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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue s01 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 1991
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 1991
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 1991
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 1991
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 1991
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Influences of Nitrogen and Potassium Rates on the Chemical and Physical Properties of Cured Leaf on Burley Tobacco
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 1~6
A field experiment was conducted to find out the effects of nitrogen and potassium rates on the chemical constituents and physical properties of burley tobacco (1988； Burley 21. 1989； Burley 21 and KB 101) during successive two years. KB 101 was low in total nitrogen and total alkaloid contents and potassium/total nitrogen ratio of cured leaf. but high in the lightness, red and yellow color and filling power, comparing to Burley 21. The increasing rates of total nitrogen and total alkaloid contents were larger when nitrogen applied to 22.75kg/10a, but they were smaller when nitrogen applied above 22.75 kg/l0a. The potassium content, potassium/total nitrogen ratio, filling power and shatter resistance index of cured leaf were decreased by nitrogen fertilizer addition. The potassium content and shatter resistance index were increased by potassium fertilizer addition. The effect of nitrogen rate on the potassium/total nitrogen ratio of cured leaf was larger than the effect of potassium rate. When the nitrogen fertilizer being applied above 22.75 kg/l0a, there were no advantageous effects on the chemical and physical properties. It is considered to be sufficient that the potassium application is about 35.0 kg/l0a.
Forage Productivity of Collected Chinese Milkvetch Varieties
Keun-Yong Park ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 7~11
Field experiment was conducted to examine the winter hardiness and forage productivity of Chinese milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) varieties at the research farm of Korea University in Kyunggi province. Collected variety Nonsan, Imsil, Jangheung, Chungnam, Joongsan and introduced PI241587 were tested to untreated control and vinyl mulching conditions during winter season. Effect of vinyl mulching treatment was found no statistical significance in this experiment. Winter survival of six Chinese milkvetch varieties at the untreated control was average 88%. Variety Nonsan and Imsil showed higher fresh and dry weights than other varieties both on May 6 and 21 harvest. Average fresh weight per l0a of six varieties at the untreated control was 1,583kg on May 6 and 4,017kg on May 21 harvest. Crude protein content of dry matter of the varieties was average 21.3% on May 6 and 19.2% on May 21 harvest. However, average crude fiber content of the dry matter on May 6 was lower than that of May 21 harvest.
Comparison of Agronomic Traits According to Plant Types before Wintering in Malting Barley Lines
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 12~16
So as to compare the differences of major agronomic traits according to fall plant types, two cultivars and eight lines which were derived from the same pedigree, were planted and analyzed. The heading and mature times, and culum length of erect plant types were earlier or longer, but the spike number per ㎡ and yield were smaller than the those of prostrate types. Also, 1000 grain weith, assortment rate and light penetration rate in erect types were greater than in prostrate types. The heading time was positively correlated with mature time and yield, but negatively correlated with culum length, 1000 grain weight, assortment rate and light penetration rate. Yield was negatively correlated with light penetration rate. If the lines with prostrate types in fall season, fast regrowth after wintering and rapid elongation of stem were bred and selected, it will be of great benefit in the area requiring sever winter hardiness.
Effect of Sulfur Dioxide and Hydrogen Fluoride on Rice Plant Growth in Industrial Estate
Wan Cheol, Park ; Kwang-Ho Kim ; Ki Joon, Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 17~21
The study was performed to investigate the effects of gaseous emission of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride on the growth of rice plant under stressed field conditions. This study is specifically dealt with multiple effects of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride on various plant growth indicators such as leaf damage, weight of grain, panicles per hill, spikelets per panicle and percent fertility. It appears that there is a good correlation between ambient concentrations of sulfur oxides and sulfur contents found in leaves with an average correlation coefficient of 0.868 within a 1% significance level. A better multiple correlation was found between percent leaf damage and sulfur and fluorine contents found in leaf with a significance of 1% level. The correlation coefficient ranges from 0.807 to 0.978 with an average being 0.922. An evaluation of data observed has demonstrated that both panicles per hill and percent fertility are significantly affected by air pollutants. As expected, hydrogen fluorides have more effects than sulfur oxides. It is, however, interesting to note that spikelets per panicle has slightly been affected while no indication of effects on l000-grain weight has been observed. This may lead to a conclusion that a reduction in yield of rice under polluted field conditions may have more been caused by the diminution panicles per hill and percent fertility rather than by the diminution of spikelets per panicle and grain weight.
Effects of Salinity on Leaf Growth and Photosynthesis in Rice
Lee, Kang-Sae ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 22~33
The studies aimed to distinguish between initial (ionic or osmotic) effects of salinisation on growth and the longer-term consequences of excessive salt accumulation. Tall and dwarf varieties of rice were used to provide different growth rates. There was no significant effect upon the day-to-day pattern of growth, upon the ultimate length of leaves that were developing at the time of, or shortly after, salinisation with 50 mM NaCl. Leaves that developed after prolonged exposure of the plants to salinity were shorter. Addition of NaCl, KCl or mannitol to the root medium brought about a cessation of leaf elongation within one minute. Growth at a reduced rate restarted abruptly after a lag period that depended upon the external concentration. Elongation rate recovered to its original value within 24 hours after exposure to 50 mM NaCl, though not at higher concentrations. Addition of NaCl at concentrations up to 100 mM elicited no short-term effect upon photsynthetic gas exchange. No change in turgor pressure was detectable in the growing zone with the resolution of the miniature pressure probe used (about 70 kPa). It is concluded that the initial growth reduction in rice caused by salinisation is due to a limitation of water supply. A clear distinction is made between the initial effects of salt which are recoverable, and the long-term effects which result from the accumulation of salt within expanded leaves.
Relationship between Leaf Senescence and Photosynthate Translocation during Grain filling in Barley
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 34~40
The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the rates of leaf senescence and photosynthate translocation at post-anthesis. Seven barley varieties were observed at Suweon in 1988-89. The varieties differed significantly in the number of leaves survived and the rate of photosynthate transolcation with the progress of grain filling. The rate of grain filling was higher in the fast leaf sene-scencing varieties than the slow senescencing ones. There was a close coincidence between the rates of grain filling and
14/c translocation into grains. Photosynthesis was higher in the fast leaf senescencing varieties at early stage of grain filling, but the reverse phenomenon was observed at the late stage of grain filling. The grain yield of fast senescencing varieties was higher than that of slow ones.
Effects of Long Term Fertilizations on Growth, Yield and Grain Development of Rice
Moon-Hee Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 41~51
This study was conducted to determine the effect of 20 years long term fertilizations on the physical and chemical properties of paddy soil and the growth, yield, yield components and grain development of rice. Non-fertilized, PK, NK, NP, NPK, NPK + compost, NPK+straw and NPK+lime have been applied since 1968 after surface paddy soil was removed. NPK+compost and NPK+straw applications increased the content of organic matter, available P and CEC, and lime increased soil acidity and SiO
content. While chemical contents in non-fertilized treatment were low as compared with other treatments. Soil porosity was higher in NPK+straw (51.4%) and NPK+lime(53.1%) than in NPK application (49.8%). Soil hardness was highest in the NPK application and was lowest in the NPK + lime. Continuous application of straw with NPK markedly increased the content of aggregate with over 1mm(19.6%) as compared with NPK application (7.1%). Plant height, tiller number, root number, leaf area index and total dry weight were higher in the applications of compost, straw and lime with NPK than in any other treatments. Brown rice yield in non-fertilized, PK and NP applications was decreased 45, 55, 15 and 5% of that in NPK application, respectively, while application of compost, straw and lime with NPK increased the yield by 11, 14 and 4%, respectively, during 20 years. The number of differentiated rachis branchs in the application of compost, straw and lime was 17 to 21 and that in the other application was 13 to 15, whereas the degenerated rachis branchs was low in the application of compost, straw and lime with NPK. The applications having higher level of perfect rice grain such as non-fertilized, NPK+compost, NPK+straw and NPK+lime had high grain weight and had low level of white core rice, white belly rice. The white core and belly rice was highest in the NP application and notched belly rice kernel was markedly increased in NK and NP applications. The period of grain filling was 30 DAH at NP and NPK applications, 35 DAH at NK and NPK+lime, 40DAH at NPK+compost and NPK+ straw, and 45DAH at non-fertilized, respectively.
Effects of Phosphate Rate on Growth and Yield of Sweet Corn Grown in Volcanic Ash Soils
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 52~56
In 1986, at Cheju and Seoguipo, a sweet com hybrid, Golden Cross Bantam 70, was grown at 5 phosphate rates (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 kg/l0a) to determine effects of phosphate rate on growth and yield of sweet com and to recommend the optimum phosphate rate for sweet com production in volcanic ash soils of Cheju province. Days to silking were shortened 1 to 2 days by phosphate application of more than l6kg/10a. Culm length, ear height and fresh stover yield/l0a did not differ between two locations, but linearly increased as phosphate rate was increased from 0 to 32kg/10a. Average length and weight of marketable ears were greater at Cheju than at Seoguipo and linearly increased as phosphate rate increased. The number of marketable ears per plant and per l0a did not differ between two locations, but quadratically increased as phosphate rate increased. The economic optimum phosphate rate estimated on the basis of the quadratic model, ranged 25.6 to 27.4kg/10a at various fertilizer-to-ear price ratios.
Increasing Root-mat Formation by Plant Growth Regulators in Machine Transplanting with Infant Seedling of Rice
Rae-Kyung Park ; Moon-Hee Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 57~64
This experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of plant growth regulators (PGR) on the root -mat formation of infant seedling (8- to 10-day-old seedling) of rice in machine transplanting. The rice seeds of Odaebyeo were socked in water with different concentrations of PGRs for 48 hours at room temperature. Seeding rate was 220 g per seed tray (30x60x3cm). Metalaxyl (25% wettable powder) was used for a fungicide. Generally, the metalaxyl-treated seeds markedly promoted the root growth of the rice seedling, while tetracy-cle, pachlobutrazol and NTN -821 reduced the seedling height and root length, and thickened the shoot diameter at higher concentation levels. Tetracycle decreased root length of the rice seedlings but increased root number per seedling, and root-mat formation was poor. Whereas, metalaxyl concentrations of 200 and 1,000 ppm markedly increased root length and number of root hairs without decreasing root number, thus root-mat formation was excellent. The optimum concentration of metalaxyl seed treatment to increase the root-mat formation of infant seedling of rice was about 200 ppm. Metalaxyl seed treatment could be advanced one to two days of the duration of root-mat formation compared with control.
Effects of Sprouting Degree and Threshing Methods on Germination and Seedling Vigor in Barley
Eun-Sup Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 65~69
In order for investigating the factors related to decrease of seedling vigor in the naked barley lines, two naked lines and a covered variety were sprouted with 20 mm rainfall in the natural condition, dried and the sprouted seeds were threshed by hand and small machine thresher, Chiyota. In the case of hand-threshing of the sprouted seeds, the germination rate index (GRI), germination rate, and TTC test value of the different varieties were not different due to the different sprouting degrees, but emergence rate index (ERI) became decreased with stronger sprouting damage. In comparison with hand-threshing, the embryos of sprouted seeds from machine threshing with 700 rpm were partially damaged, and the traits related to seedling vigor were decreased highly significantly. However, the diastatic activity was sharply increased by stronger sprouting and machine threshing. The sprouting degree in the hand-threshing plot was significantly correlated with the diastatic activity(r=0.931＊＊, 0.951＊＊) and GRI(r=0.461), respectively.
Effects of Silicon on Stomatal Size and Frequency in Rice Plants
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 70~73
Stomatal frequency and size of rice plant grown in the different silicon levels of the culture solution in phytotron were observed on both side of the 7th leaf blade. By the application of silicate, stomatal frequency and rates of stoma cell area to the leaf area were remarkably reduced in Milyang 23. It could be considered as favorable characteristics which might be reduced the transpira-tion rate from leaf surface of rice plant besides presence of cuticle-silica double layer in leaf surface.
Influence of Mutagen at Meiotic Stage on Wheat Ploidy in Anther Culture
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 74~78
This experiment was conducted to know the effects of mutagen treatments on callus induction, plant regeneration and their ploidy in the anther culture of wheat. The winter wheat cultivars, 'apos;and 'apos;Wonkwang'apos;, were treated at the mid or late-uninucreate stage under 4 different doses (100, 200, 500 and 1,000 rad.) of X-ray and 3 different levels(0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mole) of Ethyl Methane Sulphonate. The anthers treated were set on the C
17/medium for callus induction, and callus induced was transfered to 1/2 MS medium for plant regeneration. The mutagen treatments inhibited the callus induction but increased the plant regeneration in the callus which were induced from the anther set on the medium for the long time of 60 to 80 days. Also, the chromosome number to the regenerated plant varied largely by increasing of haploid plants(n=3x=21) and by occurring of aneuploidy having n=20 and n=22 of chromosome number.aried largely by increasing of haploid plants(n=3x=21) and by occurring of aneuploidy having n=20 and n=22 of chromosome number.
Productivity of the Rice Plants at the Abandoned Crop Field Established from the Shattered Grains by Combine Harvesting
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 79~84
The rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) established from the shattered grains by combine harvesting at the previous year showed great variations of yield and yield components from site to site at the abandoned rice crop field. The cultural condition was very similar to direct seeding under no-tillage system but no cultural practices such as application of fertilizer, weed control, irrigation and drainage had been carried out. The highest yield of 188kg/10a was observed at one of the quadrats randomly located on the field, which showed the possibility of exploitation of no-tillage system. The interrelationship between crop growth and coverage of weed species was measured by calculating the correlation coefficients. The investigations of how to establish sufficient number of seedlings per unit area, plant succession on the abandoned crop field, crop mixture with legume crops, and breeding appropriate plant type of rice for the enhancement of competitive ability would be required for the success of no-tillage system.
Modelling and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Paddy Rice in Relation to Weather and Climate
Takeshi, Horie ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 1, 1991, Pages 85~95