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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Lee, Sang Chul
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 1992
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 1992
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 1992
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 1992
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 1992
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 1992
Selecting the target year
Effects of Seed Tuber Processing and Cultural methods on Tuber yield of Amorphophallus Konjac. K.
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 117~122
This experiment was conducted to determine tuber yield increase of Konjac by sowing time, seed tuber split method and cultural methods. Tuber yield per unit area was generally increased in early planting than conventional planting time. Tuber yield of polyethylene film mulching culture among storage methods was high, while the emergence rate of konjac for seedling plus PE mulching, and tunnel culture were prompted by 20 days, and especially seedling was to be greatly controlled due to temperature difference of the day and night at emergence. All of the cutting methods(two and four split method) were higher than conventional method because of increasing number of bulblet, accordingly, that method using seed tuber was profitable for mass propagation. Both botanical characteristics and tuber yield tend to be increased at 30 to 50 percent shading than natural condition.
Studies on the Improvement Effects Associated with High Yielding Characters in Recommended Varieties of Winter Wheat(Triticum aestivum L. emend Thell)
Chang-Hwan Cho ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 123~133
This study was conducted to clarify progressed changes of plant types and the effects of the physiological and ecological components on improving ideotype of winter wheat. 12 wheat varieties were planted at the experimental farm of Wheat and Barley Research Institute in Suwon in 1990. As results of intensive wheat breeding for early maturity since 1959, heading, flowering and maturing dates have been shortened by 17, 15 and 14 dagys, respectively. The shortened days from sowing to heading and from heading to flowering contributed to the early maturity to improved. Physiological factors associated with heading time of wheat could be reprsented by growth habit, photoperiod responses, earliness in narrow sense and winter hardiness. For improving an early maturity of winter wheat, it would desired to maintain some degree of winter habit(III-IV), and recombination of more insensitivity to short day length and more shortened earliness in narrow sense than that of Saemil and Chugoku 81, and higher degree of winter hardiness. For improving the early maturity the more effective way must be of shortened days from sowing to heading, and days from flowering to maturity than days from heading to flowering. Ideotype of wheat will be desired to recombine two semi-dwarf genes with erect plant type being about 70-80cm, less stem elongation by late spring, long spike and many grains per spikelet. Average spike weight ratio was about 45-49% in high-yielding varieties, stem fresh weight was lighter, but spike fresh weight was heavier in new one while leaf fresh weight was similar to each other during the maturing periods. Average spike dry weight ratio was higher about 40～48%, and stem and leaf blade dry weights were lower in the newly bred varieties. Stem dry weight was heavier than spike or leaf dry weight in the old varieties of Yungkwang, Jangwang and Jinkwang. Leaf area index for the varieties showed normal distribution curve as the maximum point in booting stage. The maximum point of this curve come in early maturing wheat, and late in old one. The maximum points of LAI were 6.4～6.8 in the high-yielding varieties. Totals of LAI in each period investigated of old one were higher than those of newly bred being 24.6～28.8. Chlorophyll content of the high-yielding varieties of Chokwang, Geurumil and Saemil as higher than that of the old varieties Jangkwang, Jinkwang, Wonkwang and Sinkwang from regrowing period to April 21. after then slightly and even after heading. Net assimilation rate (NAR) was higher in high-yielding varieties with good plant type, and lower in old ones. Grain yield of the newly released varieties increased rapidly but slowly in the old ones. Change in water content of grain at the growing stage in newly bred was lower than that of the old bred. Diminishing rate of water content of grain in establishment per day was 1.2% average that of the old varieties including Yungkwang was 1.5%, and those of the newly bred including Chokwang were 0.9～1.1%. Chokwang, Naemil, and Saemil were the highest-yielding varieties of the Korean cultivars. Yields were increased by spikes per m
, grain weight for the varieties bred in Suwon, and by spikes per m
for the varieties bred in Milyang.
Effect of Density Separation after Pretreatment on Embryo Growth and Radicle Emergence of Carrot(Daucus carota L.) Seeds
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 134~140
Carrot(Daucus carota L.) seeds (CV Danver 126) were primed and then separated by density differences to improve both the percentage and time of radicle emergence. Seeds for priming were soaked in aerated distilled water for 2 days (water imbibed), 25% solution of polyethylene glycol(PEG) 6000 for 6 or 10 days, salt solution of 0.2M KNO
for 6 or 10 days, or mixed with Agro-Lig with 90% moisture content for 6 days and 70% moisture content for 6 or 10 days (SMP) at 2
, respectively. The greatest embryo growth and the highest radicle emergence were observed from the seeds treated SMP with 90% moisture content for 6 days among the primed treatments. After the SMP treatment, the seeds were separated into density classes with a float-sink procedure using aqueous solution of Maltrin 600 with 0.02/cm
density increments. The lower density classes of the carrot seeds, the more embryo growth, the higher and the faster rates of radicle emergence were exhibited in order from 1.06 to 1.14 density classes of the carrot seeds treated SMP.
Effect of GA, IAA, Kinetin on Plant Regrowth of Sorghum(Sorghum vulgare Per.) and Pearlmillet (Pennisetum typhoides Stapf.) after Cut
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 141~148
Field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of plant growth regulator (PGR); IAA, GA, Kinetin to regrowth of sorghum and pearlmillet according to variety and plant growth stage. Kinetin application after cut increased tiller number and decreased dry weight of regrowth, but its application on sorghum stubble in water stress increased tiller number and leaf elongation rate, consequently increased regrowth dry weight. GA application reduced tiller production in both species, but tiller formation in pearlmillet was decreased more than in sorghum by promoting leaf elongation of old tiller. Nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) of stubble during regrowth was consumed less at anthesis than at stem elongation stage because of senescence of tiller primordia. GA treatment reduced NSC content more than other PGR in both plant species, by consuming reserve NSC and stimulating rapid elongation of old tiller after cut. Dry matter increase during regrowth had high correlation with tiller number and tiller elongation a week after cut, while it did not have any correlation with NSC at cutting stage or with consumption of NSC during regrowth. Therefore, regrowth in sorghum and pearmillet must depend upon activity of tiller primordia more than upon amount of reserved NSC.
Study on Cultural Method of Summer Buckwheat Planted in Spring
Keun-Yong Park ; Rae-Kyung Park ; Byeong-Han Choi ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 149~154
Buckwheat has been a popular favorite food crop in Korea for a long time. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of climatic conditions and cultural methods on grain yields of summer buckwheat variety Sinnong 1 planted during the spring season in Suwon, Korea from 1989 to 1991. Frost minimum temperature of late April was -0.3
in 1990 being very low as compared with 3.7
of the normal year, and affected early growth of the seedlings emerging from the soil surface. In late May of 1990, the frost minimum temperature was 7.3
being low as compared with 8.8
of the normal year, and also induced cold injury to fertilization and grain filling. Total precipitation 374.5mm of mid and late June, 1990 provided serious damage to the grain filling and maturing buckwheat seeds and along with causing seed sprouting before harvest. However, the climates of 1989 and 1991 were very good for the growth and development of spring-sown buckwheats. When summer buckwheat cultivar Sinnong 1 was planted on April 20, 1989, its highest grain yields 268-292kg /10a were harvested from the plots of seeding rate 8kg /10a, drill seeding and polyethylene film mulching, and the mean grain yield of the plots was 238kg /10a in 1989, but 64.3kg in Suwon, and 40.2kg /10a in Muan in 1990. In 1991 maximum grain yield 277kg /10a was produced from the April 15 planted and vinyl-mulched plot, and 255kg /10a from the April 25 planted and non-mulched plot. Herbicide Alachlor-sprayed plots produced lower grain yields than no weed control and manual weeding plots. Mechanized drill-seeding saved 83～84% in planting hours as compared with manual broadcasting 21.6 hours /ha, and produced 9% more in grain yields from the two-season croppings of mechanized drill-seeding culture being 364kg /10a in total yields per year.
Development of Vascular Bundles in the Peduncle of Different Tillers and its Relationship to Panicle Characteristics in Rice
Lee, Dong-Jin ; Benito S. Vergara ; Oscar B. Zamora ; Kim, Bong-Ku ; Chae, Je-Cheon ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 155~165
Experiments were conducted to determined the development of the vascular bundles in the peduncle of different tillers on its development in order to improve the vascular system and possibly increase grain yield. The development of the vascular bundle in the leaf, stem and panicle is an important aspect of assimilate translocation and differentiation of panicle characters. Two cultivars were used in this study: IR58, an indica type, and Unbong 7, a japonica type. The main culm(M) had more and bigger vascular bundles in the peduncle and those vascular bundle decreased with tiller order and tiller development. In the primary tillers, P1 had more large and small vascular bundles than P5 in both cultivars. IR58 developed more large vascular bundles compared to Unbong 7, but the small vascular bundle in unbong 7 was more than in IR58. The cross sectional area of phloem and xylem in large vascular bundle decreased with tiller order in both cultivar. Larger area of phloem and xylem in the early formed tillers more efficient transport of assimilates. The number of spikelets, the weight of panicle and grain yield per panicle were highest in the main culm followed by the order of their initiation or emergence. The number of primary and secondary branches to be positive associated with the number and area of vascular bundles. Furthermore, the number of vascular bundles in the peduncle was highly correlated with the peduncle thickness which in turn was correlated with the number of primary and secondary branches on the panicle. These results showed tillers that are initiated early and have relatively ation usually have more vascular bundles, larger peduncle, more spikelets spike let filling and ultimately higher yield.
Effects of Fertilizer Source and Amount on Plant Characteristics of Maize with Tillers
Joonsi, Asada ; Hee Bong, Lee ; Bong Ho, Choe ; Moon Kyu, Kim ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 166~170
An experiment was conducted to study the dffects of fertilizers on maize tillering. Hybrids used were non-tillering hybrid, Nangano No.1, one of the leading hybrids in Japan and tillering hybrids, IK
/IRI develored at the Dept. of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon, Korea. The experiment was conducted at Dottori Prefecture in Japan. Four fertilizer levels, i. e., standard level, half amount of standard level, standard level plus composts and standard level plus two times of composts currently recommended for farmers were used. Higher fertilizer levels were effective for increasing plant weight of both hybrids. All fresh weight as well dry weight of the whole plants and plant parts of IK
/IRI were higher than those of Nangano No. 1, regardless of fertilizers applied mainly due to the tiller development. The number of tillers per plant of IK
/IRI was increased as the level of fertilizer was increased. Especially in sandy soil, composts seemed to be very effective in increasing tiller number per plant of IK
Comparision of Combined Stress Tests for Predicting Field Emergence of Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium pratense
Zhin-Ryong Choe ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 171~177
The purpose of this study was to compare the test methods for predicting field emergence of Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium pratense. Four seed lots of two herbage legumes were controlled deteriorated, accelerated aged before germination test and conductivity of each seed lot was determined. Those germination percent and conductivity of seed lots were compared with actual field emergence rate. Field emergence rate could be estimated by the controlled deterioration test (
=0.687), by the accelerated aging test (
=0.260), and by the conductivity test (
=0.238). A multiple regression equation for predicting field emergence rate(equation omitted) was estimated as (equation omitted)=-198.16 ＋ 2.3493X
, percent germination of controlled deterioration test ; X
, percent germination of accelerated aging test; and X
, conductivity of solute leakage in the conductivity test. Conclusively, unless multiple tests are not available, the controlled deterioration test was comparatively high efficient for predicting field emergence rate, however, the combined measurements of those three tests can enhance the efficiency.
Changes in Contents of Chlorophyll and Free Proline as Affected by NaCl in Rice Seedling
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 178~184
The changes in contents of chlorophyll and free proline in the seedling leaves of ten rice cultivars as affected by salt stress were checked in order to obtain the basic information on the judgement of the degrees of salt injury. The difference in salt injury among the cultivars was clearly observed about 25 days after 6% salt treatment. Chlorophyll content was decreased in both Gayabyeo and Taebaegbyeo for 14 days after different salt treatment as salt concentration was increased and the decreased tendency was much higher in Taebaegbyeo than in Gayabyeo over 0.4% salt concentration. Chlorophyll content in Gayabyeo after 0.6% salt treatment was decreased slowly, while in Taebaegbyeo, deminished very rapidly as time progressed, therefore it decreased by about 16% in Gayabyeo and 67% in Taebaebyeo compared to the control at 20 days, respectively. The relationship between chlorophyll content and the degrees of salt injury in ten rice cultivars showed significant negative correlation at 10 day after 0.6% salt treatment. Free proline content in Gayabyeo was increased gradually for 14 days after different salt treatment as salt became higher, while in Taebaebyeo, it was increased rapidly under 0.6% but rather decreased under 0.8% salt concentration. Particularly, it was much higher Taebaegbyeo than in Gayabyeo under salt concentration from 0.4 to 0.6%. Free proline content in Gayabyeo after 0.6% salt treatment was increased from 15 days, on the other hand in Taebaegbyeo, it was increased from 5 days, but rather decreased from 20 days, and it was 6 times higher in Taebaegbyeo than in Gayabyeo at 10 days. There was significant positive correlation between free proline content and the degrees of salt injury in ten rice cultivars at 10 days after 0.6% salt treatment. From the above results, chlorophyll and free proline content may be used as an indicative character of intensity of salt stress as well as varietal difference in resistance to salt stress in the seedling stage.
Amount and Chemical Characteristics of the Epicuticular Waxes on Leaves at Active Tillering and Heading Stages of Rice Varieties
Yong Woong, Kwon ; Bong Jin, Chung ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 185~197
Differences in the amount and chemical characteristics of the epicuticular waxes on rice leaves were studied for the active tillering and heading stages of rice varieties differing widely in gross leaf-surface property and genetics. The amount of waxes on surfaces of rice leaf-blades was determined by extraction with chloroform and chemical composition of the waxes was characterized by thin layer chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and infrared spectrophotometry. The amount of waxes varied by variety and significantly with growth stage. The amount at the heading stage was 1.7 to 3.6 mg/g fresh weight of leaves, which was two to three times as much as that at the tillering stage of 0.8 to 1.8 mg/g fresh weight. The waxes consisted of seven chemical classes, namely diols, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, fatty aldehydes, fatty esters, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Diols and unsaturated hydrocarbons were identified as new chemical classes of the rice epicuticular waxes. The polar constituents such as dials, fatty acids and fatty alcohols and the non-polars such as fatty aldehydes, fatty esters, and saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons were identified at the heading stage, but at the tillering stage only the non-polar compounds were identified. In the carbon numbers (C) of the chemical classes, diols were composed entirely of C30 and acids were mainly of C30 and C31. In alcohols, primary alcohols were composed of C13 and C32, and the secondary alcohols were of C14, C16 and / or C30 regardless of the rice varieties. The acid portion of fatty esters, mainly composed of C22 and C23, showed low cabon numbers compared with the aldehydes. The alcohol portion of them showed a wide distribution in carbon numbers from C13 to C26 depending on the rice varieties. Hydrocarbons had odd carbon numbers, consisting mainly of C29 and C31.
Recent Development in Rice Seedling Raising in Japan, with Special Reference to the "Nursling Seedlings"
Kiyochika, Hoshikawa ;
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 198~208
Recently, a nursery mat made from rock wool has realized transplanting of the younger seedlings with the ordinary transplanting machines for Chibyo and Chubyo(3 and 4～5 leaved seedling, respectively). The seedlings defined as the 'Nyubyo' or 'Nursling seedlings' became possible to achieve economic profits from the reduction in both working time and costs. It being widely noticed as a strategy to solve the difficulties in current rice cultivation. The nursling seedlings are 1.4 to 2.5 leaves and height at 4.5 to 7cm, grown 4 to 7 days after seeding. They maintain still up to 50 to 80% of their nutrients in the endosperm, and can grow by using only their own nutrients for a certain period of time after transplanting. Nursling seedlings take 2 days in the nursery chamber at 32
after seeding, and 2 days in the greening house at
. This is only 4 days, all together, to make the nursling seedlings of 1.5 leaves which are ready for transplanting. Watering is only needed once at the sowing time. It only takes 1 or 2 waterings even to raise a seedlings for a period of 7 days. The number of nursery boxes can be reduced because it is possible to sow more densely(220 to 240g per box), thus it only needs seedlings of 15 to 16 boxes per 10 a which leads to a reduction in facilities and space needed. Temperature during the nursery period can be artificially adjusted more precisely which may lead to the prevention of temperature stress. The nursling seedlings can root rapid by because the crown roots from the coleoptile node begin to emerge immediately after transplanting. They show strong resistance to low temperature (12
) and deep-planting. There is no danger in the rooting of the seedlings even if half of their height is buried into the soil. Moreover, it can root at a rate of up to 65 to 80% even if the full height of the seedlings is buried. They show also strong resistance to submergence (10～15cm). The nursling seedlings tend to grow by producing tillers from lower nodes. It is therefore, necessary to control to keep the proper numbers of tillers per unit area. They have no fear in the delay of heading and their yield components can be so well balanced that the same level of yield was achieved with the nursling seedlings compared to that with Chibyo. It was further suggested that if the surplus tillers can be avoided by such cultivation practices, the number of grain per panicle can be kept greater and higher yield can be realized. Practical experiments with the nursling seedlings conducted in 1989 and 1990 by farmers in various areas showed exciting results. The nursling seedlings will become widely spread, or at least occupy an important position in Japanese and also in Korean rice cultivation techniques.tivation techniques.
Transition of Rice Culture Practices during Chosun Dynasty through Old References. Ⅵ Fertilizing Practices
KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE, volume 37, issue 2, 1992, Pages 209~215
Different from 'Seyokwiryang' (歲易爲良 : fallowing as the best method) which was an agricultural technique of ancient China, fertilization of rice fields was already practiced in the end of Koryo age in Korea. 'Bunjongbeob'(糞種法 : fertilizer applicating method on seed) or 'Bunkwabeob' (糞科法 : fertilizer applicating method on each plant) was practiced before green manure of bean crops and 'Bunjeonbeob'(糞田法 : fertilizer practicing method on fields) were done. In the 15th century 'Dojeonbunjeonbeob'(稻田糞田法 : fertilizer applicating method on paddy) in 'Jikseol' was divided the materials to be used into the soil brought from another place, trees, grasses, and the manure. Also, it discribed the fertilization between first plowing and the second, and proper fertilization for particular soil conditions. In case of transplanting techniques, the fertilization practices were specified into nursery and rice fields, and restoration of organic matter was systemized by plowing for cultivation in the reclaimed areas. In the 17th century, through 'Jikseolbo'(
), the habitual practice of Kyungsang province was systemized and 'Bunyangsool'(糞壤術 : technique of fertilization) of 'Jodoangkicheo' (早稻秧基處 : rearing fields of early-ripening rice) was completed. Specific things was the manufacturing and utilizing techniques of 'Bunhoe'(糞灰 : mixture of manure and ash), 'Yohoe'(尿灰 : mixture of urine and ash), and additional fertilizers. In the 18 to 19th century, the materials of fertilization were greatly enlarged to recover the waste lands and to support the reinforcement of soil fertility for increasing the system of two cropping a year. Also, 'Jeobunbeob'(貯糞法 : method of manure storage) and additional fertilization were emphasized, and use of wagons for it was emphasized to improve the theory of fertilization and working efficiency. As mentioned above, limitation of fertilizing materials was conquered by 'Dojeonbunyang'(稻田糞壤 : techniques of practicing fertilizers in paddy) and the system of additional fertilization was established. The fertilization methods were improved with 'Jeobunbeob' due to the theory and recognition necessary for high rates of fertilizers.