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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue s01 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 1991
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 1991
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 1991
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 1991
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 1991
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 1991
Selecting the target year
Crossability and Chromosome Variation in the Early Generation of the Crosses between the Hexaploid Triticale and Diploid Rye
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 485~495
This experiment was carried out to obtain the information on the crossability, variation of chromosome number in pollen mother cell (PMC) and somatic cell of the progeny from the cross between hexaploid triticale cv. Sinkihomil and two diploid rye varieties. Seed set was 39.3 to 41.6% (averaged 40.5%) in the cross between triticale (P
) and rye(P
), which resulted in 0.33% in F
), 2.69% in F
5.47% in F
respectively. However, seed set was extremely low in both reciprocal crosses when triticale was used as male. Germination rate of the crossed seed was 94.0% in F
40.8% in F
), 59.5% in F
and 65.9% in F
from the cross between triticale and rye, respectively. Pollen fertility of F
plant was averaged 18.7% in the cross between triticale and rye. Number of Uni-, Bi-, and Trivalent in PMC was 12. 6, 6.94, and 0.53, respectively, in the F
between the triticale and rye. There were 28 chromosomes in F
, 21 to 34 in F
, 34 to 38 in F
and 19 to 23 in F
from the cross between the triticale and rye, respectively.
Forage Yield and Quality of Whole Crop Barley, Wheat and Triticale
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 496~500
To obtain information on the forage yield and quality of barley, wheat and triticale, fresh and dry yields and chemical components of respective local varieties for each species were measured at heading stage, 7th day after heading (DAH), 14th DAH, 21st DAH and yellow ripe stage. Fresh yield of triticale was higher than those of barley and wheat at all stages. The time of optimum forage moisture for silage was 24-31 DAH in barley, 24-35DAH in wheat and 25-34 in triticale, The percentage content of protein and fat of barley were higher than those of wheat and triticale. Optimum cutting time for silage as proposed with the observa. tions that for barley and wheat it was at 23DAH, and for triticale at 24DAH. In relation to the optimum transplanting time of rice, barley was considered the most suitable species for whole crop silage in the central region of Korea.
Characteristics of Solid Culm and Solidness Variation in Winter Wheat and Triticale
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 501~505
To evaluate the suitability of solid-culm crops for silage, culm characteristics and the variation of solidness in several solid-culm and hollow-culm cultivars of wheat and triticale were examined both in the field and greenhouse. The degree of culm solidness and the voiume of air space in each internodes were measured at heading. The solidness of solid-culm were increased by the development of pith connected with vascular bundles. There was a variation in solidness among the crops tested. The degree of solidness in hollow -culm crops was 14.6% and 15.0% for 'Wonkwang' wheat and 'Shinkihomil' triticale, whereas in solid-culm crops the degree was 77.0-100% for durum wheats, 61. 0-95.8% for bread wheats and 18,7-57,0% for triticales. For 'Golden ball' which had the most solid culms among durum wheats tested higher solidness was observed in the greenhouse than the field, in the high internodes than low ones and in tiller culms than main stems. The solid-culm crops had a smaller air volume in internodes (1.01-2.30ml) than did 'Shinkihomil' (4.85ml) and this characteristics was considered to be advantageous for air removal and lactic fermentation at ensilaging.
Analysis of Plant Hormones by Immunoassay I . Production of Monoclonal Antibodies to Indole- 3-acetic acid
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 506~512
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were produced and characterized. Spleen cells from mouse immunized with IAA coupled to bovine serum albumin were fused with SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells. Three clones secreted specific antibodies to IAA were established to hybridoma cell lines and designated WLI-G1, WLI-G3 and WLI-Ell. The antibodies produced were classified into IgG, types and revealed the high degree of specificity by cross-reaction in the IAA derivatives and its analogues. In the IAA-ELISA with mAb, the measuring range of the assay was 1-500 p mol, and Ka and binding capacity calculated from Scatchard plot were 6.7 X 10
L/M and 6 x 10
L/M respectively. The ELISA with mAb can be used to quantitate IAA directly in crude plant eatract. The results showed that the immunoassay was easy and sensitive method to perform and applicate for quantitative analysis of IAA in plant.
Effects of Seeding Rate on Forage Yield and Feed Value of Rye in Paddy Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 513~520
The objective of experiment was to investigate the effects of seeding rate on forage yield and feed value, and to clarify the optimum seeding rate of rye in middle west area when cultured in paddy field. The field experiment treated with 5 levels of seeding rate was carried out at Yesan area in 1989. The plant height and the number of tillers per m' were increased but the dry matter rate was decreased as seeding rate increased. The fresh and dry weights of rye plant were increased as seeding rate increased. The highest yield was obtained from the harvest of May 15 and 25 in Yesan area. The TDN content and RFV were decreased by the increased seeding rate and delayed cutting date. The highest TDN yield was obtained from the seeding rate of 18kg/l0a and the next highest yield was obtained from the 23kg and 28kg/l0a seeding rate. The content of ENE, NEL, NEM, and NEG was decreased by the increased seeding rate and delayed cutting date. The highest ENE and NEL yields were obtained from the seeding rate of 23kg/l0a and May 15 harvest. The highest NEM and NEG yields were obtained from the seeding rates of 18kg/l0a and May 15 harvest, and of 18-28kg/l0a and May 5 harvest, respectively.
Morpho-anatomical Characteristics on Spikelet Filling of Different Tiller Orders in Rcie
Kim, Jae-Duk ; Vergara, B.S. ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 521~531
Greenhouse experiments were conducted at the International Rice Research Institute during the 1989 dry season to investigate varietal differences in morpho-anatomical characters affecting spikelet filling in different tiller orders. There were varietal differences in tiller initiation and heading dates, and tiller duration. The main culm bad competitive advantage over the other tillers. The maximum contribution to filled spikelet weight was made by primary tillers in low tillering cultivars and by secondary tillers in high tillering cultivars. The reduction in inner vascular bundle (IVB) by tiller orders and the namber of IVB and outer vascular bundles (OVB) varied amop.g cultivars. The number of IVB in the peduncle of IR30, Rewa and Hybrid was more than OVB but in IR47705, Silewah, Unbongbyeo and SR14453, OVB was more than IVB. Early formed tillers produced more IVB than the late formed tillers. The number of IVB was positively correlated with number of spikelet and filled spikelet weight, however percent of filled spikelet did not show significant differences as well as 1000 spikelet weight in all types of cultivars.
Varietal Differences of Pod Shedding
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 532~539
This study was conducted to screen genetic stock for resistant to pod shedding. Materials used were 7 recommended varieties in Korea and 211 introduced varieties containing 94 Virginia type, 99 Spanish type and 18 Valencia type varieties. the days from seeding to first anthesis. number of mature pods per plant. 100 seeds weight and shedded pod ratio per total mature pod at harvesting were investigated. And the breaking tensile strength required to detach a pod from its gynophore was measured at a proper time for harvesting of each variety. In addition. factors related to pod shedding were discussed. The first anthesis of Spanish and Valencia types were earlier than that of Virginia type, but Korean recommended varieties which were recognized as Virginia type had relatively earlier anthesis. The varieties of Spanish type yielded more pods compared with those of Valencia and Virginia types. but Korean recom-mended varieties yielded slightly more pods than the others. Seeds weight of Korean recommended varieties was larger than not merely those of Spanish and Valencia types which were small seeds but also those of Virginia type which were large seeds. The breaking tensile strengths between pod and gynophore were various among the varieties belonging to same type. The strength was relatively strong in the Spanish type, but weak in both Virginia type and Korean recommended varieties. Therefore, pod shedding in the varieties of Spanish type was low and high in Virginia type and Korean recommended varieties. There were positive or negative correlations at the 0.1 % significan level among the days to first anthesis. number of pods per plant. seed weight, breaking tensile strength and shedding ratio. The pod shedding is considered a compound character that is affected by the factors such as breaking tensile strength between pod and gynophore, number of pods per plant and seed size.
Repationship Between Moisture Content in Pod and Pod Dehiscence in Rape
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 540~544
Pod dehiscence in six rape varieties drying after harvest in the field was investigated with use of strain gauge. The development of rape pods was observed after 3-4 days of flowering. The length of pod and seed reached of their maximal size at the 20th and 35th days after flowering, respectively. The seed shape was nearly spherical 40 days after flowering, and pod width was maximal at the 45th days of flowering. Moisture content of seeds was 70% at cutting time, reduced to 30% at 5 days of drying in the plastic film house and 10% at 14 days. Pod dehiscence showed a diurnal change with moisture content of pods and relative humidity, and the dehiscence became difficult under low moisture content of pods and relative humidity of which seems to be related to the rapid drying condition of pod.
Relationship between Glutamine Synthetase Activity and Nitrogen Content and Grain Yield in Wheat
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 545~553
To find out the basic data for the possibility of agricultural utilization for GSA (Glutamine Synthetase Activity), the effect of nitrogen on the GSA in wheat leaf discs, the variation of GSA after light treatment and the comparative activity of GS during preservation were studied. The result of this study suggested that GSA could play an important and direct regulatory role in the nitrogen assimilation by wheat. During the growth stage of wheat its integral activity was found to closely match the organic nitrogen content. GS may therefore be the rate limiting enzyme in inorganic N assimilation. Moreover, integral GSA was closely correlated with grain yield and grain nitrogen. GSA could be suitable to utilize as a parameter for super type selection and an indicator for optimum nitrogen fertilization. Throughout the experiment, the contents of NO; were increased by N fertilization so that the NO; content was not attributable to change in the level of GSA. At investigation during dark-light transition of culture, no change in the level of GSA was observed until after 8-14 hours in the light treatment. And the level of GSA in wheat leaf discs during preservation at refrigerated storage
was stable until 12 weeks, when its leaf discs were sampled with liquid nitrogen.
Effects of Temperature on Maize Tillering Habits
Bong-Ho Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 554~559
The maizes used in the study were three inbreds and a hybrid which were developed by Choe et al. Chungnam National University, All the maizes used were found to tillered in Korea. But under certain environmental conditions. the tillering maizes were either less tillered or not tillered, The objective of the study was then to clarify the effects of temperature on the tillering habits of maize. For the study, maize was grown in temperature controlled growth cabinets under four different temperature regimes (15,20,25 and 3
) for 30 days. Each maize plant was grown in a pot(20cm diameter). The initiation of tillers were accelerated at low temperature. Especially the number of tillers per plant was highest under 2
regime regardless of the inbreds or hybrid. The tillering habits of maize were rather decelerated by high temperature, although high temperature promoted the plant growth.
Role of Mesophyll Morphology in Determination of Leaf Photosynthesis in Field Grown Soybeans
Yun, Jin Il ; Lauer, Michael J. ; Taylo, S.Elwynn ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 560~567
Photosynthetic variation in field grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv Hodgson78］ was studied in relation to leaf anatomical variation. Variations in mesophyll morphology were accentuated by manipulating source and sink size. At R3 stage, two treatments were started: one was thinning and continu-ous debranching(6. 5 plants rather than 26 plants per m of row and remaining plants were debranched weekly), and the other was continuous partial depodding (allowing only one pod to develop at each mainstem node). Gas exchange characteristics, mesophyll cell volume and surface area per unit leaf surface, and microclimatic parameters were measured on the intact terminal leaflet at the 10th node. Observations were made 5 times with 3 to 4 day intervals starting R4 stage. Two models were used to compute leaf photosynthetic rates: one considered no effect of mesophyll morphology on photosynthesis, and the other considered potential effects of variations in mesophyll cell volume and surface area on diffusion and biochemical processes. Seventy nine percent of total photosynthetic variations observed in the experiment was explained by the latter, while 69% of the same variations was explained by the former model. By incorporating the mesophyll morphology concept, the predictability was improved by 14.6% in the field condition. Additional Index Words: photosynthesis model, leaf anatomy, Glycine max (L.) Merr., mesophyll surface area, mesophyll cell volume.
Morpho-anatomical Characteristics of Different Panicles in Low and High Tillering Rices
Kim, Je-Kyu ; B.S. Vergara ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 568~575
The morpho-anatomical characteristics of panicle in rice plant is generally correlated with the number of spikelets and grain weight per panicle. For the increase of grain yield potential in rice, a low -tillering plant type with large panicles has been suggested as an ideotype. This study was conducted to investigate the panicle morphology and peduncle anatomy of different tillers within a plant in low -and high-tillering cultivars and their relationships on the number of spikelets and grain weight per panicle. A low-tillering, large panicled IR25588 was compared with a high-tillering. small panicled IR58. IR25588 had more inner(IVB) and outer vascular bundles (OVB). bigger peduncle diameter and peduncle thickness just below the panicle neck node than IR58. The top six tillers(M. P1, P2, P3. P4 and S1P2) within a plant had more IVB and OVB. larger peduncle diameter and thickness than the rest of the tillers in both cultivars. Tillers that emerged earlier had more IVB and OVB than tillers that emerged Jater. The total number of primary and secondary rachis-branches of IR25588 was much higher than that of IR58. IR25588 had more number of spikelets per panicle than IR58. and the top six panicles showed more spikelets per panicle than the rest of the panicles in both cultivars. The peduncle diameter was more important than peduncle thickness on the spikelet differentiation and panicle weight. especially in low-tillering cultivars. The number of IVB and OVB were highly correlated with the number of rachis-branches. spikelets and grain weight per panicle. The number of spikelets per IVB and spikelets per primary branch were higher in IR25588 than IR58 indicating the higher sink strength in low -tillering with large panicled cultivars than in high-tillering with small panicled cultivars. Based on the morpho-anatomical characteristics of a low-tillering cultivar and the top six tillers within a plant. the present results could be support that 'a low-tillering sturdy culms with large panicles' is an ideo-type of rice plant for increasing grain yield potential.potential.
Transition of Rice Culture Practices during Chosun Dynasty through Old References IV. Preparation of Seeds and Land
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 36, issue 6, 1991, Pages 576~585
General procedures of seed preparation as conventional guide had been established in China before most of Korean literature documented them. ‘Chwijongbeob’ (method of seed select) was to select good quality of seeds and to discard the rest. In ‘Seonjongbeob’ (method of seed grading) although China employed only ‘Sooseonbeob’ (method of seed select with water), but seeds were selected in order of selection of seeds by winds, selection of seeds by sieve and selection of seed with water in Korea. As compared with the recent techniques, those methods were perfect techniques for selection of good quality seeds of rice, except for method of seed selection by salt water was developed. The method for measurement of seed moisture, and for measurement of melted snow, spoiled urine and extracted juice by boiling water with the bone of livestock were originated from ancient China. The farming books in Korea were more or less followed the above methods. However, these techniques were complicated and impractical interms of validity and rationality. Also, it is judged that these tchniques are more appropriate in dry areas and alkaline soil of China rather than in Korean conditions. The plowing is a work to begin farming, and is operated for air ventilation between atmosphere and earth. Also, this techniques was adopted in the farming books from the early to the late Chosun dynasty without changes. Fields were deep-plowed in the first, in fall (or in spring) and for cultivation, and were shallow -plowed in the second, in spring (or in summer) and in intertillage. The former was for water reserve and land preparation, and the later was for weed control with intertillage. However, plowing in fall which was different from fallowing in dry areas, was recommended in Korea (Jikseol). but was not practiced in Sejongsilrok. This was changed with time, and plowing for cultivation in Korea was interrelated with use of green manure crops, method of plowing of upseting plough, method of manure practice and sometimes dry plowing. In addition, until the 15th century method of using a kind of plowing-tool made of log as farm tools was created to support reclamation for enlargement of farm land in mountaineous and coastal areas. For desolate farm lands by many internal and external disturbances, one tried to recover yield ability by increasing labor productivity from the 17th or 18th century. To do this, ‘Banjongbeob’ (culture method by upset plowing weed control) and ‘Hwanubeob’(culture method by firing weed control) which were cultural methods of ancient China were readapoted but the results were not clearly informed. Also, the reality of those was reexamined in the end of the Chosun dynasty.