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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Dec 1992
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Oct 1992
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Aug 1992
Volume 37, Issue 3 - Jun 1992
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Apr 1992
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Feb 1992
Selecting the target year
Optimum Transplanting Date, Fertilizer Application Rate and Planting Density for Upland Cotton Culture after Naked Barley
Kyu-Yong Chung ; Bang-Myung Kae ; Byeong-Han Choi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 217~223
Cotton has been an important fiber crop in Korea for a long time. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of planting and transplanting dates, transplanting density and fertilizer application rate on seed cotton and lint yields, and gross income for barley-cotton double cropping in southern part of Korea. Transplanting culture of upland cotton cultivar Mokpo 4 on June 10 to 20 produced 80 to 83% more in seed cotton yield and 79 to 82% more in lint yield compared with the yields of direct planted on June 10 just after harvesting naked-barley. Mokpo 4 was better than Suwon 17 and Paymaster for the transplanting culture after barley harvest in double cropping. Optimum fertilizer application rate was N 80-P
O 106 kg /ha, and optimum transplanting density was 70
20cm for the transplanting culture of upland cotton after barley in double cropping system. The highest total yields 5.03 to 5.09t /ha in barley-cotton double croppings were harvested in barley drill-seeding and cotton transplanting culture on June 10 to 20 compared with seed cotton yield 1.51t /ha of the cotton monoculture planted on May 1. Their gross income also was 40% more than that of the cotton monoculture, and 30% more than the cotton direct seeding just after barley harvest on June 10. Cotton intercropping between barley rows provided 2-11% more in gross income compared with cotton direct seeding after barley harvest on June 10. Of the cotton intercroppings between barley rows, cotton intercropping of one row between the barley rows of 60cm width provided 5 to 9% more in gross income than the other cotton intercroppings between barley rows.s.
Absorption of Nutrients on Different Growth Stages in Maize with Tillers
Joonsi, Asada ; Hee Bong, Lee ; Bong Ho, Choe ; Moon Kyu, Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 224~229
The objective of the study was to clarify the pattern of fertilizer absorption by tillering hybrid, IK
/IRI. Nangano No.1 hybrid was included as non-tillering check hybrid. Hybrids were grown in pots and the plants were periodically analyzed for their chemical components like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The results obtained indicate that the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium absorbed by IK
/IRI was slightly lower than that absorbed by Nangano No.1, except nitrogen in the maturity of IK
/IRI. However, no major differences were observed for the calcium and magnesium content between two hybrids. In most cases amount of nitrogen and calcium in the plant of two hybrids seemed to decrease as the plants mature, while amount of those chemicals in the ears increased. Nitrogen efficiency for IK
/IRI seemed a little lower than that for Nangano No.1.
Studies on the Differences of the Rice Tillering System and Yield Characteristics under the Different Cultivation Methods in Southern region of Korea I. Seedling Characteristics and Growth under the Different Nursing Methods and Time
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 230~236
To study the effects of different nursing methods and transplanting on the growth of the rice plant(Oriza sativa L.hn southern region of Korea, Kumo-byeo, Palgong-byeo and Dong-jinbyeo were transplanted from April 20 to July 20 with 15 days intervals as 8 days seedling (infant rice), 25 days box seedling for machine transplanting and 45 days conventional seedling, respectively. No. of leaves at transplanting were in order of 45 days seedling>25 days seedling>8 days seedling. In 25 days seedling, they were increased as transplanting dates were later from April 20 to June 5, and in 45 days seedling, it showed same tendency until June 5 with Dongjinbyeo, June 20 with Palgong-byeo and Kumo-byeo. Root activity according to the
-naphthylamine oxidation activity and rooting activity were higher in order of 8 days seedling>25 days seedling>45days seedling. Panicle formation initiated after maximum tillering stage as transplanting at April 20 with 8 days seedling and 25 days seedling, but it intiated before maximum tillering stage as transplanting at July 20 in Kumo-byeo. and in Palgong-byeo intiations of panicle formation were shown after maximum tillering stage as transplanting until May 20, but June 5 in Dongjin-byeo. However, there was no significant tendency with 45 days seedling. Missing hill ratio were less than 5% as transplanting with 8 days seedling and 25 days seedlingregardless of transplanting periods or varieties.
Simulated Acid Rain Effects on Growth and Yield of Rice, Soybean and Sesame
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 237~243
To determine effects of simulated acid rain on the growth and yield of rice, soybean and sesame, and on the soil acidity, two cultivars of rice, soybean and sesame were exposed twice a week to one of four simulated rain acidities[pH 2. 6, 3. 6, 4. 6 and 5. 6(control)]. The plants were protected from ambient rain by a polyethylene film cover. No visible damage due to the simulated acid rain was observed at any stage of growth for either of the crops. In rice, heading date, plant height and yield components except ripening ratio were not significantly affected by the pH ofsimulated rain, but the ripening ratio and rough rice yield linearly decreased as the pH of simulated rain was decreased. In soybean, maturing date and yield components except 100 seed weight were not significantly influenced by the pH of simulated rain, but the 100 seed weight and yield linearly decreased as the pH of simulated rain was decreased. Seed yield and the other agronomic characteristics of sesame were not significantly affected by the pH of simulated rain. Soil pH after cropping rice, soybean and sesame decreased as pH of simulated rain was decreased.
Varietal Variations in Absolute Density of Rice Grain and Its Relations with Other Grain Characters
Hee Jong, Koh ; Mun Hue, Heu ; Cheng Mo, Jiang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 244~249
To investigate the varietal variations in absolute density of milled rice grain and its relations with other grain characters, the 235 rice varieties which consist of 30 Tongil type rices, 72 Japonica rices and 133 Indica rices were tested on grain size, volume, hardness, chalkiness and 1000 grains weight of brown rice, ADV, amylose content, starch composition on SEM and absolute density of milled rice grain using completely ripened grains. Average absolute density of milled rice grain was 1.496g / cm
in Tongil type rices, 1.506g / em in Japonica rices, and 1.500g / cm
in Indica rices. It was correlated positively with days to heading and grain hardness, and negatively with chalkiness, volume, grain weight and grain length of brown rice. Regression analysis indicated that grain volume and weight were the major characters affecting the density. However, since the absolute density of milled rice grain did not show great varietal variations it might not seem important as one of the characters contributing to the grain yield, while it could be a factor affecting the grain quality because there were definite varietal differences even though small. The microscopic feature of starch composition on SEM revealed differences between clear and chalky parts of the grain in shape and compactness of starch composition but did not discriminate between high and low-density grains.
Studies on the Combining Ability of Major Agronomic Characters in Pea
Kwon-Yawl Chang ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 250~256
This study was carried out to obtain basic genetic informations in pea(Pisum sativum L.). A series of field experiments were carried out with seven pea cultivars and F
hybrids for three years. Based on the information collected from a set of diallel crosses, the behaviours of inheritance of seed yield and ten major agronomical characters were observed by the estimation of heterosis and combining ability. Heterosis for seed yield per plant was 79% and those for yield components such as number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant, stem length, stem diameter, number of branches per plant, also showed relatively high values. General combining ability(GCA) and specific combining ability(SCA) were significantly different among major agronomic characters, and the variances of GCA were higher than those of SCA latter. Among the tested cultivars, Alderman was found to be the most promising parent based upon the GCA effects on the seed yield and yield components. The crosses of Sugar Ann
Alderman and JI 1198
Chinju ＃6, showed the highest SCA effects on seed yield and yield components.
Effect of GA3 Concentrations on the Vernalization Period in the Immature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 257~263
Immature embryos were tested for investigating the effect of cold treatment duration and GA
concentration on the vernalization response in barley. Immature embryos were cultured on B
medium with GA
for 5 days, and were transplanted under 20/15
temperature after cold treatment. Germination rate and shoot length were increased more in 20-day-old embryos than those in 13-day-old ones but germination day was decreased. Addition of 1 or 10 ppm of GA
to B5 medium was effective on the growth of immature embryos. The higher GA
concentration was, the shorter time from embryo culture to flag leaf emergence and heading was. The earlist flag leaf emergence and heading were showed on treatment of 1 or 10 ppm of GA
, but GA
did not completely replace vernalization. The days to flag leaf emergence of immature embryo-cultured barley with cold treatment for two and three weeks was shortened by 3 and 18 days at 1 ppm GA
, and 16 and 20 days at 10 ppm GA
, respectively, when compared to 0 ppm GA
culture with cold treatment for three weeks. It was at 10 ppm GA
with 3 weeks cold treatment that showed the lowest culm length, spike length and number of grain per spike. GA
concentration was not correlated significantly with each character in 1 week cold treatment, but was significant with each character in 2 weeks. In 3 weeks cold treatment, it was except for days to heading. Correlation between cold treatment duration and culm length was negative in 0 ppm GA
. In 1 or 10 ppm of GA
, all characters had highly negative correlation with cold treatment duration.n.
Effects of Initial Defoliation Stage and Defoliation Interval on the Growth of White Clover Cultivars Differing in Leaf Size
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 264~273
Availability of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) has been limited due to its poor introduction to swards and lack of persistence under improper grazing management. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of initial defoliation stage and defoliation interval on the growth of white clover varieties. Individual plants of Regal (large leaf), Louisiana S.1 (medium-large leaf), Grasslands Huia (medium-small leaf) and S184 (small leaf) were grown in containers (4.5
13.5 cm) containing a 1:2:1 soil:sand:Promix until reaching to the stage of 1, 4, or 8 trifoliolates, and then clipped to remove all fully expanded leaves every 7 or 28 days (d). For analysis of morphological parameters, plants were sampled on the final harvest date (0 d), and 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after the final harvest date. Harvested dry weight (dw) of all varieties declined as defoliation interval declined or initial defoliation was made earlier. That of Regal was the highest as initial defoliation was delayed. On the 7 d regrowth shoot and root dw were increased as initial defoliation was delayed or interval lengthened, whereas on the 28 d regrowth the trend was alleviated. Root dw and biomass of Regal were higher than the other varieties during the whole regrowing period, when the increase of biomass resulted from that of shoot dw. Leaf areas and petiole lengths of all varieties declined under 7 d defoliation interval. The area and the length declined with earlier initial defoliation on the 7 d regrowth but not on the 28 d regrowth. Stolon length and growing tips of S184 were the highest and increased more steeply during regrowth, while those of Regal were the lowest and did slightly. It is concluded that the continuous defoliation and the first defoliation at earlier growth stage have detrimental effects on growth of white clover, although larger leaf types are more productive but less persistent in a sward than smaller leaf types.
Effects of Sward Composition and N.P Fertilization on Forage Yields and Intercompetition of Subterranean clover-Italian Ryegrass and Berseem clover-Italian Ryehrass Mixtures
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 274~282
Annual forage crops have been increasingly important for conpensating insufficient forage production of perennial pastures took place for short interval. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of sward composition and NㆍP fertilization on forage production and intercompetition of subterranean clover-Italian ryegrass and berseem clover-Italian ryegrass. The two clovers were grown in the field at the clover/ryegrass ratios of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25 and 100/0 where no, N (200 kg /ha), P (50 kg /ha) or NㆍP fertilization was done. Each crop was separated after harvest and drying. Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC), aggressivity and Relative Yield Total (RYT) were analyzed on the basis of the harvested dry matter of each crop. Berseem clover-ryegrass mixtures produced greater yield than subclover-ryegrass mixtures as a result of higher yields of the two component species. In the former forage yield was increased with increased rate of clover up to 75%, while in the latter the highest yields were obtained at more than 50% of the clover. In the mixtures N stimulated the growth of ryegrass, whereas P did only that of subclover. The two clovers produced more forage than the companion grass under no and only P fertilization although the reverse result was true under N or NㆍP fertilization, but the annual forage yield was decreased in the order of N and P, N, P, and no fertilization. The mixture yields were overyielded compared to the Expected Yield. Although generally RCCs and RYTs of subclover were higher than those of berseem clover in the mixtures differing the composition rate or under no and only P fertilization, those of the former clover were lower under N or NㆍP fertilization. In the clover-ryegrass mixtures, ryegrass acted as an aggressor and became more aggressive under P fertilization.
Comparison of Some Propagation Methods in Paeonia albiflora Pallas and Effective Components of Paeonia albiflora Pallas Root Grafted with Paeonia moutan Sims
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 283~287
This experiment was carried in order to compare some propagation methods and the effective components in the root of Paeonia albiflora pallas, Paeonia moutan Sims and Paeonia albiflora pallas root grafted with Paeonia mouton sims The optimum seeding time of August 20 to september 10 for increasing germination ratio. The growing and developing of Paeonia albiflora Pall. for root dividing methods was advantageous to practice at Autum than at spring season. The shoot cutting method during the flowering time was proper to increase the rooting ratio with the aid of Ruton, the plant growth regulator but not emerged of apical bud. The grafting stages between the Paeonia albiflora pall. and Paeonia moutan Sims was available to practice during the September for increasing the thickness growth of root. Among the effective components of the paeony the paeoniflorin was shown high, while paeonol in paeony moutan. The paeoniflorin of herbaceous paeony / paeony moutan was increased about 75.9% than herbaceous paeony alone, and the other compoents are similar to those of herbaceous paeony root.
Regulation of Chilling Tolerance in Rice Seedlings by Plant Hormones
Chu, Chun ; Lee, Tse-Min ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 288~298
Since the major important factors limiting plant growth and crop productivity are environmental stresses, of which low temperature is the most serious. It has been well known that many physiological processes are alterant in response to the environmental stress. With regard to the relationship between plant hormones and the regulation of chilling tolerance in rice seedlings, the major physiological roles of plant hormones: abscisic acid, ethylene and polyamines are evaluated and discussed in this paper. Rice seedlings were grown in culture solution to examine the effect of such plant hormones on physiological characters related to chilling tolerance and also to compare the different responses among tested cultivars. Intact seedlings about 14 day-old were chilled at conditions of 5
and 80% relative humidity for various period. Cis-(＋)-ABA content was measured by the indirect ELISA technique. Polyamine content and ethylene production in leaves were determined by means of HPLC and GC respectively. Chilling damage of seedlings was evaluated by electrolyte leakage, TTC viability assay or servival test. Our experiment results described here demonstrated the physiological functions of ABA, ethylene, and polyamines related to the regulation of chilling tolerance in rice seedlings. Levels of cis-(＋)-ABA in leaves or xylem sap of rice seedlings increased rapidly in response to 5
treatment. The tolerant cultivars had significant higher level of endogenous ABA than the sensitive ones. The (
)-ABA pretreatment for 48 h increased the chilling tolerance of the sensitive indica cultivar. One possible function of abscisic acid is the adjustment of plants to avoid chilling-induced water stress. Accumulation of proline and other compatible solutes is assumed to be another factor in the prevention of chilling injuies by abscisic acid. In addition, the expression of ABA-responsive gene is reported in some plants and may be involving in the acclimation to low temperature. Ethylene and its immediate precusor, 1-amincyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid(ACC) increased significantly after 5
treatment. The activity of ACC synthase which converts S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to ACC enhanced earlier than the increase of ethylene and ACC. Low temperature increased ACC synthase activity, whereas prolonged chilling treatment damaged the conversion of ACC to ethylene. It was shown that application of Ethphon was beneficial to recovering from chilling injury in rice seedlings. However, the physiological functions of chilling-induced ethylene are still unclear. Polyamines are thought to be a potential plant hormone and may be involving in the regulation of chilling response. Results indicated that chilling treatment induced a remarkable increase of polyamines, especially putrescine content in rice seedlings. The relative higher putrescine content was found in chilling-tolerant cultivar and the maximal level of enhanced putrescine in shoot of chilling cultivar(TNG. 67) was about 8 folds of controls at two days after chilling. The accumulation of polyamines may protect membrane structure or buffer ionic imbalance from chilling damage. Stress physiology is a rapidly expanding field. Plant growth regulators that improve tolerance to low temperature may affect stress protein production. The molecular or gene approaches will help us to elucidate the functions of plant hormones related to the regulation of chilling tolerance in plants in the near future. Abbreviation : ABA : abscisic acid ACC : 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ADC : arginine decarboxylase ELISA : enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ODC : ornithine decarboxylase Put: putrescine SAMDC : S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase Spd : spermidine Spm : spermine TNG 67 : Tainung 67 TCN 1 : Taichung Native 1 TTC : triphenyl tetrazolium chloride
A Study on Transition of Rice Culture Practices during Chosun Dynasty through Old References. VIII. Harvest and Storage
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 37, issue 3, 1992, Pages 299~303
Methods for harvesting and storage of rice were also originally introduced from the ancient China like other practices of agricultural techniques. Thus, optimum time or rice harvesting was adopted by appropriate draining to prevent the losses, and efficient tools were utilized for harvesting and manufacturing. In addition, our unique and original techniques for rice storage were learned and handed down, which prevented winds and rains, and allowed good ventilation. In the 15th and 16th centuries, treatment of smartweed extracts as emphasized to prevent insect damage for stored barley and rice cutting immediately at harvest was encouraged to prevent shattering of rice grains. In the 18th and 19th centuries, means for prevention of damages by water, insects and rats when grains stored in the field were suggested. Also, studies for ecology of various rice cultivars and storage techniques for a long period of time were necessarily emphasized to assume the optimum time of harvest regionally and to cooperatively work timely.