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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 1986
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Oct 1986
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jul 1986
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Apr 1986
Selecting the target year
Study on the Optimum Time of Seed Production and Development of Embryo in Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 123~128
The characteristics such as characters of seed, fruit and endosperm, development of embryo, dehisced and germination rate of seeds which harvested at 10 days intervals from 20 days to 60 days after pollination were determined to clarify the optimum time for seed production of ginseng. The sizes of length, width and thickness of fruits, seeds and endosperms investigated on 20 days after pollination were not largely different from those that harvested after 60 days. But the weights of fruits and seeds were increased along with the delay of harvesting time. The seeds which harvested from 30 to 60 days showed comparatively high dehisced and germinated rates, especially 40 days in dehisced rates and 50 days in germinated rates. The embryos were rapidly grown in early stage. Lengths of the embryo on 20 days after pollination were approximately grown to 30
. And after 30 days pollinated, embryos were not only more rapidly grown to 213
but also cotyledon premodia were developed in this time and completely formed after 40 days.
Studies on Heterostylism, Fertility, and Embryological Characteristics in Buckwheat. Fagopyrum esculentum
Man-Sang Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 129~142
Fifty-five local collections of buck wheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, were investigated their ratios of long-styled (LS) and short-styled (SS) flowers, fertility, meiosis of megaspore and microspore mother cell, female and male gametogenesis, and egg apparatus in accordance with the sowing seasons (spring, summer), altitudes (20m, 50-100m, 300m), and parent style types (L, S). Also they were embryologically investigated the fertility, fertilizing phenomenon and proembryogenesis by the legitimate and illegitimate pollination. There were no differences in the ratios of long-styled and short-5tyled flowers along with altitudes, but more irregularness was observed in plain area than that in the mountaineous or coastal area. LS versus SS ratios by sowing seasons were significantly separated into 1 : 1 in the summer sowing (P 0.1), but they were irregularly separated in the spring sowing. The segregating ratios by parent style types showed more number of short-styled flower in the spring sowing, and were statistically seperated into 1 : 1 in the summer sowing (P 0.25), regardless to parent style types. In the artificial legitimate union, the seed setting rates of the summer sowing (59-61%) were much higher than those of the spring sowing (about 30%), but in the artificial illegitimate union the seed setting rates were only fructified about 0.8-1.8% in the spring sowing. The seed setting rates in accordance with flowering stages were larger in turn early, middle, late, in the summer sowing. The grain number and grain weight per plant of short-styled flower were more than those of long-styled one regardless to style types. The 1,000 grain weight of long-styled flower was heavier than that of short-styled one in large grain, but it was lighter than that of short-styled flower in small or medium grain. The percentage of normal female and male gametogenesis in the summer sowing were higher than those in the spring sowing. The ovule was atropous and two polar nuclei were a synkarion before flowering. The pollens germinated at 30 minuts after pollination and the pollen tube grew continually and penetrated into micropyle at 1.5-2 hours and the two male nuclei fertilized with egg nucleus at 3 -5 hours after pollination. Flertilizing times in summer were shorter than in autumn. The fertilized egg was divided in a small apical cell toward the interior of the embryo sac and a large basal cell toward the micropyle cell at 15-24 hours after pollination, and division times in summer were shorter than in autumn. The proembryo began the embryogenesis at 7-8 days and formed itself into the perfect embryo at 15 days after pollination.
Anatomical Changes in the Forming and Germinating Processes of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Seeds
;Byong-Hee Hong;Jae-Young Cho;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 143~149
Anatomical changes in the forming and germinating processes of tobacco seeds were investigated to obtain basic information on the ecological characteristics of tobacco seeds. Seed development studied through the longitudinal section of the fertilized ovule clarified that the cell division of the zygote was initiated after 7 days of flowering. After 12 days of flowering, perfect seed constituents such as cotyledon, epicotyle and radicle were formed and those were expressed to recognizable level of germinability. After 15 days of flowering germination rate reached higher than 30% and 17 and 21 days after flowering a perfect seed which have 70% or higher germinability were produced. Seed size was ranged between 0.3-0.6 mm and varietal differences were noted in the given seed size range. Under the light treatment, the morphological changes were observed by elongation of radicle after 2 days of imbibition and apparent germination after 3 days of imbibition. But no responses of the seeds imbibed 6 days under the dark condition were observed.
Effect of Seed Moisture Contents and Cylinder Speed of Thresher on the Mechanical Damage and Germination of Soybean Seeds
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 150~155
An experimental study was undertaken to obtain the basic information on the effect of seed moisture content and cylinder speed of thresher on the mechanical damage and seed germination in soybeans. The moisture content at maturity was the highest in stern and followed by seed and pod-shell for Hwang-keurnkong and also the highest in stern and followed by pod-shell and seed for Danyeobkong in that order. The variation in the moisture contents of stern, seed, and pod-shell in a day on the 7th day after maturity showed gradually decreasing trends from 7 :00 in the morning to 17 :00 in the afternoon. On the 14th day after maturity, the moisture content of pod-shell was higher than that of seeds up until 11 :00 in the morning but it was higher in the seeds after that. The greater the cylinder speed and the higher the moisture content of seeds, the higher the percentage of seeds damaged was resulted. At the same time, the percentage of seeds damaged was higher in Hwangkeumkong large seed sized than in Danyeobkong small seed sized at the same cylinder speed. Considering the seed yield, percentage of seeds damaged, percentage of seeds germinated, threshing efficiency and drying, etc., the appropriate cylinder speed was believed to be about II m per second and the most appropriate moisture contents of seeds for threshing were believed to be about 15-20%.
Silage Productivity of Korean-Improved and Introduced Corn Genotypes in the Southern Part of Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 156~161
Silage productivity and resistance to rice black streaked dwarf virus (RSDV) of six Korean-improved and six US introduced corn genotypes were tested in the southern part of Korea. There was a negative correlation between culm length retarded by RBSDV and coefficients of variance of culm length. Frequency distribution of culm length could be classified as three genotypic groups according to the type of distribution and percentage of RBSDV diseased plants. There were negative correlations between percent RBSDV diseased plants at harvest and culm length, percent ear bearing plants, silage yield, or ear yield, but percent RBSDV diseased plants did not related to the ear/silage ratio and stover yield. Silage yield of Pioneer XCF38 was highest, but that of Suweon 89 and NC 6131 was lowest. However, there was not signi-ficant difference in silage yield among the remaining genotypes. Pioneer XCF38, Suweon 89, and Jinjuok were quite resistant to RBSDV, but Suweon 19, Kwangok, Hoengseongok, Jecheonok, and Pioneer 3424 were susceptible and NC 6131 was most susceptible to RBSDV. Although Jinjuok and Suweon 89 were resistant to RBSDV, silage yield was not high because of early senescence of leaves after silkillg.
Studies on the Morphological Characteristics of Barley Internode
Bong-Ku Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 162~166
Experiments were carried out to find the varietal differences in histological structure and outer characteristics, and its relationships between each characters in the internodes of 15 barley varieties (5 covered barley, 5 naked barley and 5 malting barley). The length of 1st-3th internodes from the top was longer in malting barley varieties, covered barley varieties and naked barley varieties in the order, but of 4th-5th internodes was longer in naked barley varieties, covered barley varieties, and malting barley varieties in the order. The diameter of naked barley varieties internodes was much thicker that of malting barley varieties. The thickness of culm wall in 1st-3rd internodes was thicker naked barley varieties, covered barley varieties, and malting barley varieties in sequence and in 4th-5th inter-nodes was covered barley varieties, malting barley varieties, and naked barley varieties in the order. The number of large vascular bundles in covered barley varieties had more than that of naked barley varieties and malting barley varieties in 1st internodes. The size of large vascular bundles in covered barley varieties and naked barley varieties was larger than that of malting barley varieties. The size of large vascular bundles had significant positive correlation with thickness of culm wall and the diameter of internodes. The thickness of culm wall was negatively correlated with the length of internodes and culm, but positively correlated with the diameter of internodes.
Growth Habit and Morphological Characteristics of Fasciated Soybean, var. Buchai-kong (Glycine max L. Merrill)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 167~172
This experiment was carried out to obtain some information about the growth habit and morphological and anatomical characteristics of fasciated soybean, var. Buchai-kong. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Main stern of fasciated soybean, var. Buchai-kong was gradually broadened and became flat, on which leaves emerged irregularly compared with normal soybean, var. Danyeop-kong. The number of leaves on main stern was more in Buchai-kong, but the total number of leaves per plant was not considerably different each other. 2. The degree of fasciation (max./min. in diameter at the broadened part) in main stern of Buchai-kong was about 3.1, and was related to the amount of growth of main stern and branches of Danyeop-kong. Stern fasciation types found in Buchai-kong were linear (the most common) and bifurcated with regard to branching of main stern tip. 3. The number of branches per plant was much less in Buchai-kong than in Danyeop-kong. There were fas-ciated branches and fasciated petiole in Buchai-kong. 4. About 75 percent of pods of Buchai-kong were concentrated on the top of stern, which showed strong pod clustering. 5. Seed yield per plant of Buchai-kong was about 60 percent of that of Danyeop-kong, and the decrease in seed yield was mostly affected by the decrease in seed weight and seeds per pod. 6. The number of vascular bundles of transection of mature stern was more in Buchai-kong, but Danyeop-kong developed the better vascular bundle.
Principal Component Analysis for the Growth Data of Rice
Young-Am Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 173~178
Principal component analysis was used for ana1zing growth data to know the relationship between growth characteristics and yield as well as its components. The first principal component accounted for average time of the specific leaf area sampled, leaf area index, and dry weight, and the second component for the position of the changing point of growth characteristics. The component scores were more affected by the nitrogen level than variety. Yield were affected by fertility ratio and number of spikelets per hill which have close relation with the component score of leaf area index and dry weight per hill.
Yearly Variation of Genetic Parameters for Yielding Characters of Tea Tree(Lycium chinense Miller) Varieties
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 179~185
This study was to compare year variations of heritability, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations as well as pathway coefficients for main characters of tea tree to provide useful selection information for improving tea tree. The data collected from the performance yield trials from 1979 to 1981 were used in this study. I. The genetic variance of fresh fruit yielding, dryed fruit yielding and fresh weight of root was not only greatly varied with year, but also the largest among all characteristies studied. Other characteristics showed higher genetic variance than environmental variances, and year variances were not large. 2. Both year and variety x year interaction were highly significant sources of variation for all yield characteristics, and year variances were not large. 3. All characteristics showed high broad sense heritabilities, and the broad sense heritability was not varied with year. 4. The genetic correlation coefficients between fresh fruit yielding and dryed fruit yielding, fresh weight of root and Gigolpi, dryed weight of root and Gigolpi were positive, and the year variation was not large. S. The pathway coefficients of the character was not only greatly varied with year and the fresh weight of root affected directly on the Gigolpi.
Methods of Estimating Growing Degree Days to Predict Growth Duration in Maize
Keun-Yong Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 186~194
In an attempt to find better ways to relate growth with temperature and to estimate maturity differences in corn (Zea mays L.), various formulas of computing Growing Degree Days (GDD) were evaluated. Utilizing data from 17 plantings of a single cross, Suweon 19, over a 3 year period, 24 different methods of computing GDD were compared for their ability to reduce variations over different plantings. The best equation was to compute GDD with a base temperature of 10
and an optimum of 30
. The excess temperature above 30
was subtracted to account for high temperature stress. GDDs required for emergence and silking of Suweon 19 were 64
, respectively. Based on these GDD values, emergence and silking dates could be estimated with a variation less than 3 days. The observed and estimated number of days from planting to emergence and silking were not significantly different.
Studies on the Change of Mineral Nutrients Content in Rice Plant in the Ripening Process I. Translocation and Cumulation of Mineral Nutrients in Different Parts of Rice Plant in the Ripening Process
Pyeong-Ki Yim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 195~203
In order to clarify the trend of change in mineral nutrients in rice plant on various ripening process, P
O, MgO, CaO, SiO
and ash contents were determined for the grain, internode, leaf-5heath and leaf blade respectively for 9 times at an week interval after heading. Four rice cultivars with different maturity and ecotype were grown under normal cultural conditions for the trial. The contents of mineral nutrients in the brown rice were in the order of Ash, P
O and MgO. CaO and SiO
were found in minute quantity in the brown rice. The hull contained SiO
in large quantity, and it also contained the mineral nutrients in the order of K
5/O. The CaO content of hull was extremely minute.
Direct Seeding Cultivation on Submerged Paddy in Rice I. Seedling Emergence and Early Growth under Different Temperature and Seeding Depth
Rae-Kyung Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 204~213
The objective of this paper was to examine the response of rice seedling emergence and early growth under the different temperature (day/night, 29/21
) and the different seeding depth (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm). The trial was carried out in the phytotron and field in the Crop Experiment Station, Suwon, Korea in 1985. Calcium peroxide-coated seeds were very effctive in promoting seedling emergence, seedling establishment and eary growth of rice. Coated seeds were more effective in low temperature condition (17/17
) than in high temperature (29/21
) at the phytotron trial. The deeper the seeding depth, the less the emergence and seedling establishment, and the available seeding depth was I cm in the direct seeding under the flooded soil. In the field trial (seeding date, May 1) the results for the emergence and seedling establishment were similar to those in the phytotron trial. Available cultivars for the direct seeding cultivation under the flooded soil were Cheonmabyeo, Namyangbyeo, Kihobyeo, Akibare, Nakdongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo in Japonica type, and Taebaegbyeo, Samgangbyeo and Gayabyeo in Indica x Jponica type. Coefficients of variation to the emergence and seedling establishment between rice cultivars were very high. Therefore, in the direct seeding cultivation under the submerged paddy, choice of rice cultivars and improved technique for direct seeding will be more necessary.
Studies on Flowering and Maturity in Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.) VI. Grain Filling Rate for Differently Positioned Capsules in Different Plant Types
Jung-Il Lee ; ; Eung-Ryong Son ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 214~219
This study was conducted to provide basic information to breeders and agronomists working with sesame. Grain filling rate were investigated for eight plant types classified by branching habit, capsules per axil, carpels and loculi of a capsule. Two typical cultivars were chosen for plant type among 527 gene pools. Grain filling rate didn't increase with little difference between lower and middle part capsules, Jut significantly decreased in upper part. Grain filling rate of lower part, main stem and center capsules appeared higher than that of upper part, branch and side capsule for grain filling. Mono-capsule setting and unbranched plant type were higher for grain filling than tricapsule setting and branched type due to inactive ripenness on branched capsule. NMB type showed that best maturity and relatively good grain filling in BTB type despite it's largest sink capacity. NTQ and BTQ type appeared poor ripenness because of immaturity of higher part side capsules; however it was believed that there were still possibilities for improving ripenness in 3 capsule and 4 carpels 8 loculi type by the good maturity of 1 capsule and 4 carpels 8 loculi type.
Dormancy of Ginseng Seed as Influenced by Temperature and Gibberellic Acid
Jong-Chul Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 220~225
This study was conducted to know the effects of temperature and gibberellic acid on the dormancy block-ing of ginseng seeds at different embryo growth stage. Optimum temperature for embryo growth appeared to be I soc at the beginning stage of post ripening (up to dehiscent time), 1
at middle stage (for 30 days after dehiscence) and 5
at last stage (between 30 and 92 days after dehiscence). And optimum temperature for dehiscence is about 17
, also the optimum temperature for dehiscence is higher than that of embryo growth. Germination of ginseng seed with full grown embryo was accelerated at high temperature (25-3
). Germina-tion percentage was 80% at 105th date after dehiscence under 5
, 28% at 147th date under 1
, but no germination under the over 15
. Gibberellic acid increased the dehiscent rate, whereas the gibberellic acid treatment may not be substituted for effect of low temperature on the germination. Low temperature may be reguired to finish the embryo growth in thickness.
Comparisons of Growth and Yield Characters between Near-isogenic Lines with Dark and Pale Green Leaves in Rice
Pyeong-Ki Yim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 226~230
Two near-isogenic lines with dark and pale green leaves, derived from the F
7/ generation of wxl26 cross were compared on photosynthetic capacity, growth parameters, grain yield and yield-related characters. Dark green-leaved lines contained much greater content of chlorophyll a and b than pale green-leaved ones, but chlorophyll a to b ratio showed no difference between them. The photosynthetic nte per unit leaf area was higher in dark green-leaved lines than in pale green-leaved ones in the flag leaves at heading stage, but that per unit chlorophyll content showed reversed result. The crop growth rate from transplanting to heading was consistantly higher in the dark green-leaved lines, resulting from their greater net assimilation rate. Dark green-leaved lines produced greater number of panicles and spikelets per hill, out yielding pale green-leaved lines, but ripened grain ratio and 1000-grain weight showed no differences between those lines.
Effect of Spacing Density and Nitrogen level on Yield and Properties of Aromatic Tobacco leaves
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 231~237
Under the different conditions of planting density and nitrogen level with aromatic tobacco, some agronomic characters of tobacco like plant height, leaf size, LAI, yield and price were investigated in view of aroma volatile acid contents, the main compounds contributing to the aroma of oriental leaf tobacco. The closer a spacing interval became, the smaller the growth of plant and the leaf size with increment of yields, until about 22,000 plants per 10 are. But the leaf size became smaller without increment of yield when the planting density became more than 22,000 plants per 10 are. There were definite trends toward increase in leaf size, LAI and yield with increase in nitrogen rate. Correlation coefficient between aroma volatile and plant height, largest leaf length, one leaf area was -0.49, -0.49 and -0.47, respectively, showing significance at 1 % level. But LAI (r=-0.14) and dry weight of unit leaf area(r=0.25) was not observed to be significantly associated with aroma volatile, respectively. The results suggest that closer spacing is desirable for smaller leaves, higher contents of aroma volatile and for increased yield.
Effect of Silicate Application on the Reduction of Summer Drought Phenomenon of Orchardgrass(Dactylis glomerata L.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 238~241
To clarify the effect of silicate application on the reduction of summer drought damage of orchardgrass, a pot experiment treated with 3 levels of available SiO
100(control), 150, and 200 ppm was carried out in the phytotron, and field experiment in the medium textured hilly soils also was carried out. The plant height and weight of orchardgrass grown in the pots were increased with increasing of SiO
application, and the higher content of SiO
in plant became erect types of leaves with low ethylene evolution. With application of SiO
in the hilly soils, the reduction of summer drought phenomenon was recognized by the increasing 9% in yield with decreased ethylene evolution at summer drought stage but the nutritive values of the plant were not deteriorated.
Studies on the Growth Characters and Nutrient Uptake Related to Source and Sink by Cool Water Temperature at Reproductive Growth Stage III. Influence of Growth Characters and Nutrient Uptake Related to Panicle by Different Water Temperature and Water Depth
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 242~248
To study the effect of cold water irrigation at the reproductive growth stage of rice plants on several growth characters related to source and sink and nutrient uptake, the present experiment was carried out under the different conditions of water temperature and water depth. Deep irrigation with normal temperature water increased culm length, panicle length and panicle exsertion but with cold water resulted adversely. Most sensi-tive response in 5 cm water-depth appeared at reduction division stage and in 20 cm depth at panicle formation stage. Secondary branches and spikelets were increased in number by deep irrigation with normal temperature water, but decreased and degenerated by deep irrigation with cold water at panicle formation stage resulting in high spikelet sterility and low grain filling. Deep irrigation with normal temperature water increased the contents of total nitrogen, phosphate, potassium and silicate in leaf blades, branches and chaff. However, cold water irrigation reduced the uptake of phosphate, potassium and silicate except nitrogen particularly in deep irrigation. Ratios of phosphate, potassium and silicate to total nitrogen content were decreased by cold water irrigation. Branches seemed to have higher requirements for phosphate, potassium and silicate than leaf blades and chaff. Silicate-to-total nitrogen ratio in leaf blades, branches and chaff had significant correlations with yield showing closer relationship between yield and the ratio of silicate to total nitrogen in branches in particu-lar.
Saponins of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 2, 1986, Pages 249~252
Saponins of Gynostemma pentaphyllum that collected from Geochang region(Korea) and Dokujima(Japan) were extracted by the method for ginseng saponin. Comparison by retention time in chromatogram(HPLC) of G. pentaphyllum to that of ginseng showed that it is hardly to find out a common saponin between penta-phyllum and ginseng saponins. Saponin content extracted from G. pentaphyllum growing in Geochang region was higher than that growing in Dokujima region.