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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 1985
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Oct 1985
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jul 1985
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Apr 1985
Selecting the target year
Effect of Changes of Leaf Water Content on Respiration and Photosynthetic Rate of Tobacco Varieties
Seong-Kook Bae ; Ryuichi, Ishii ; Atsuhiko, Kumura ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 347~351
The effect of leaf water content on apparent photosynthesis and respiration of tobacco plants(five varieties) was studied under the condition without the irrigation for 10 days after the plants were sufficiently watered on the first day. The wild race (N. longiflora) among varieties showed highest apparent photosynthesis (AP) and AP had a positive correlation with specific leaf weight. N. longiflora and Andongyeob were different in their AP from the other varieties significantly under the water stress condition. Respiration rate also decreased to be simillar to AP except slight increase at early stage of water deficit. The stomatal resistance and the mesophyll resistance increased in the stressed plants. The water stress resistant character seems to be mainly due to open stomata.
Molecular Weight Estimation and Protein Patterns of Panax ginseng, Codonopsis lanceolata and Platycodon grandiflorum by Polyacrylamide gel Electrophoresis
Eung-Ryong Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 352~358
This study was carried out to identify the protein patterns and to estimate molecular weights of the ginseng and other plants. Polyacrylamide gradient 2-30% gels for identification of protein patterns and 11% SDS polyacrylamide gels for molecular weight estimation of various plants were used. Proteins extracted with distilled water and phosphate buffer were most clearly separated. Although minor bands were a little different according to kinds of buffer, major bands showed similar pattern. Major protein bands were two bands of 45,000, 66,000 in Panax ginseng, 3 bands of 32,000-39,000 in Codonopsis lanceolata and one double band around 39,000 kd in Platycodon grandiflorum.
Studies on the Growth Characters and Nutrient Uptake Related to Source and Sink by Cool Water Temperature at Reproductive Growth Stage I. Influence of Cool Water Irrigation on the Degeneration and Differentiation of Rachis Branches and Spikelets, Sterility Ratio and Ripening Ratio of Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 359~367
This experiment was conducted to study effect of cold water damage on some growth characters related to source and sink at reproductive growth stage in Jinan (sea level 303m). The cold water irrigation duration had irrigated 4, 8 and 12 days at panicle formation stage and reproduction division stage compared to perennial water irrigation. Cold water irrigation shortened culm length and panicle length and degree of panicle exsertion. The shortening effect appeared great at lower internodes when treated at panicle formation stage but at higher internodes when treated at reduction division stage. Cold water irrigation decreased the number of secondary branches and spikelets per panicle, and increased the number of degenerated spikelets being high degeneration when treated at panicle formation stage. Spikelet sterility and impediment of grain filling were affected by duration of cold water irrigation being great when treated at spikelet primodium differentiation stage and reduction division stage in particular. Grain weight was also reduced. Significant relationship existed between spikelets sterility, grain filling and yield. The degeneration of secondary branches and spikelets correlated with leaf area but spikelet sterility and yield with culm length, panicle length and panicle exsertion.
Effects of the Growth Regulators on the Emergence and Growth of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 368~374
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for the shortening of emergence period of ginseng by treatment of growth regulators. Seedlings that removed and non-removed bud sac were treated at 10, 50 and 100ppm of GA
, Kinetin and 2,4-D in early December, and investigated the characteristics of new bud emergence and growth vigor in 2-year-old ginseng. GA treatment showed the most desirable effects in shortening of emergence period of new bud, and elevating its emergence rate with increasing of the GA concentration. In addition, GA treatment especially accelerated the growth of stem and petiole length and early finished the growth of aerial parts of ginseng. On the other hand, root weights were mainly increased by formation of a lot fine roots in GA 50, 100ppm plots.
Variation of Morphological Similarity between Rice Breeding Lines in the Different Fertilizer Levels
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 375~380
Single linkage dendrograms by Mahalanobis's D
, Q correlation, and distance from Principal Component Analysis, respectively, were made to eight rice breeding lines in the none and high fertilizer levels. The dendrograms in the two fertilizer levels were similar in shape. The shape of dendrograms by D
and Q correlation were identical and they were very similar in shape to that by PCA in the both fertilizer levels.
Changes in Mining Properties During Maturation of Wheat Kernel
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 381~387
Development and maturation of wheat were studied with reference to the quality of grain and milling properties. 1000-kernel weight and test weight increased as the wheat matured and as the orginal moisture decreased. The time of maturity was estimated 40 days after heading. Moisture content of wheat grain had a correlation coefficient of -0.877＊＊ with 1000-kernel weight, of -0.761＊＊ with test weight, and of 0.915＊＊ with pearling index. The milling data suggest that even in the early stages of maturing, the endosperm represented at large proportion of the grain. However, milling score was relatively constant at about 40 days. Break-Reduction flour ratio was a great difference between wheat varieties. 1000-kernel weight had a high significant correlation of +0.603＊＊ with milling yield, of -0.958＊＊ with ash content, and of +0.956＊＊ with milling score.
Forage Productivity and Quality of Triticale and Rye
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 388~397
Forage productivity and sequential changes in forage quality of four rye and two triticale varieties were studied. All the observed characteristics were similar among rye or triticale varieties, but they were different between rye and triticale varieties. Early growth of rye was better compared to triticale varieties, but at heading stage yield in dry weight, digestible dry matter and percent dry matter of triticale were higher compared to rye varieties. Heading stage of rye was earlier than that of triticale by 11 - 14 days. Triticale had longer and broader leaf blades and a higher leaf blade/total dry weight ratio compared to rye. Protein content decreased as plant growth advanced and it was higher in rye before heading, but it was similar after heading compared to triticale. Cellulose and lignin contents of rye increased through 20 days after heading. However, in triticale cellulose increased until heading stage and it levelled off, but lignin content increased rapidly after heading. Among the crude fibers, only acid detergent fibers(ADF) was negatively correlated with in vitro dry matter digestibility(IVDMD) in both rye and triticale. IVDMD of rye decreased rapidly after heading, but it was maintained as high as heading stage up to 15 days after heading in triticale. Protein content and IVDMD in leaf blades were higher than those of culm + leaf sheath, hemicellulose was similar, and cellulose, lignin, and ADF in leaf blades were lower compared to culm + leaf sheath. In the early and middle part of April rye was superior to triticale as a soiling crop because of a better plant growth of rye under the low temperature conditions, but in the later part of April and early part of May triticale was superior to rye because of a rapid decreased in IVDMD of rye after heading and a late maturing characteristics of triticale. Planting both rye and triticale could prolong the utilization period of the soiling crops and increase in yield with better quality compared to a single crop of rye or triticale.
Studies on the Leaf Characteristics and the Photosynthesis of Korean Ginseng II. Seasonal Changes of Photosynthesis of 4-Year Old Ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer)
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 398~404
This study was conducted to define the seasonal differences in the morphological characteristics, the photosynthetic abilities and the dark respirations of the 4-year old ginseng leaves. Chlorophyll-a content in the ginseng leaf was significantly decreased at September than at June but content of chlorophyll-b was not showed seasonal difference. At June, the amounts of chlorophyll a and b in the ginseng leaves grown in the back row were rather abundant than those grown in the front row, but no significant differencies were detected between rows at September. The estimated optimum light intensity for the photosynthesis of ginseng leaves was higher at June than at September and higher in the front row than the back row but was significantly decreased by air temperature above 25
. The light compensation point was elevated in higher temperature and at September than June. The amount of photosynthesis was significantly increased in the ginseng plant grown in the front row than the back row at June but the reverse was significant at September. The highest photosynthesis was observed in temperature range of 20 - 25
at June and range of 15 -20
at September. The optimum temperature range of photosynthesis was 21
at June and 14
at September, and that was higher in the back row than the front row. High temperature significantly stimulated the dark respiration of ginseng leaves and the respiratory quotients(Q
10/) of the ginseng leaves showed a significant seasonal variation.
Appropriate Electrophoresis Techniques and Isozymes to Identification of Barley Cultivars
Eung-Ryong Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 405~411
The buffer soluble proteins were extracted from six cultivars of barley grains and analyzed by various electrophoresis; 7.5% polyacrylamide slab gel, 2-30% polyacrylamide porosity gradient tube gel, isoelectric focusing (pH4-9) and starch gel electrophoresis. The proteins, esterase, acid phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase and leucine aminopeptidase were investigated to find out the best method to differentiate barley cultivars. The result were that protein and esterase bands in 2-30% polyacrylamide porosity gradient tube gel electrophoresis and protein bands in 7.5% polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis showed typical varietal differences. Therefore, those methods were suitable for differentiation of barley cultivars. It was difficult to differentiate the cultivars by the other methodes and patterns of the other enzymes.
Comparison of Morphological and Physiological Traits of Barley Varieties Bred Different Year
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 412~418
Two fertilizer levels were treated to the nine barley varieties developed at different years to investigate the morphological and physiological traits related to grain yields. Recently developed varieties were higher in amounts of chlorophyll and nitrogen content of leaf, root activity, root weight and specipic leaf weight as compared with older varieties. Dry matter production was closely related to NAR rather than LAI in new varieties, but indicating the reverse results in older varieties. They showed higher NAR and light transmission rate in new varieties but higher LAI in older varieties. Leaves in new varieties were distributed uniformly according to its position on clum. However, leaves in older varieties arranged irregularly showing more distribution at the upper and middle positions on culm. The factors which showed high correlations with grain yield were chlorophyll content, root activity, NAR, and nitrogen content of leaf of which stepwise multiple regression with grain yield indicated that 90% of total variance was occupied by chlorophyll content, root activity and dry matter.
Variations of Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components on Different Seeding Dates of Cowpea
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 419~426
Two cowpea varieties, VITA #5 &Jungweon local var., had been sown at intervals of 15 days from May 1 to Aug. 29, and the following results were obtained. The earlier the two varieties had been sown, the shorter period from planting to first blooming and maturing, the more peduncles, the more pods per peduncle and plant, the heavier 100-grain weight, and the more grain yield we had. VITA #5 was earlier in maturity and higher in yielding performance than Jungweon local var., and both could not bloom in late sowing after Aug. 14. During the period of flowering and seed-setting, bad weather condition decreased the number of grains per pod. Limit sowing date of VITA #5 was Jun. 30 and that of Jungweon local var. was Jun. 15 in the middle part of Korea. Growing degree days (GDD) was available in cowpea.
Comparison in Anthesis Characterics of Some Male Sterile Rice Cultivars
Hak-Soo SUH ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 427~430
Extrusion degree of stigma, numbers of opened florets at different time during anthesis, angle of opening florets and outcrossed seed set percent were investigated in four male sterile rices having background of Korean cultivars; Suwon 296A, Suwon 304A, Suwon 310A and Suwon 296GMS, and the Chinese cytoplasmic genetic male sterile rice Zhenshan 97A as control in order to get basic informations for hybrid rice breeding. The results obtained were summarized as follows; Extrusion degree of stigma in the four Korean male sterile lines tested was lower than in the Chinese one Zhenshan 97A. The better extrusion of stigma showed the higher outcross rate in male sterile rices. There were almost no relationships between peak of anthesis and outcrossed seed set in the male sterile rices tested. Large anthesis angle with long anthesis duration appeared to be essential for high outcrossed seed set of the male sterile rices. The genetic male sterile line showed the larger anthesis angle than the cytoplasmic and genetic male sterile one in the lines having the same background to the Korean rice cultivar Suwon 296.
Studies on Breeding of F
Hybrid Rice Using the Korean Cytoplasmic and Genetic Male Sterile Rice I. Breeding of Hybrid Rice Using the Cytoplasmic-Genetic Male Sterility
Hak-Soo SUH ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 431~435
Nine hybrid rices crossed between Korean cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile rices having the WA cytoplasm and the Korean restorer lines or varieties, HR1619A/Nampungbyeo, HR1619A/Gayabyeo, HR1619A/Line234, TongilA/Nampungbyeo, TongilA/Cheongcheongbyeo, Suwon 296A/Line 209, Suwon 296A/Line 237, Suwon 296A/Line 252 and Line 201A/Line 234, and their parents were grown at Yeungnam University in 1984. The rough rice yield of the hybrids Line 201A/Line 234, TongilA/Nampungbyeo and HR1619A/Nampungbyeo were 939, 927 and 900 Kg/10a respectively. The heterosis(F
/Midparent) of the above three hybrids was 40%, 20% and 19%, the heterobeltiosis(F
/Better parent) was 36%, 17% and 10%, and the standard heterosis (F
/Standard variety, Cheongcheongbyeo) was 19%, 17% and 14% respectively. The hybrids HR1619A/ Gayabyeo and Suwon 296A/Line 237 showed negative heterosis in grain yield. Significant heterobeltiosis for grain number per panicle was found while less or no heterobeltiosis was observed in panicle number per hill, 1000-grain weight and grain fertility. The bacterial leaf blight disease reaction of the hybrids tested was almost the same as that of one parent at least. The amylose content of the hybrids was medium to low the same as their parents. The protein content and alkali digestion value of the hybrids were almost the same as their parents.
Studies on the Flowering and Maturity in Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.) V. Changes of Grain Weight and Germinability by Maturity in Different Plant Types
Jung-Il Lee ; ; Eung-Ryong Son ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 436~441
The study was conducted to provide basic information to breeders and agronomists working with sesame. The grain weight and germinability were investigated for eight plant types classified by branching habit, capsules per axil, and carpels and loculi of a capsule. Two typical cultivars were chosen for each plant type among 527 gene pools. Dry weight of one thousand grains was increased rapidly from 25th to 35th day after flowering, and reached peak on 40th day after flowering in upper part capsules and 45th day after flowering in lower and middle part capsules, so that this period was considered to be of physiological maturity in each capsule bearing part. Side capsules on main stem and branch capsules were lighter than central ones of main stem, and upper capsules of four carpels eight loculi type decreased more seriously. BTB type demonstrated relatively better growth compared to the growth of BTQ type in one thousand grain weight. The maximum grain filling duration for germination percentage increased rapidly up to 40th day after flowering. Above 70% germinability was obtained from 40th day after flowering. Harvesting time of physiological maturity was considered to be 45th day after flowering with peaks of 2.14g of one thousand grain weight, 26% of grain water content and 90% of germinability.
Yearly Variation of Genetic Parameters for Main Characters of Tea Tree(Lycium chinense Miller) Varieties
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 442~448
The objective of this study was to compare year variations of heritability, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations as well as pathway coefficients for main characters of tea tree to provide useful selection information for improving tea tree. The data collected from the performance yield trials from 1979 to 1981 were used in this study. 1. The genetic variance of height of stem and length of first branch was not only greatly varied with year. but also the largest among all characteristics studied. Other characteristics showed higher genetic variance than environmental variances, and year variances were very small. 2. Both year and variety x year interaction were highly significant sources of variation for height of stem, length of first branch and number of fruits in main stem pooled from three year data. 3. All characteristics showed high broad sense heritabilities, and the broad sense heritability was not varied with year. 4. The genetic correlation coefficients between Gigolpi and height of stem, length of first branch and number of fruits in main stem were positive, and the year variation was not large. 5. The pathway coefficients of the character was not only greatly varied with year and the height of stem, length of first branch and weight of dryed root affected directly on the Giglopi.
Segregation Mode of Plant Height in Crosses of Rice Cultivars Ⅸ. Crosses between Semi-dwarf Japonicas and Semi-dwarf(d-t) gene Testers
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 449~454
In order to search for the semi-dwarf japonica varieties allelic to the semi-dwarf rice cultivar which is controlled by d-t gene, seven dwarf japonica varieties. Reimei, Hoyoku. Shiranui, Kokumasari, M 7. S.224 and S.295 were crossed to the semi-dwarf cultivar, wx 817. wx 817 is known to have semi-dwarf gene d-t. Their F
were grown in 1984 and 1985 and culm lengths were measured at harvest. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The F
s of all 7 cross combinations showed normal distribution and no segregation. 2. The range of culm length variation in the F
was variable depending on the cross combination, but the general pattern was similar in the all 7 crosses. 3. The mean of F
and parental F
mean which were selected into short, medium and tall groups were similar and showed no segregation, implying the selection efficiency in F
. 4. From the results of F
segregations, it is concluded that the culm length of the 7 semi-dwarf japonicas tested here are controlled by the same major gene d-t although they are modified by different minor genes.
Studies on 2n gametophyte Producing Diploid Potato Clones
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 455~459
This study is to select good diploid clones and develope them into FDR clones. Seventeen diploid clones were selected by tuber plants from the imported diploid potato seeds and from the progenies of the crosses between them. The characteristics of the selected clones were reported. Fifteen clones were crossed among them or open pollinated or bulk pollinated, and 18 selections were made from the seed progenies of these pollinations. Male and female unreduced gametes were searched by crossing 2x, 4x and by microtechnique. Only one clone, D6-21 was found to produce unreduced male gamete with the rate of 27-30% by FDR. Unreduced female gamete has not been found among these diploids.
Evaluation of Varietal Difference and Environmental Variation for Some Characters Related to Source and Sink in the Rice Plants
Yong-Woong Kwon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 460~470
Experiments were carried out to evaluate the standard gravity in determining potential kernel size and to determine the effective sampling way by analyzing intra - and inter - plant variations for some source and sink characters using eleven semi-dwarf indica and three japonica cultivars including four semi-dwarf indica nearisogenic lines. Also, additional experiments were conducted to understand yearly variation and variety x year interaction effects for ten characters related to source and sink and to characterize the varietal difference of pre- and post-heading self-competition employing three parental varieties and their F
5/ progenies in 1982 and 1983. It is desirable to determine the potential kernel size by average kernel wight of rice grains showing above 1.15 specific gravity. There was significant difference in leaf area per tiller, spikelets and sink capacity per panicle among vigorous, intermediate and inferior tillers classified by differentiated order and vigorousness. Although it was difficult to find out any significant difference in grain-fill ratio, ratio of perfectly ripened grain, potential kernel size and sink/source ratio between vigorous and intermediate tillers, there was big difference between them and inferior one. The coefficients of variation within each tiller-group for some characters related to source and sink were larger with the order of vigorous tillers < intermediate one '||'&'||'lt; inferior one, and the average heritability of all characters, evaluated by the ratio of varietal variance (equation omitted) to total variance (equation omitted), were higher with the order of inferior tillers '||'&'||'lt; intemediate one '||'&'||'lt; superior one. Therefore, it is desirable to sample the vigorous tillers to represent the varietal difference of these traits. '82-'83 year variations of three parental cultivars were significant for all traits except for leaf area/tiller, panicles/hill, leaf area index and rough rice yield. The characters showing highly significant variance of variety x year interaction were growth duration from transplanting to heading, leaf area/tiller, sink/source ratio, sink capacity/panicle and grain yield. Generalized yearly response of three parental varieties (Suweon 264, Raegyeong, IR1317-70-l) and their F
5/ progenies on the 1st and 2nd principal components extracted from ten source and sink characters generally exhibited reduction in both source and sink. However, there were diverse variety x year interactions such as progenies showing similar reaction with their parents and intermediate or recombinational yearly response with little or considerable yearly movement on the four-dimensional planes of the two upper principal components between 1982 and 1983. Sink characters revealing highly significant border effect were grain-fill ratio, spikelets and sink capacity per panicle. Among them the latter two especially showed significant variety x border effect interaction. Self-competition characterized by relative weakness of inside plant's sink characters compared to the border one was more severe during the reproductive stage before heading than maturing stage. Though the larger sink capacity per panicle generally disclosed the severer self-competition, some lines (like Suweon 264) revealed severe self-competition with small sink capacity while a few others showed tender self-competition in spite of big sink capacity per panicle.
Effect of Applied
and Paclobutrazol, an Inhibitor of GA Biosynthesis, on the Growth of Internodes and Panicle of the Rice Plants
Kee Kyeung, Kang ; Yong Woong, Kwon ; Chang Yung, Yoo ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 30, issue 4, 1985, Pages 471~480
Recently several synthetic chemicals inhibiting biosynthesis of gibberellic acids were found to be effective in preventing cereal crops from lodging by reducing culm length. The present study aimed to clarify the extent of practical manipulation of the culm length of the rice crop by changing the endogenous level of gibberellic acids with exogenous application of GA
or GA biosynthesis inhibitor. Three rice cultivars, 'Jinheung', 'Minehikari' (Japonica) and 'Hangangchal' (semi-dwarf Indica x Japonica) were treated with GA
(0, 20, 50 and 100 ppm solution) and an anti-gibberellin, paclobutrazol (0, 100, 200 and 300 g ai/ha) at three growth stages (maximum tillering, panicle initiation and meiotic stage), respectively. The application of GA
(50, 100 ppm) at maximum tillering stage and panicle initiation stage promoted the elongation of the 5th internodes from the top and GA
applied at meiotic stage promoted remarkably the elongation of the 3rd internodes. Culm was most elongated when GA
was applied at maximum tillering stage in 'Jinheung', at panicle initiation stage in 'Minehikari' and at meiotic stage in 'Hangangchal'. Paclobutrazol shortened the 4th and 5th internodes from the top when it was applied at maximum tillering stage and panicle initiation stage and the 2nd and 3rd internodes when it was applied at meiotic stage in the three cultivars. The semi-dwarf Indica x Japonica variety responded to a greater extent to the GA
and to a less extent to the anti-gib berellin than the Japonica varieties. The effect of GA
and paclobutrazol on the panicle length and the number of spikelets per panicle varied with time and dose of their application as well as with variety.