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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue s01 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 1991
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 1991
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 1991
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 1991
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 1991
Selecting the target year
Lodging Mechanisms and Reducing Damage of Rice Plant
Rae-Kyung Park ; Moon-Hee Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 383~393
Lodging of rice plant is the most important damage by unfavourable weather conditions in rice cultivation. High levels of nitrogen application and growing of Japonica rice variety is one factor to increase the lodging damage. Lodging of rice plant decreasing grain yield; 34% at milky. 21% at dough. 20% at yellow stage. decreasing grain Quality. increasing green rice. and increasing labor cost to harvest. To decrease lodging damage. the lodging resistant varieties will be selected and cultural practices such as amount and time of nitrogen application. planting density. water management. and disease and pest control methods have to be study for the short and strong culm. and good rooting system. Also. application methods such amount and time of plant growth regulators and new types of chemicals will be develop for the reducing lodging of rice plant. To decrease the lodging damage in direct seeding cultivation. first identifying the differences of lodging mechanisms between hand transplanting and direct seeding, second establish the suitable direct seeding methods such as seedling establishement. fertilization. and water menagement.
Changes of Cold Tolerance and it Mechanisms at Young Microspore Stage caused by Different Pre-growing Conditions in Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 394~406
It was proved that cold tolerance of rice plants at the young microspore stage was affected by water temperature and nitrogen application from the spikelet differentiation stage to the young microspore stage, and this mechanism could be explained in the point of view of pollen developmental physiology. The cold tolerance of rice plants at the young microspore stage was severely affected by water temperature (Previous water temperature) and nitrogen application(Previous nitrogen application) from the spikelet differentiation stage to the spikelet differentiation stage. Although the duration is only 10 days or so from the spikelet differentiation stage to the young microspore stage, these days are very important period to confirm the cold tolerance of rice plants at the young microspore stage. The higher previous water temperature up to
and the deeper previous water depth up to 10cm caused the more cold tolerance of rice plants. Water irrigation of 10cm before the cretical stage showed lower cool injury than that of water irrigation of 20cm during the critical stage. The preventive effect of cool injury by combined treatment of the deep water irrigation before and during the critical stage was not additive but synergistic. The cold tolerance of rice plants grown in previous heavy nitrogen level was rapidly decreased when nitrogen content of leaf blade at the young microspore stage was excessive over the critical nitrogen level. Nitrogen content of leaf blade at the changing point of cold tolerance was estimated as about 3.5% for Japonica cultivars and about 2.5% for Indica x Japonica cultuvars. It is considered that these critical nitrogen contents of leaf blade can be used as a index of the safe critical nitrogen level for the preventive practices to cool injury. It was summarized that increase of engorged pollens per anther by high previous water temperature resulted from the increase of number of differentiated microspores per anther, otherwise, the increase of engorged pollens by the decrease of previous nitrogen level was caused by the decrease of the number of aborted microspores per anther.
Cultural Practices for Reducing Cold Wind Damage of Rice Plant in Eastern Coastal Area of Korea
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 407~428
The eastern coastal area having variability of climate is located within Taebaek mountain range and the east coast of Korea. It is therefore ease to cause the wind damages in paddy field during rice growing season. The wind damages to rice plant in this area were mainly caused by the Fohn wind (dry and hot wind) blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the cold humid wind from the coast. The dry wind cause such as the white head, broken leaves, cut-leaves, dried leaves, shattering of grain, glume discolouration and lodging, On the other hand the cold humid wind derived from Ootsuku air mass in summer cause such symptom as the poor rice growth, degeneration of rachis brenches and poor ripening. To minimize the wind damages and utilize as a preparatory data for wind injury of rice in future, several experiments such as the selection of wind resistant variety to wind damage, determination of optimum transplanting date, improvement of fertilizer application methods, improvement of soils and effect of wind break net were carried out for 8 years from 1982 to 1989 in the eastern coastal area. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. According to available statisical data from Korean meteorological services (1954-1989) it is apperent that cold humid winds frequently cause damage to rice fields from August 10th to September 10th, it is therefore advisable to plan rice cultivation in such a way that the heading date should not be later than August 10th. 2. During the rice production season, two winds cause severe damage to the rice fields in eastern coastal area of Korea. One is the Fohn winds blowing over the Taebaek mountain range and the other is the cold humid wind form the coast. The frequency of occurrence of each wind was 25%. 3. To avoid damage caused by typhoon winds three different varieties of rice were planted at various areas. 4. In the eastern coastal area of Korea, the optimum ripening temperature for rice was about 22.2
and the optimum heading date wad August 10th. The optimum transplanting time for the earily maturity variety was June 10th., medium maturity variety was May 20th and that of late maturity was May 10th by means of growing days degree (GDD) from transplanting date to heading date. 5.38% of this coastal area is sandy loamy soil while 28% is high humus soil. These soil types are very poor for rice cultivation. In this coastal area, the water table is high, the drainage is poor and the water temperature is low. The low water temperature makes it difficult for urea to dissolve, as a result rice growth was delayed, and the rice plant became sterile. But over application of urea resulted in blast disease in rice plants. It is therefore advise that Ammonium sulphate is used in this area instead of urea. 6. The low temperature of the soil inhibits activities of microorganism for phosphorus utilization so the rice plant could not easily absorb the phosphorus in the soil. Therefore phosphorus should be applied in splits from transplanting to panicle initiation rather than based application. 7. Wind damage was severe in the sandy loamy soil as compared to clay soils. With the application of silicate. compost and soil from mointain area. the sand loamy soil was improved for rice grain colour and ripening. 8. The use of wind break nets created a mocro-climate such as increased air. soil and water temperature as well as the reduction of wind velocity by 30%. This hastened rice growth, reduced white head and glume discolouration. improved rice quality and increased yield. 9. Two meter high wind break net was used around the rice experimental fields and the top of it. The material was polyethylene sheets. The optimum spacing was 0.5Cm x 0.5Cm. and that of setting up the wind break net was before panicle initiation. With this set up, the field was avoided off th cold humid wind and the Fohn. The yield in the treatment was 20% higher than the control. 10. After typhoon, paddy field was irrigated deeply and water was sprayed to reduce white head, glume discolouration, so rice yield was increased because of increasing ripening ratio and 1, 000 grain weight.
Physiological Characteristics Related to Cold Injury in Rice
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 429~444
Cold stress influence plant growth through a wide range of growth characters. Adverse effects of low temperature to plant growth come from results of colligative and complex physiological responses to cold stress. To evaluate more exactly cold tolerance of crop plant, it is needed to observe physiological changes induced by cold stress and to analyze relationships between intraspecific variations in physiological factors related to cold tolerance and the extent of cold tolerance in the field. Therefore, the composition and unsaturation ratio of fatty acids in phospholipid, a constituent of membrane, the transition-temperature in respiratory activity of mitochodria, the chlorophyll fluorescence as a factor related to photosynthesis were investigated in rice plant and data on these factors were compared with the degree of cold tolerance obtained in the field experiment. Also, effects of hardening and Mn++ treatment were evaluated as a method to reduce chilling injuries. The unsaturation ratio of fatty acids, whether rice plants were grown in a natural condition or under the chilling stress, was higher in the cold- tolerant varieties and was significantly correlated with the degree of cold tolerance (1-9) observed in the field experiment. And it was also increased by chilling treatment or hardening treatment, due to a reduction in palmitic acid content and an increase in linolenic acid content. The transition-temperature of respiratory activity of mitochodria isolated from etiolated rice seedlings (
, two week-grown in the dark), was correlated with the degree of cold tolerance in the field, cold -tolerant varieties showing a lower transition-temperature. It was not influenced by growth stages. The intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence was highly correlated with the degree of cold tolerance, cold-tolerant varieties having a higher fluorescence intensity. By foliar application of Mn, the transition-temperature of respiratory activity was lowered as much as 0-2
in all tested varieties. Soil application of Mn induced more significant effect in cold-susceptible varieties with a possibility of reducing chilling injuries. On the whole, there were high correlationships among the degree of cold tolerance, the unsaturation ratio of fatty acids in phospholipid, the transition- temperature of respiratory activity and chlorophyll fluorescence except for a few varieties. The transition- temperature of respiratory activity appeared to be negatively correlated with the unsaturation ratio of fatty acids. and the chlorophyll fluorescence to be positively correlated with the unsaturation ratio. This implies that these physical and physiological factors were very closely related to cold tolerance and can be used as an effective index of the evaluation of cold tolerance of crop plant. But other factors as well as three factors discussed above are needed to be considered colligatively and altogether with a systematic analysis for the more exact evaluation of cold tolerance. in rice cultivars. in rice cultivars.
Meteorological Disasters and Damage Reducing Strategies in Oilseed Crops
Jung-Il Lee ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 445~458
The literatures on meteorological disasters of which reported in Korea and abroad were reviewed and discussed in oilseed crops for refer to stable production and quality improvement of the crops. From the reviews, it was clarified that much of the reported disasters are almost same kinds as the other crops like reported in soybean and rice. However much of the disasters reported in oilseed crops were unconfirmed on their injury mechanisms or damage rate on yield loss and quality deteriorate comparing to the reports on soybean or rice. Among the meteorological disasters reported in oilseed crops, the disaters on sesame and groundnut were the most frequent in the numbers of report and water-flooding damage, drought damage, lodging damage in the kinds of disasters. Such kinds of the above disasters were leading to 90% yield loss in the most serious situation. To reduce the damage of meteorological disasters, it was suggested that the variety improvement of which highly resistant, and vinyl-mulching culture would be also an way to reduce water -logging and drought damage in sesame and groundnut in cultural practice. Further, it was indicated that the emphasis must be put on the oilseed crops to investigate and clarify the damage mechanisms, and reducing method of meteorological disasters in breeding and cultural practice.
Physiological disorder of Panax ginseng
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 36, issue 5, 1991, Pages 459~480
Physilogical disorders of P. ginseng occurred in farmer's field were reviewed in relation to symptom. In root, red skin, rough skin, rust, root rot complex, round root, fine root stripe, freezing injury, cracking, sleeping and uneven emergence were frequently appeared. In leaf and stem, yellowing, early defoliation, leaf bum, Papery leaf, white freezing injury, wind injury, stem cracking were the main troubles. Red skin of root and leaf yellowing gave the greatest negative impact on ginseng production. Some cases of damage by pesticides, excess boron and industrial pollutants were reported. Physiological disorders related to quality factors, such as inside cavity, inside white sponge-like ect. after processing were discussed.