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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue s02 - Dec 1989
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Dec 1989
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Sep 1989
Volume 34, Issue s01 - Jun 1989
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Jun 1989
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 1989
Selecting the target year
Multifactor Balance Concept as a Primary Countermeasure for Environmental Stresses of Crops
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 1~12
The primary countermeasure for environmental stresses of crops grown in Korea would be to maintain top soil content of available B for upland crops and Si for low land rice in balance with other nutrient elements such as N, P and K, so as to maintain those nutrient balances in plants. Development of standard levels of elements in soils for balances uptake of those elements by plants are needed under the multi nutrient factor balance concept using the soil test results.
Agroclimatic Zone and Characters of the Area Subject to Climatic Disaster in Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 13~33
Agroclimate should be analyzed and evaluated accurately to make better use of available chimatic resources for the establishment of optimum cropping systems. Introducing of appropriate cultivars and their cultivation techniques into classified agroclimatic zone could contribute to the stability and costs of crop production. To classify the agroclimatic zones, such climatic factors as temperature, precipitation, sunshine, humidity and wind were considered as major influencing factors on the crop growth and yield. For the classification of rice agroclimatic zones, precipitation and drought index during transplanting time, the first occurrence of effective growth temperature (above 15
) and its duration, the probability of low temperature occurrence, variation in temperature and sunshine hours, and climatic productivity index were used in the analysis. The agroclimatic zones for rice crop were classified into 19 zones as follows; (1) Taebaek Alpine Zone, (2) Taebaek Semi-Alpine Zone, (3) Sobaek Mountainous Zone, (4) Noryeong Sobaek Mountainous Zone, (5) Yeongnam Inland Mountainous Zone, (6) Northern Central Inland Zone, (7) Central Inland Zone, (8) Western Soebaek Inland Zone, (9) Noryeong Eastern and Western Inland Zone, (10) Honam Inland Zone, (ll) Yeongnam Basin Zone, (12) Yeongnam Inland Zone, (13) Western Central Plain Zone, (14) Southern Charyeong Plain Zone, (15) South Western Coastal Zone, (16) Southern Coastal Zone, (17) Northern Eastern Coastal Zone, (18) Central Eastern Coastal Zone, and (19) South Eastern Coastal Zone. The classification of agroclimatic zones for cropping systems was based on the rice agroclimatic zones considering zonal climatic factors for both summer and winter crops and traditional cropping systems. The agroclimatic zones were identified for cropping systems as follows: (I) Alpine Zone, (II) Mountainous Zone, (III) Central Northern Inland Zone, (IV) Central Northern West Coastal Zone, (V) Cental Southern West Coastal Zone, (VI) Gyeongbuk Inland Zone, (VII) Southern Inland Zone, (VIII) Southern Coastal Zone, and (IX) Eastern Coastal Zone. The agroclimatic zonal characteristics of climatic disasters under rice cultivation were identified: as frequent drought zones of (11) Yeongnam Basin Zone, (17) North Eastern Coastal Zone with the frequency of low temperature occurrence below 13
at root setting stage above 9.1％, and (2) Taebaek Semi-Alpine Zone with cold injury during reproductive stages, as the thphoon and intensive precipitation zones of (10) Hanam Inland Zone, (15) Southern West Coastal Zone, (16) Southern Coastal Zone with more than 4 times of damage in a year and with typhoon path and heavy precipitation intensity concerned. Especially the three east coastal zones, (17), (18), and (19), were subjected to wind and flood damages 2 to 3 times a year as well as subjected to drought and cold temperature injury.
Mechanisms of Cold Injury and Cultural Practices for Reducing Damage of Rice
Moon-Hee Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 34~44
The stability of rice cultivation in Korea is largely depended on climatic conditions, especially, low temperature at the period of early growth stage and after heading. The improvement of cold tolerant varieties and appropriate cultural practices in rice are very effective to minimize the cold damage. This paper is summarized the mechanism and counterplans of cold injury of rice plants. The paddy area having commonly cold injury in Korea is approximately 15, 522ha in 1,709 sites on the national scale. The cold damage at seedling stage in nursery bed appeared to poor germination, leaf discoloration, dead seedlings and seedling rot ect.. At the vegetative stage, the decreased tiller number due to poor rooting and the delayed heading caused by slow growth and panicle differentiation are commonly showed. The cold injury at early reproductive stage appeared to the degeneration of spikelets and rachis - branches, while that at meiosis stage showed to increased sterility due to poor development of pollen and shortened panicle length with delaying heading, therefore the grain yield is largely decreased. The cold damage at heading and ripening stages showed to poor pollination and fertilization, low panicle exsertion, poor grain filling and finally grain quality became low. To minimize the cold injury to rice plants by low temperature, following counterplans would be recommonded ; Improvement of the cold toelrant rice varieties for the regions of midmountains and alpines. Raising healthy seedlings at upland nursery beds and by using of growth regulators such as ABA, Fuchiwang and Tachiace. Soil improvement and organic matter application to reduce cold damage by increasing water and fertilizer holding capacities in the paddy field having commonly cold water and in the place where cold damage is regularly occurred. Appropriate fertilization for raising healthy rice plants to tolerate under low temperature condition. Water management to increase water temperature in the paddy such as depth watering, round channels and polyethylene tubes around the field. Establishment of the optimum cultivation time of rice based on minimum, mean and maximum temperatures at different regions with appropriate rice varieties.
Wind and Flooding Damages of Rice Plants in Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 45~65
The Korean peninsular having the complexity of the photography and variability of climate is located within passing area of a lots of typhoon occurring from the southern islands of Philippines. So, there are various patterns of wind and flooding damages in paddy field occuring by the strong wind and the heavy rain concentrated during the summer season of rice growing period in Korea. The wind damages to rice plants in Korea were mainly caused by saline wind, dry wind and strong wind when typhoon occurred. The saline wind damage having symptom of white head or dried leaves occurred by 1.1 to 17.2 mg of salt per dry weight stuck on the plant which was located at 2. 5km away from seashore of southern coastal area during the period(from 27th to 29th, August, 1986) of typhoon &Vera& accompanying 62-96％ of relative humidity, more than 6 m per second of wind velocity and 22.5 to 26.4
of air temperature without rain. Most of the typhoons accompanying 4.0 to 8. 5m per second of wind and low humidity (lesp an 60％) with high temperature in the east coastal area and southen area of Korea. were changed to dry and hot wind by the foehn phenomenon. The dry wind damages with the symptom of the white head or the discolored brownish grain occurred at the rice heading stage. The strong wind caused the severe damages such as the broken leaves, cut-leaves and dried leaves before heading stage, lodging and shattering of grain at ripening stage mechanically during typhoon. To reduce the wind damages to rice plant, cultivation of resistant varieties to wind damages such as Sangpoongbyeo and Cheongcheongbyeo and the escape of heading stage during period of typhoon by accelerating of heading within 15th, August are effective. Though the flood disasters to rice plant such as earring away of field, burying of field, submerging and lodging damage are getting low by the construction of dam for multiple purpose and river bank, they are occasionally occurred by the regional heavy rain and water filled out in bank around the river. Paddy field were submerged for 2 to 4 days when typhoon and heavy rain occurred about the end of August. At this time, the rice plants that was in younger growing stage in the late transplanting field of southern area of Korea had the severe damages. Although panicles of rice plant which was in the meiotic growing stage and heading stage were died when flooded, they had 66％ of yield compensating ability by the upper tilling panicle produced from tiller with dead panicle in ordinary transplanting paddy field. It is effective for reduction of flooding damages to cultivate the resistant variety to flooding having the resistance to bacterial leaf blight, lodging and small brown planthopper simultaneously. Especially, Tongil type rice varieties are relatively resistant to flooding, compared to Japonica rice varieties. Tongil type rice varieties had high survivals, low elongation ability of leaf sheath and blade, high recovering ability by the high root activity and photosynthesis and high yield compensating ability by the upper tillering panicle when flooded. To minimize the flooding and wind damage to rice plants in future, following research have to be carried out; 1. Data analysis by telemetering and computerization of climate, actual conditions and growing diagnosis of crops damaged by disasters. 2. Development of tolerant varieties to poor natural conditions related to flooding and wind damages. 3. Improvement of the reasonable cropping system by introduction of other crops compensating the loss of the damaged rice. 4. Increament of utilization of rice plant which was damaged.
Salt Injury and Overcoming Strategy of Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 66~80
Salt injury in rice is caused mainly by the salinity in soil and in the irrigated water, and occasionaly by salinity delivered through typhoon from the sea. The salt concentration of rice plants increased with higher salinity in the soil of the rice growing. The climatic conditions, high temperature and solar radiation and dry conditions promote the salt absorption of rice plant in saline soil. The higher salt accumulation in the rice plant generally reduces the root activity and inhibits the absorption of minerals of rice plant, resulting the reduction of photosynthesis. The salt damages of rice plant, however, are different from different growth stage of rice plants as follows: 1. Germination of rice seed was slightly delayed up to 1.0％ of salt concentration and remarkably at 1. 5％, but none of rice seeds were germinated at 2.5％. This may be due to the delayed water uptake of rice seeds and the inhibition of enzyme activity, 2. It was enable to establish rice seedlings at seed bed by 0.2％ of salt concentration with some reduction of leaf elongation. The increasing of 0.3％ salt concentration caused to the seedling death with varietal differences, but most of seedlings were death at 0.4％ with no varietal differences. 3. Seedlings grown at the nursery over 0.1％ salt, gradually reduced in rooting activity after transplanting according to increasing the salt concentration from 0.1％ up to 0.3％ of paddy field. However, the seedlings grown in normal seed bed showed no difference in rooting between varieties up to 0.1％ but significantly different at 0.3％ between varieties, but greatly reduced at 0.5％ and died at last in paddy after transplanting. 4. At panicle initiation stage, rice plant delayed in heading by salt damage, at meiotic stage reduced in grains and its filling rate due to inhibition of glume and pollen developing, and salt damage at heading stage and till 3 weeks after heading caused to reduction of fertilization and ripening rate. In viewpoint of agricultural policy the overcoming strategy for salt injury is to secure sufficient water source. Irrigation and drainage systems as well as underground drainage is necessary to desalinize more effectively. This must be the most effective and positive way except cost. By cultural practice, growing the salt tolerant variety with high population could increase yield. The intermittent irrigation and fresh water flooding especially at transplanting and from panicle initiation to heading stage, the most sensitive to salt injury, is important to reduce the salt content in saline soil. During the off-cropping season, plough and rotavation with flooding followed by drainage, or submersion and drainage with groove could improve the desalinization. Increase of nitrogen fertilizer with more split application, and soil improvement by lime, organic matter and forign soil addition, could increase the rice yield. Shift of trans-planting is one of the way to escape from the salt injury.
Environmental Stresses During Culture of Food Legumes
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 81~95
Environmental stresses during culture of food legumes can be classified to the three categories; the climatic stresses, pests, and public pollution. Of the researches on the climatic stresses in Korea, drought injury and lodging injury were studied more comparing with excess water injury, cooling injury, wind injury, frost injury and hail injury. Although many researches have been done on the pests, mainly on the control of pests, a few researches have been done on the basic research. Recently public pollution is considered one of major stresses during culture of crops following rapid development of industry in Korea. A few researches have been done on the air pollution and acid rain. Therefore many researches should do on the environmental stresses during culture of food legumes in the future.
Nature of Cold Injury and Resistance in Wheat and Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 96~114
There are several meterorolgical stresses in the winter cereal crops. Among these stresses, cold injury is one of the most important stresses for wheat and barley production in Korea. The reduction in grain yield of the wheat and barley due to cold injury has occurred almost every year in Korea. The objective of the study was to get the basic information in relation to the cold injury and to detect the method minimizing the damage of cold injury. When the air temperature was the ranges of -13
, the soil temperature at the crown part of the plant was very stable, whereas in the ranges of -2
the soil surface temperature was more unstable and cold than air and subterranean temperatures. The different parts of the plant in wheat and barley possess the different levels of cold hardiness. In comparison to the cold hardiness of plant parts, the leaf and crown are the less sensitive to cold injury than root and vascular transitional zone. The type and extent of stress is determined by the redistribution pattern of water during freezing. These types from freezing processes were three types: a) Equilibrium freezing pattern b) Non -equilibrium freezing pattern, c) Non-equilibrium freezing pattern typical of tender tissues. Cold hardiness in wheat plants were more harder than barley plants at vegitative stage, but inverted at the reproductive stage. Injuries by low temperature during the seasons of barley cultivation in Korea were occured mainly in four stage; in the first and third stage, frost injury occurs, the second stage, freezing injury, and the fourth stage, chilling injury.
Review of Studies on Ginseng Replanting Problems
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 115~120
Universal characteristics of ginseng replanting problems appeared to be decrease in root yields due to root rot and inhibition of root growth. Incitants of ginseng replanting problems have not been clearly elucidated, however, it appeared to be a complex phenomenon with several pathogenic soil microorganisms and environmental changes in the soil due to decomposition of ginseng debris such as rootlets and shoots. Decomposition of ginseng debris may cause direct or indirect damage to the root. The effect of conventional fungicide on the control of the problems has not been recognized. However, it has been suggested that treatment with soil fumigants may solve the problems. Meanwhile paddy-rice and ginseng rotation system appeared to be the best way of solving the problems so far.
Agricultural Disasters and Counterplans before the Period of the Three States
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 34, issue s02, 1989, Pages 121~128