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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 1986
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Oct 1986
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jul 1986
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Apr 1986
Selecting the target year
New Challenges to the Crop Research
Mun-Hue Heu ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 255~259
Effects of Mulching Materials on Physical Properties of Soil and Grain Yield of Sesame
Byong-Hee Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 260~269
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of mulching materials on the emergence rate, root dry weight and grain weight of sesame using variety Poong Nyun Ggae and also their effects on physical properties of soil, evapotranspiration and weed growth on the respective plots were studied. The effect of soil water holding capacity at mulching with polyethylene film and straw increased 5.4%, 2.8% to non-mulched plot respectively. The maximum soil temperature was raised up to 4
by applying clear film and was dropped down to 7
by straw. The minimum soil temperature was raised up to 2
by clear film and was dropped down to 3
by straw. In the early stage, the soil physical properties of clear film mulching were better than those of non mulching, and so was in emergence rate. In the late stage, soil strength was high at non mulching, and soil porosity, soil aeration and water infiltration rate were high at film and straw mulchings. Total root dry weight was great at clear film mulching, and root dry weight was concentrated mainly in the upper 10 cm of soil profile. The amount of weeds collected was the least at black film mulching. There were of little difference in evapotranspiration among treatments. The grain yield of sesame was increased to 57% by polyethylene film and 25% by straw mulching.
Studies on Cultivation of Flue-cured Tobacco of Vagetables Cultivated in the Fields I. Effect of Fertilizer level and Topping Depth on Yield and Quality in Flue-cured Tobacco
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 270~276
This experiment was conducted to find out the optimum fertilization level and topping depth for flue-cured tobacco in the fields which chinese cabbage and red-pepper were cultivated. The fertilization level were 0, 25, 50, 75kg per l0a as tobacco compound fertilizer and the topping depth were topping floral axis, topping under the second leaf frp, axos and the fourth leaf from floral axis. In order to product good quality tobacco leaves in the fields which vegetables were cultivated, the optimum amount of tobacco compound fertilizer was recommended 50-75kg per l0a for the field of the chinese cabbage cultivated. and 75kg per l0a for the field of the red-pepper cultivated. The optimum topping depth was desirable at topping under second leaf from floral axis for good leaf quality in chinese cabbage and red-pepper cultured field.
Variations of Yields and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Different Ecotype of Rice Varieties in the Temperate and Tropical Zones I. Variation of Heading Time and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Varieties in Temperate and Tropical Zones
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 277~285
A total of 16 varieties from Korea and Indonesia were tested at Suwon, Korea (126
16'N and 37m above sea level) and Bali, Indonesia (115
42'S and 10m above sea level). Japonica-type varieties showed pre-matured heading at Bali, tropical zone, while Bulu varieties showed no heading at Suwon, temperate zone. The varieties of Indica-type and Ind./Jap. showed faster heading in tropical zone than in temperate zone. Dry matter of the varieties weighed more difference among varietal groups in tropical than in temperate area, while plant height responsed differently depending on variety and test region.
Change of Ginsenosides and Free Sugars in Seeds During Stratification and Seedling During Early Growth Stage of Panax ginseng
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 286~292
For the elucidation of saponin synthesis during ontogeny changes of ginsenosides and free sugars in seeds during stratification and seedlings in early growth stage were investigated with high performance liquid chrom-atography. Embryo plus endosperm at 40-day stratification showed 80% decrease of total saponin, disappear-ance of Rc, Rb
and appearance of Rg
(probable) and 20-Glc-Rf (probable). Leaf ginsenoside F
was found not in fruit plup but seed and decreased during stratification. Both decomposition and synthesis of saponin seemed to occure during stratification. Ginsenosides in endosperm and embryo might be originated from fruit pulp by penetration. In seedling saponin appeared first in shoot and in root about one month later. Ginsenoside Rc, Rb
appeared in root at the last investigation (June 30) indicating normal saponin synthetic capacity of root. Saponin synthetic rate was twice in leaf than in root. Leaf ginsenoside F
was found in seedling root. Root saponin Rg
and 20-Glc-Rf were found in leaf and stem in seedling and decreased with growth suggesting that rate saponin is not such in certain growth stage. Total saponin content was negatively correlated with PT/PD in seeds and arial parts of seedling due to greater change of PD. than PT. Seed at 70days stratification showed high sucrose content. In seedling glucose was main sugar in stem all the while and sucrose in root at early stage while glucose, fructose and sucrose were found in leaf.
Changes of Moisture Uptake. Respiration and Chemical Contents in Germinating Tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L.) Seeds
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 293~298
The physiological aspects of tobacco seeds from seeding to germination under light and dark condition, and different temperature were studied to obtain basic information on the production of good seedlings. There were distinct three phases in moisture uptake and respiration process during germination that classifiable into 'Imbibition', 'Lag', and 'Growth' phase under light condition but such growth phase were not observed in the dark germination. Great changes of sugar and fatty acid content of tobacco seeds were observed during germination in light condition but such changes were slight in dark germinated seeds and fatty acid content of seeds during germination were decreased as corresponding to increasing in respiration.
Effect of the Base Ratio of Upland Soils on the Yield of Mungbean
Dong-Woo Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 299~303
To provide useful information on the improving cultural practices of mungbean, investigations were made on Ca/Mg and (equation omitted) ratio in soil and plant grown under three fertilizer levels of N, P, K with different upland soils, using variety, Kyonggijaerae 5. Highly significant possitive correlations were observed between the soil extracted molar Ca/Mg ratio, (equation omitted) ratio at flowering time and yield, number of pods per plant, respectively. Soil-extracted Ca/Mg ratio at flowering time ranged from 1.9 to 6.4 and (equation omitted) ratio ranged from 0.17 to 0.33. Yield decreased rapidly as extracted soil Ca/Mg ratio became smaller than the ratio of 3.9, and yield was the highest the (equation omitted) ratio adjusted to 0.23 at flowering time. At harvesting time, Ca/Mg ratio in plant ranged from 1.4 to 4.3 and the yield decreased rapidly as Ca/Mg ratio in plant became smaller than 2.6. Yields, however, were not related to the soil-extracted Ca/Mg ratio interval from 3.9 to at least 6.4 in flowering time and Ca/Mg ratio in plant ranged from 2.6 to 4.3 at harvesting time.
Selection Index and Genetic Advance on Quantitative Characters of Sesame
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 304~310
The studies were intended to clarify the effects of selection in sesame breeding. The 82 cultivars of sesame were used as the materials, and 14 quantitative characters were measured on individual plant basis. Selection indexes and genetic advances were calculated by Robinson's methods. In genetic advance values, combinations of days to flowering + number of capsule per plant, days to flowering + length of stem with capsule + number of capsule per plant and days to flowering + number of nodes with capsule were higher than those of other combinations. The highest genetic advance was the combination of all characters, but unreasonable problems such as the expence, time and labor involved in calculating the selection index are remained. For these reasons, it was realized that the selection index for selection should calculated on the basis of the data of 2-3 useful characters, i.e., days to flowering, length of stem with capsule and number of capsule per plant.
Variation of Grain Shattering under Different Environmental Conditions in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 311~317
To obtain the basic informations on the variation of rice grain shattering under different environmental conditions, several experiments were carried out from 1982 to 1985. The degree of grain shattering was significantly differed depending upon the harvesting time after heading in some rice varieties. It appeared that the ratio of grain shattering was greatly affected by the drying period after harvesting; the ratio of grain shattering of sun-dried seeds for 6 days after harvesting was higher than those of the just harvested seeds. Grain shattering was increased at high level of nitrogen and decreased with delay in transplanting date. Yearly differences in grain shattering was more clearly recognized in easy-shattering varieties in comparison with those of non-shattering varieties. Rice grain shattering also increased by the low temperature treatment (l7/15
, day/night) at booting stage, 5 to 11 days before heading. A rice variety, Milyang 23, belong to easy shattering group was more pronounced at the low temperature condition with shading. In general, it was always possible to classify the cultivar differences between easy-shattering and non-shattering groups regardless of any environmental condition. Thus results suggested that rice grain shattering will be largely governed by genetic factors.
Influence of Weather Condition for Grain Yield in Barley
Hyung-Soo Suh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 318~325
The studies were performed to obtain the basic informations on the influence of weather condition for grain yield and yield components in barley. The data of Olbori tested in 9 sites for 12 years were used in the studies. Milled grain yield was decreased in paddy field after rice harvested comparing to the upland condition, and yield potential was differed by test sites with the most stable yield in Gyeongnam. The coefficients of variation analyzed for milled grain yield by years were 12.2-42.6% with the differences between high-yield and low-yield year. Heading date was earlier in high-yield year and southern part compared to the low-yield year and middle part of the Korean peninsular showing the negative correlation between grain yield and heading date. High-yield year showed longer in culm length, shorter in spike length, almost same in number of grains per spike, and lower in 1,000grain weight compared to the low-yield year. Correlation analyzed between number of spikes and grain yield showed positive relationship. Temperatures affected to the grain yield analyzed by high in vegitative growth stage, low in alternative growth stage, and almost same in reproductive growth stage in high-yield year comparing to the low-yield year, however no remarkable differences of temperatures affected were detected in over wintering stage between high-yield and low-yield year. Precipitation amount in high-yield year was lesser in sowing time, more in seedling time, and lesser in over wintering time than those of the low-yield year. Correlation between rainfall amount in the early of April and grain yield showed significant negative correlation with the remarkable affects to the grain yield. Sunshine hours in high-yield year were longer in sowing time, shorter in over wintering time, and after the over wintering time to harvesting time was longer than those of the low-yie-ld year.
Studies on the Growth Characters and Nutrient Uptake Related to Source and Sink by Cool Water Temperature at Reproductive Growth Stage IV. Influence of Growth Characters and Nutrient Uptake of Leaf Blade, Rachis Branches and Chaff by Nitrogen, Phosphate, Potassium and Silicate
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 326~335
In cold water irrigation, some growth and yield were decreased by heavy application of nitrogen but in-creased by heavy application of phosphate, potassium and silicate. Among growth characters, number of spikelets per panicle and grain filling ratio were affected significantly. Cold damage in number of spikelets, spikelet sterility and degeneration of spikelet and branch could be reduced by increasing application amount of phosphate, potassium and in particular silicate. Number of spikelets per branch was closely related with number of spikelets per secondary branches. Number of abortive grains and immature grains had negative correlations with yield and could be reduced by heavy application of phosphate, potassium and silicate. Heavy nitrogen application led to high total nitrogen content and restrained the uptake of phosphate, potassium and silicate. However, adverse results were showed by heavy application of phosphate, potassium and silicate. Inorganic element contents in branches were lower than those in leaf blades, but higher than those in chaff. Branches showed little differences in inorganic element contents between heading stage and maturing stage. Inorganic element contents in branches were considered to be influenced by those in leaf blades and to affect those in chaff. Some growth characters related to source and sink, such as degeneration of branches and spike-lets, sterility ratio, ripening ratio, and yield had closer relationship with nutrient contents in branches than those in leaf blades and chaff. The results demonstrated that the rachis branch not only was a transport pathway of nutrient but also would play an important role in accumulating substances in panicles.
The Plant Succession of Improved Pasture Around Mt. Halla in Cheju Island
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 336~349
This study was conducted to examine the plant succession on the improved pasture of the mountain districts around Mt. Halla in Cheju Island. For this study, the researcher had investigated for ten years the improved pasture which had been used for grazing from 1976 to 1985. The pasture was reclaimed from native grassland. The mixed seeds of 17kgs' Dactylis glomerata, 7kgs' Festuca arundinacea, 2kgs' Lolium multiflorum and 2kgs' Trifolium repens were sowed per ha. The results of this study are the followings; The annual changes in the number of plant species were observed. 37 weed species were found in 1976 and increased year after year to 151 species in 1985. The changes in the distribution of annual and perennial plant, and one species of arbor were found in 1976 and increased respectively year by year to 56 species (annual plant), 95 species (perennial plant) and 9 species (arbor) in 1985. The average plant height of introduced grasses by year increased from 38.05cm (1976) to 47.30cm (1978) and decreased from 40.50cm (1979) to 10.36cm in 1985 (y =-0.501x
+1.609x + 41.946). While the average plant height of invading weeds increased from 26.61cm to 42.84cm (y=-0.80
＋27.570) between 1976 and 1985. The density of introduced grasses was 70.90% in 1976 and was reduced to 0.49% in 1985 (y =-0.501
+41.946); while that of introduing weeds was 29.10% in 1976 and was increased to 99.51% in 1985 (y=-0.080
＋27.570). The coverage of introduced grasses by year increased gradually from 72.8% (1976) to 74.86% (1978) and decreased from 43.01% (1979) to 1.21% in 1986 while that of intruding weeds developed a tendency to increase every year. Their coverage in 1976 was 22.09% and increased to 98.78% in 1985. The weight of introduced grasses by year increased from 2,808kg (1976) to 3,535kg (1978) per l0a and after 1979 decreased gradually from 2,326kg (1978) to 35kg per l0a in 1985. That of intruding weeds increased yearly from 308kg in 1976 to 3,178kg in 1985. The type of annual vegetation were changed as follows; Year Type 1976-1978 Dactylis glomerata / Trifolium repens type 1979 Trifolium repens / Imperata cylindrica type 1980-1982 Imperata cylindrica / Zoysia Japonica type 1983 Imperata cylindrica / Pteridium aquilinum type 1984-1985 Imperata cylindrica / Miscanthus sinensis type The plants whose plant height, coverage, density, and weight increased year after year were Imperate cylind-rica, Zoysia japonica, Pteridium equilinum, Miscanthus sinensis, Cirsium japonicum, Erigeron canadensis, Artemisia japonica, Lespedeza cuneata, Spondiopogon cotuUfer. Cymbopogon tortilis, Plantago asiatica, Rumex acetosella, etc. The vegetation of Digitaria sanguinalis, Hydrocotyl japonica, Artemisia asiatica, etc. was com-paratively remarkable in the beginning.
Varietal Differences of Germinative Traits Related with Malting Barley Breeding
Eun-Sup Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 350~355
Sixteen Korean leading barley varieties were tested on the sixtieth day after harvest, in order to investigate differences for germinative traits related, and on the eightieth day to test optimum water level for germination test. The germinative energy(GE) and capacity(GC) in the 4.5cc water level were the highest individually. Varietal variations among GE, GC, promptness index(PI) and water sensitivity(WS) were highly significant in storage conditions and water levels. Correlation coefficient estimated were positive among GE, GC, PI, but negative between these traits and WS. Also the varietal difference of WS gets higher with the following order of malting barley<naked barley<covered barley. Heritabilities of broad sense for GE, GC, PI and WS were high, therefore, these traits could be considered in malting barley breeding.
Assessment of the Chilling Sensitivity of Korean Rice Cultivars by Chlorophyll Fluorescence Analysis
Rho, Yeong-Deok ; Park, Suk-Hong ; Park, Rae-Kyeong ; J.M. Wilson ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 356~360
The potential of the chlorophyll fluorescence technique in screening eleven rice varieties for chill-sensitivity was assessed by measuring the change in the rate of rise of variable fluorescence (FR) and the maximum yield of variable fluorescence, F
0/) after 8 days chilling at 10
. The changes in both fluorescence parameters with chilling agreed well with visual assessments of injury carried out at the end of the chilling period. Furthermore, it was found that in the majority of the rice cultivars tested their chilling sensitivity agreed well with the rate of rise of chlorophyll fluorescence (F
R/) measured at 25
. The method of chlorophyll fluorescence was rapid, reproducible, sensitive and non-destructive and it should be a valuable new tool in screening large numbers of closely related rice varieties for chilling sensitivity.
Studies on the Ecological Characteristics for the Plant Types in the Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) N. Effect of Vinyl-and Non-mulching on Growth among Peanut Plant Types
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 361~365
This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics for each of botanical types of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) under vinyl-and non-mulching in cultural limiting region. Ten peanut varieties pertaining to virginia-large seed, virginia-small seed, spanish, valencia, shinpung type were used in this study. Main stem length was in order of valencia, spanish, virginia-small seed, shinpung, virginia-large seed type under vinyl-and non-mulching. By vinyl-mulching, the maximum growth stage of main stem was shortened by 20 days than that of non-mulching. Number of branches per plant was distinguished among botanical types. Numbers of those were virginia-small seed 28, virginia-large seed 27, shinpung 15, spanish 13, valencia 7 under vinyl-mulching and were virginia-small seed 22, virginia-large seed 21, spanish 12, spinpung 12, valencia 5 under non-mulching. The longeset branch length was in order of valencia, spanish, spinpung, virginia-large seed, virginia-small seed type under vinyl-and non-mulching and velencia type was the longest of the botanical types.
Studies on the Response of Isogenic lines of Compact and lax Type to Fertilization and Plant Density in Malting Barley
Chang-Hwan Cho ; Eun-Sup Lee ; Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 366~374
Taiwan land race, Taichung 2 rowed barley #1 was crossed with England cultivar, Deba abed in 1972, and two isogenic lines-lax and compact heads-were made in 1982. So as to three fertilizer and three seeding density levels were treated at Dan-Kook Agricultural College farm located in Cheonan in 1984-1985. Lax head type had longer spike length and rachis than compact type. The traits uninfluenced by different head types were heading time, number of grains per spike, yield and soluble nitrogen content. However, the traits related to malting quality such as 1,000 grain weight, assortment ratio, protein content of grain and malt, malt extract, malt total nitrogen content, Kolbach index and diastatic power were significantly affected by head types. The number of spikes per m2, yield, assortment ratio, crude protein content of grain and malt yield ratio, extract yield ratio, malt total nitrogen, souble nitrogen content, Kolbach index and diastatic power were affected by fertilizer and seeding density levels in both isogenic lines. The malting quality was best at 12-12-9 kg/l0a fertilizer level and the yield was greatest at 15-12-9 kg/l0a level. Narrow-spaced or drilling seeding had greater yield and better malting quality than conventional row seeding. The plant with lax head type had some advantages in malting quality, suggesting that this trait would be considered as an selection criterion fer good malting quality lines.
Studies on the Physiological Chemistry of the Spring Growth Habits in Naked Barley V. Changes in the Isozyme Patterns and Activities of Peroxidase During the Differentiation
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 375~382
This study was carried out to obtain the basic information for the clarification of spring growth habits mechanism of naked barleys. The isozyme patterns and activities of peroxidase in the young spike and leaf blade were analyzed during the differentiation and development of young spike. The characteristic differences between the normal and rosetted type were in c and g isozymes in young spike, and in i isozyme in the leaf blade. In the normal type, c and i isozymes disappeared at the stage of spi-kelet differentiation, g isozyme at the stage of flolet differentiation. But, in the rosetted type, those three isozymes remained in dark stained condition until the time of final sampling. Especially, those three isozymes were higher in the rosetted type than those in the normal type even at the stage of bract differentiation(BDS), just prior to the reproductive stage. The activities of peroxidase decreased slowly after BDS in the young spike and leaf blade in the normal type, While, in the rosetted type, increased linearly, and the degree of increasing was remarkable in the young spike. It was interesting that the degree of activities in young spike was higher in the rosetted type than that in the normal type even at BDS. From the above results, the remarkable differences of the isozyme patterns and activities at BDS between the normal and rosetted type were considered to be the physiological expression of the varieties concerned with the degree of spring growth habits.
The Relationship between Meteorogical Factors and Rapeseed Yield
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 3, 1986, Pages 383~386
To Study the relationships between rapeseed yield and meteorogical elements, the investigation into the important agronomic characters of Yudal cultivar and climate factors such as precipitation, and temperature from 1975 to 1984 was made. Yearly variation of C. V.(%) were highly significant for yield and the important agronomic character. Correlation coefficients between precipitation of May and Yield or agronomic character were significantly positive. Regression equations between the precipitation of Mayor minimum temperature of February and yield were Y=210.914+1.719X and Y=245.560-1.720X, respectively. Low temperature of February affected rapeseed yield reduction significantly.