of increasing the number of spikelets by changing transplanting date, this study was conducted at Suwon, Yuseong and Jinju in 1979 and 1980. Climatic consumption effect was different depending on location, year, and variety. Number of spikelets can be increased by changing transplanting date due to the decrease of climatic consumption index (C C I) during the reproductive stage. Transplanting date for higher yield and number of spikelets of Tongil was May 25 at Suwon, from May 25 to June 5 at Yuseong and June 5 at Jinju, and in the japonica, it was slightly earlier than that of Tongil in each location. Increasing the number of spikelets and grain yield by the effect of decrease in C C C during the reproductive stage should be considered the percentage of ripened grains.
Effect of Growth Regulators on the Organ Differentiation and the Growth from the Axillary Bud of Sweetpotatoes in Vitro Culture
Byong-Ho Chang ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 401~408
This study was conducted to determine the optimum concentrations of growth regulators and their responses on the clonal propagation in axillary bud culture. Cultivars, Hongmi and Shinmi, responded differently to the levels of growth regulators, proliferation rate and shoot growth. The shoot and root of Hongmi cultivar in axillary bud culture were conspicuously induced by combination of NAA(0.1mg/l) and Kinetin(1mg/l) while Shinmi cultivar were affected by the single concentration of Kinetin(1mg/l) and BA(0.1mg/l), and also by the combination of NAA(0.1mg/l) and Kinetin(1mg/l). Better shoot growth and root initiation were obtained in the combination of NAA(0.1mg/l) and Kinetin(1mg/l) regardless of cultivars used when 5mm axillary buds were cultured. The shoots regenerated at the high levels of BA(1-5mg/l) were abnormally thicker and narrower leaves than normal plants and short in shoot height. Frequencies of abnormal plants were higher than that of the low level (0.1mg/l) of BA.
Responses of Malting Barley Cultivars to Different Seeding Rates I. Variation of Yield Components and Yields in Different Seeding Rates
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 409~415
Finding the variations of principal agronomic traits, fourteen malting barley cultivars were tested with both narrow-spaced row seeding and broadcasting on high ridge respectively. The seeding rates were varied as 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 liter per 10a in the narrow-spaced row seeding and 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 litre in the broad casting on his ridge respectively. As a result of the test, there were highly significant differences in variation pattern of assessed traits among cultivars. However, the additional seeding rates in both seeding methods caused the drifts of earlier heading and maturity, longer in culm length, linear increase in number of spike and yields per unit area, slight reduction in 1000 grain weight, and slight increase in one litre weight, but no changes in number of grain per spike.
Seed Development and Germinability of Soybeans at Various Filling Stages
Keun-Yong Park ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 416~421
Six soybean cultivars were used to study their seed development and germinability after flowering, in 1977 and 1978. The earlier varieties showed the faster seed development, but indeterminate types resulted in slower development. The earliest germinability was found in 15 to 25 days after flowering when dried with the pod shell. The germination of the seeds dried without pod shell, however, was inhibited significantly in early seed filling stages. Regular germinability of the Hill cultivar in a cold test was 40-45 days after flowering, or 10 to 15 days earlier than the physiological maturity.
Responses of Malting Barley Cultivars to Different Seeding Rates II. Correlation and Path Coefficient among Agronomic Traits
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 422~426
According with variations in principal agronomic traits of fourteen malting barley cultivars as affected by different seeding methods and seeding rates. the analysis and interpretation of correlation coefficients and path coefficients was intended. From all treatments (seeding methods and rates), the positive significant relations detected between flowering days and maturing days, however the negative between maturing days and culm length, number of grains per spike, yields, and between 1000 grain weight and one liter weight, respectively. Direct effects on the yields were greatest by number of grains per spike in case of narrow-spaced row seeding and number of spikes per m
and number of grains per spike among others in broadcast seeding method On the other hand, indirect effects were not recognized in any treatments.
Seasonal Changes of Nodule Activity, Carbohydrates and Nitrogen and their Inter-relationships in Alfalfa
Jong Weon, Ryoo ; Ho Jin, Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 29, issue 4, 1984, Pages 427~435
Alfalfa field was established to investigate seasonal changes of nodule activity and contents of carbohydrates, and nitrogen, and also to examine their relationships in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Periodical sampling of alfalfa in cutting and uncutting plots was collected to measure growth of plants, development and activity of nodule, and content of carbohydrates and nitrogen in the third year following year of establishment. Nodule activity of alfalfa root appeared to early April, increased to a maximum in beginning of June (flowering stage), and then decreased and generally remained low from late-July to mid-August, and again increased from early September, and then decreased and generally remained low for the rest of growing season. After flowering, nodule weight tended to decrease slowly throughout the growing season. Until flowering stage, increase of dry weight was closely related with that of nodule activity. But after flowering the curve pattern of dry weight did not fit to that of nodule activity due to decrease of supply of assimilate to nodule, drought, and high temperature. Total nonstructural carbohydrates in roots were closely correlated with nodule weight and nodule activity. While, nitrogen contents in leaves were closely correlated with nodule weight and nodule activity. Also cutting on July prevented unnessesary losses of respiration during summer to provide rapid recovery of nodule activity