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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 1986
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Oct 1986
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jul 1986
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Apr 1986
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Variation of Yields and Growth-related Characteristics Shown by Different Ecotype of Rice Varieties in the Temperate and Tropical Zones II. Yields and Yield-related Characteristics Variation Shown by Varieties in Temperate and Tropical Zones
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 391~402
A total of 16 varieties from Korea and Indonesia were tested in Suwon, Korea (126
16'N, 37m amsl) and Bali, Indonesia (115
42' and 10m amsl). Most varieties of Indica and India/Japonica types showed adaptability to both areas. Generally Indica-type showed more number of panicles per hill than that of Indica/Japonica, while Indica/Japonica showed better performance in spike let number per panicle and 1,000 grain weight than Indica-type varieties.
Studies on the leaf Color and Absorbance in Visible Range of Rice Plant
Rae-Kyung Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 403~407
The rice leaf color, which was one of main factors to determine application time of fertilizers, was analyzed in visible region, while the distinction of photosynthetic pigments controlling the rice leaf color was separated by T.L.C. The light absorption peaks of ethyl ether extracts of rice leaf blades were occurred in 413, 432, 453 and 662nm. Especially, the maximal light absorption was 432nm in blue and 662nm in red region. The both light absorption ratios (blue to red region) was not greatly different among rice ecotypes, whereas decreasing tendency in increased fertilization was observed. There was a significant negative correlation between the both light absorption ratios and the values of color chart, and the content of chlorophyll in rice leaf blades. The composition ratio of chorophyll was larger than that of carotenoid at heading stage, and the carotenoid was larger than the chlorophyll at 30 days after heading. The composition ratio of chlorophyll among photosynthetic pigments according to rice ecotypes, Japonica x Indica cultivars were larger than Japonica cultivars at heading stage, and Japonica cultivars were larger than Japonica x Indica cultivars at 30 days after heading, while carotene was vice versa.
Studies on the Photosynthesis of Korean Ginseng III. Effects of the Light Transparent Rate of Shading on the Photosynthesis Ability of Korean Ginseng Plant (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 408~415
This study was conducted to define the effects of light transparent rate of the shading on the photosynthesis ability of the ginseng leaves and their seasonal changes. Regardless the effects of light transparent rate of shading and age of ginseng plant, 10,000 lux was the most adequate light intensity for the maximum photosynthesis of ginseng leaves and seasonal difference was not significant. The ginseng plants which were grown under 10 to 15 percent light transparent shading showed the highest photosynthesis ability. The photosynthesis ability of ginseng leaves was significantly decreased in September than June and the decreasing rate was higher at the ginseng plants planted on back rows than front rows. In June, the ginseng plants grown under 10 to 15 percent light transparent shading showed high respiration amount but in September, those grown under 20 to 25% light transparent shading showed the highest respiration. The amount of chlorophyll of ginseng leaf was significantly decreased by increasing light transparent rate of shading.
Studies on Lodging Control of Sesame for Polyethylene Film Mulching Cultivation
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 416~419
This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of lodging artificially induced and the lodging control of prop on seed yield and other important agronomic characters in sesame. At mono cropping with white polyethylene film mulching and after barley cropping with black polyethylene film mulching as main plot, with three varieties as sub plot and four lodging degree as sub-sub plot with three replications. Plant height was rather increased by the normal and severe lodging, whereas 1,000 seed weight, stem length bearing capsules and number of capsule per plant were significantly decreased. Consequently, yield reduction was resulted in lodging and normal plot as compare to that in lodging control with prop plot. Especially, high yielding in the prop treated was remarkable.
Studies on the Prevention of Excessive Drying Leaves during Burley Tobacco Curing I. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Production of Excessive Drying Leaves
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 420~425
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of air temperature and relative humidity on excessive drying rate of burley tobacco. In experiment I, 4 temperatures and I humidity by day and air curing by night were treated from initial curing stage. In experiment II, 15 combinations of 3 temperatures and 5 humidities were applied from the yellow stage of cure. Yellowish cured leaves resulted from overdrying at high temperature and especially, at low humidity. How- ever, these were not produced at 75-80% RH and under 35
by day with air curing b y night. The proper range of temperature and humidity for desirable color of cured leaf were the combinations of 30
, 75-80% RH or 35
, 80-85% RH. As excessive drying leaves increased, physical properties of cured leaves were poorer and chemical contents were less decomposed.
The Competition Relations of Four Forage Species in Diallel Combination Mixture
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 426~433
This experiment was carried out to investigate the competitive ability and the interaction of each species in ten mono-and binary-associations of four forage species; orchardgrass, tall fescus, ladino clover, and alfalfa. Each species was grown in intra- and interspecific stands in large pots for one year. And samplings of shoot and root were taken in Spring, Summer, and fall clipping stages. Intra- and interspecific competition was compared and evaluated by expected yield, aggressivity, relative yield total(RYT), compensation index(CI), general combining ability(GCA), and specific combining ability (SCA) with shoot and root dry matter production of each species in monoculture and binary mixture. The forage yield was high in two grass species and the mixture of them, but low in two legume species and the mixture of them. The mixture of tall fescue-ladino clover was evaluated as a productive association with a high PYT(1.05) and a high SCA(0.79), and tall fescue was a more aggressive species in it. Each of grass-grass and legume-legume mixture was less aggressive between two species and lower SCAs than grass-legume mixtures. Especially, orchardgrass was the most agressive species and alfalfa was the least, but tall fescue had the highest GCA and ladino clover had the lowest in shoot competition. Also in root, tall fescue- ladino clover mixture was a good match with a high RYT(l.12) and a high SCA (0.60), and orchardgrass was highest in aggressivity. However, orchardgrass had the highest GCA in root while tall fescue had the highest in shoot.
Effect of Vinyl-mulching Culture on Growth and Yield of Cotton( Gosspium hirsutum L.)
Kyu-Yong Chung ; Rae-Kyung Park ; Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 434~439
This experiment was conducted to explore the cultural method capable of raising of picked cotton ratio and more high-yielding in the middle part of Korea where growth period of cotton is short. By early vinyl-mulching culture, emergence date was earlier, flowering and boll opening were shorter than non-mulching, especially boll opening date was earlier about 8 to 15 days. Plant height was longer by vinyl-mulching, fruiting branches and number of bolls per plant at vinyl-mulching of the 10th April produced more twice than non-mulching of the 10th May. Picked cotton ratio was 79% at non-mulching of the 10th May, while viny-mulching of the 10th April produced most of picked cotton as picked cotton ratio 99%. At vinyl-mulching of the 10th April, lint yield increased more 76-90% than non-mulching. Staple length was some longer and also content of linolenic acid of cotton seed oil was higher than non-mulching.
Studies on Physiological Reactions of Soybean Cultivars Tolerant and Susceptible to Rust (Phskopsora pachyrhizi Syd.)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 440~446
The physiological reaction of two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars tolerant and susceptible to rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) was studied at the AVRDC in Taiwan, ROC. The rust epidemic on the susceptible cultivar began earlier and progressed more rapidly than on the tolerant cultivar. The defoliation by rust infection increased rapidly after the latter half of pod filling. The reduction of LA! by rust in the susceptible cultivar occurred earlier than in the tolerant cultivar. The differences in the chlorophyll content between the rust-free and rust-infected plants was 2.04% in the tolerant, and 16.43% in the susceptible cultivar. The shoot dry weight increased at each growth stage in the fungicide protected plots, but decreased in the non-fungicide protected plots after the R6 growth stage onward and the tendency to decrease was more severe in the susceptible than in the tolerant cultivar. The pod and seed dry weight of the suscep-tible cultivar in the fungicide-protected plot increased dramatically from the R6 growth stage, but in the non-fungicide plot, there was almost no increase in pod and seed dry weight from R6 growth stage, due to rust. The number of empty pods and imperfect grains were increased by rust infection, but the protein content was not afftected. There were reductions of oil content, seed length, seed width, seed thickness, pod thickness, number of pods and seeds, 100 seed weight, and yield due to rust infection. The yield losses by rust infection were 22.3%in the tolerant and 68.7% in the susceptible cultivar.
Effects of Temperature, Seed Water Content and Osmoconditioning on Germination and Seedling Elongation of Soybeans
Rak Chun, Seong ; Many C., Minor ; Eun Hi, Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 447~453
Germination and seedling elongation of soybeans [cult. ‘Williams’] were measured at two temperatures (15 and 3
), three seed water contents (30, 50, and 70%), and with and without polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG) treatments. A split-plot design was used with four replications. Observations were made from two hours to eight days for each treatment combination. Seeds were soaked with 30% PEG solution with 0.2% thiram at 15 C for six days, rinsed with deionized water and dried at 25.5
for three days. Ten treated or untreated seeds were placed on Whatman No. I (9 cm) filter paper in plastic petridishes to which sufficient deionized water was added to adjust seed moisture content to the desired level. The dishes were then sealed with parafilm and placed in a continuous programmed temperature chamber under dark condition. Seedling growth did not occur at either temperature when moisture content was 50 percent or less. Osmo-conditioning with PEG showed positive effects on seedling moisture uptake and seedling growth at 15
but little effect at 3
. Seedling moisture content increased rapidly early in the germination period and reached 60% at 15 C for 56 hours and at 3
for 28 hours. Seedling growth started when seed moisture reached a critical point of 60% at 15
, however, growth started after 20 hours of germination at 3
. Seedlings of soybeans elongated more than four times faster at 3
than at 15
. Water uptake during germination was characterized by two phases in this experiment.
Studies on the Tobacco Growth Characteristics under Environmental Conditions between KOREA and U.S.A.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 454~464
To find main factors to affect tobacco culture and quality, NC 2326 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was cultivated in Korea and in the United States under different plant density, fertilization, mulching and curing. Among the chemical characteristics of the both experimental soils, the organic matters were similar concentration in both locations but effective phosphorous contents were higher in Oxford in the United States. Plant height, length and width of the largest leaf, leaf thickness, and midrib ratios were larger in Oxford than in Suwon in Korea. Also they were larger in non mulching system than in mulching system. But the total numbers of the leaves were decreased in non mulching system. The content of nicotine was higher in the plant grown in Suwon than in Oxford. The concentrations of nicotine and sugar tend to increase in mulching system comparing of non mulching system. During the growing, the concentration of non-volatile organic acids was higher in Suwon, while it was lower in cured leaf produced in Suwon. Also the contents of total fatty acids were lower in the harvested leaf grown in Suwon, but not in cured tobacco. Forty three compounds identified among the volatile oils from these experimental samples were quantified. The concentrations of the major components related to the tobacco flavour such as damascone, damascenone, solanone, nor-solanadione, and megastigmatrienones were higher in the cured tobacco produced in Oxford rather than in Suwon.
The Effects of Fertilizer Application Level and Top-dressing Method on the Yield Component and Fruit Yield of Lycium chinense MILL
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 465~469
This study was conducted to investigate the proper fertilizer application level and top-dressing method of Lycium chinense MILL in 1984 and 1985. The results obtained were summerized as follows; Stem length was 4cm longer, leaf area was 45-490
larger, dry matter weight per plant was 1.6-5g heavier and average yield of dry fruit of two years was higher as 183kg per l0a in double amount of potassium( 14kg/l0a) application than in standard level of potassium(7kg/l0a). Highly positive correlation was found between absorption amount of inorganic elements of phosporus(l%), nitrogen, potassium(5%) and dry matter weight. Proper fertilizer application level was 13.8kg(N), 14.2kg(P) and 14.3kg(K) per l0a. Dry fruit yield of top-dress-ing plot was 20% heigher than that of basal dressing plot through increase of leaf area per plant and dry matter weight per plant.
A Study on Major Agronomic Characters and Grain Yield Variation According to Different Seeding Dates of Job's tears (Coix lachryma- jobi L. var. mayuen STAPF)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 470~476
In order to find out the optimum seeding date of Job's tears, this study was investigated ecological characters, yield components and yield of Jang Seong native variety at 6 seeding dates (March 20, March 30, April 10, April 20, April 30 and May 10). Emergence period and heading period were shortened as the seeding date was late, and the number of leaves on the main stem was increased as the seeding date was early. Maturing period was 63-66 days when we seeded in March 20, March 30, April 10 and April 20, and it was delayed 68-77 days when we seeded on April 3
and May 10. Culm length was longest in April 10 seeding (it was 186.6 cm), and it grew short in the early and the late seeding, but there was no significant difference among seeding dates. Stem diameter was thickest in April 10, and April 20 seeding, that is, thickened to 10.1 mm, and it was thin in the early and the late seeding. Productive tiller number per hill was increased most in April 10 and April 20 seeding, that is, increased to 6.2, and it was decreased in the early and the late seeding. 100 grain weight was heaviest in April 10 seeding; it was 10.7 g, and it was light in the early and the late seeding. Ripeness rate was highest in April 10 seeding (87.4%), and it was lowest in May 10 seeding (76.3%). Grain yield was highest in April 10 seeding (602.8kg per l0a); therefore this period is regarded as optimum seeding date. C. protein, C. fat, C. fiber and C. starch showed significant difference among seeding dates, and C. protein showed possitive correlation (r =0.9811 **) and C. fiber Negative collelation (r =-0.8937*) with seeding dates.
Influence of Harvest Time, Drying Period and Threshing Force on Mechanical Damage and Germinability of Rye Grains
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 477~482
This trial was carried out to set up a proper drum speed of thresher to minimize the mechanical damage from threshing and thereby to obtain rye seeds possessing higher qualities for seeds. Rye plants were harvested at from 40 to 60 days after heading (DAH) with 5 days intervals and spread out on the field for 0, I, 2, 3 days for drying, respectively. After drying the plants were subjected to threshing at seven steps of drum speed from 400 to 1000 rotation per minute (RPM) of a thresher, drum diam. 18.6cm, teeth length 6cm. At 500 to 600 RPM and from the plants harvested at 55DAH with drying for one or two days, the seeds possessed low grain damage, high germinability over 90%, and field emergence rate over 80%.
Effects of Soil pH on Growth, Yield and Its Varietal Differences in Soybean Cultivars.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 483~492
To find out the responses of plant growth, nodulation, and yield of soybean and their varietal differences to different soil pH, 16 soybean cultivars were examined under three different levels of soil pH. In general, as the soil pH decreased, plant growth, nodulation, yield and yield component and protein con-tents of grains were decreased in most of cultivars studied. But there were significant varietal differences in the responses of the characters investigated to soil pH. Jangbaegkong was evaluated as the most tolerant cultivar to acid soil, and Ulsan, Bongeui, Hwanggeumkong, and LC7852 were also relatively torelant to acid soil. There were significant correlation between soil pH and grain yield in 7 cultivars among 16, but were not in other cultivars.
Effect of Cultural Methods on Yield and Yield Component of Wheat and Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 31, issue 4, 1986, Pages 493~498
In order to evaluate the effect of various cultural methods developed during last 30 years on grain yield of wheat and barley and structure of plant stand for uptake of nutrient and water, solar energy use and com-petitive capacity with weed, 10 kinds of cultural practices were compared in the clayey upland soil. Row fertilization is more effective for uptake of N,P and K than rotary fertilization. Weed occurrence was deeply related with width of non-seeded area in the row and affected yield decrease. Winter injury was more serious in the cultural practices with thick plant community than in those with isolated individual plant. Root distribution was more remarkable in drill seeding or broadcasting than row seeding and had positively correlated with water consumption of barley.