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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 1993
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 1993
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 1993
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 1993
Volume 38, Issue 2 - May 1993
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 1993
Selecting the target year
Determination of the Optimum Tillers in Different Rice Cultivars for High Yield
Jae Duk, Kim ; Benito S, Vergara ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 103~111
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the number of optimum. tillers within a plant for high yield and to clarify the morpho-anatomical characteristics of cultivars having different tillering abilities. Optimum tillers, i.e tillers which produced heavy panicles were found to be around five to nine tillers per plant, although wider range may be possible if more cultivars were tested or under different growth conditions. Optimum tillers emerged within a short time after transplanting as compared with the other tillers. They exhibited longer tiller duration, produced more spikelets and had better filled spikelets, more vascular bundles and were taller with larger leaf area. However, the 1, 000 grain weight and fertility varied with cultivars and showed no general trend. Of this morpho-anatomical features, the total number of spike lets per plant was considered as the potential criterion for determining the optimum tiller number.
Effects of Rhizome Size and Mulching Materials on Agronomic Characteristics and Yield in Zingiber mioga ROSC.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 112~116
The experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of rhizome size and mulching materials on some agronomic characters and flower-head yield of Gingiber mioga ROSCOE. The larger the size of rhizome was, the more the number of leaves developed, and the higher the yield was. The most suitable rhizome size for planting was found to be from I2cm to 15cm. Rice straw and polyethylene film mulching materials increased the soil porosity and reduced change of the soil moisture content. The yield of flower-head was highest in the straw-mulching plot, indicating that straw would be the best mulching material for growth and yield of flower-head in Gingiber mioga ROSCE.
Germination and Dissolved Oxygen Uptake of California Rices in Water Seeding.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 117~120
This experiment was conducted to elucidate the characteristics of dissolved oxygen uptake and germination of California rice varieties, L-202(Long grain), M-202(Medium grain), S-201(Short grain), Italiconaverneco(Long grain) and Korean variety, Hwaseongbyeo under
water condition. The distilled water was saturated with oxygen by using air pump for 2 hours. Dissolved oxygen uptake of rice seed was measured everyday by using the oxygen electrode during 4 days from soaking to coleoptile and radicle appearance. Total dissolved oxygen uptake was 211.7
per grain in Italiconaverneco during that period 179.5
in S-201, 144.3
in Hwaseongbyeo, 140.4 in L-202, 135.8
in M-202. The ratio of coleoptile and radicle appearance showed the highest value in Italiconaverneco, and next were S-201 and L-202. The coleoptile and radicle showed the longest length in Italiconaverneco, and next were S-201 and Hwaseongbyeo.
Comparison of Major Agronomic Traits between Barley Near-Isogenic Line for Awnedness
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 121~127
The barley plant for whole crop forage is advantageous to have traits with higher photosynthetic rate, biomass, lodging resistance, and awnless spikes. The objective of this study is to investigate performance of near-isogenic line pairs for the awned and awnless in the field, and to observe the variations in photosynthetic rate, yield and their related traits under removal of flag leaf and awns. Grain yield was 6% higher, but biomass and photosynthetic rate were 6～16% and 6% lower in the awned line than those in the awnless grown in the field ,respectively. Defoliation of flag leaf resulted in approximately 3～4%, and 5～6% decreases in 1,000 kernels and grain weights, respectively. Deawning at the heading stage of the long awned line decreased 1,000 kernels and grain weights by 7% and 15%, respectively, The removal of both assimilative tissues caused 14 and 21% decrements in 1,000 kernels and grain weights. Apparent photosynthetic rate of leaf blade in awnless line was 6.1 -9. 7
, much higher than that in awned line. The relative rates in the second and third leaves were about 93% and 55～63%, respectively as compared with that in the flag leaf. The results of the experiments suggest that the awnless line selected for whole crop forage is a potential plant type with higher photosynthetic rate, leaf area and greater biomass.
Collection and Evaluation of Korean Red Rices V. Germination Characteristics on Different Water and Soil Depth.
Hak-Soo SUH ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 128~133
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the germination characteristics of Korean red rice seeds. Ten lines of the long grain and ten lines of the short grain Korean red rices were tested for dormancy, shoot emergence rate at different water and soil depth. Both the long and short grain type seeds of Korean red rice germinated over than 99% immediately after harvest, so that no dormancy was observed in the Korean red rices. Shoot emergence rate of the long grain red rices at 7cm of water depth and that of the short grain red rices at 11cm were 83.3% and 83.5% respectively, while those of the indica check Samgangbyeo and japonica check Seomjinbyeo were 0%. Shoot emergence rates of the long and short grain red rices at 7cm of soil depth were 71.1% and 73.9% respectively, while those of the check varieties Samgangbyeo and Seomjinbyeo were 40.0% and 28.0% respectively. Thus, the Korean red rices were expected to be useful germplasm source for direct seeding.
Collection and Evaluation of Korean Red Rices VI. Nitrogen Response on Yield and Its Components
Hak-Soo SUH ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 134~138
Four lines of the long grain and four lines of the short grain Korean red rices were grown at different nitrogen levels of 0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5kg /10a. Nitrogen levels and red rice lines were arranged by the respective strip plot design for the long and short grain types. Yield components and yield were tested. Number of panicles per hill and number of spikelet per panicle increased along with the nitrogen levels. One thousand grain weight of the long grain red rices decreased by increasing the nitrogen levels, while that of the short grain red rices was not changed along with nitrogen levels. Grain yield of the long grain red rices increased to the nitrogen level of 22.5kg /l0a, however, that of the short grain red rices increased to the level of 7.5kg /l0a and was not changed over there.
Relationship between Seed Size and Seed Vigor in Soybean.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 139~150
This experiment was carried out to investigate the difference of seed vigor according to seed size, and the physiological aspects and physico-chemical phenomena related with seed vigor in soybean cultivars. Portion of seed coat and radicle to entire seed was much higher in cultivars with small seed than with large. Seed coat rate ranged 7.9% to 9.9%, and radicle 2.5% to 3.3% in small seed group, Whereas in large seed, seed coat rate did 5.5-6.4% and radicle, 1.5 to 2.1%. After accelerated aging treatment, there are significant difference in germination ability between seed size. The germination rate after aging ranged 47 to 80% in cultivars with small seed, but in large seed, only 14 to 24%. After seed was carried out dehydration in incubator at 25 after soaking for 6 hours, the moisture content of seed in drying for 12 hour was 25.5% in small seed, while it was 51% in large seed. Electrical conductivity, leaching soluble nitrogen and sugar content were higher in large seed cultivars. Besides, cotyledon damage after soaking was occurred frequently in large seed cultivars, and seed vigor within same cultivars was higher in small seed than large.
Inhibition of Floral Induction and Variation of Yield in Angelica gigas Nagai
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 151~158
Since the inhibition of floral induction was considered to be an important subject to get high yield of Angelica gigas, the effects of low temperature, daylengh and shading were investigated in this study. The yield of A. gigas root grown by inhibition of floral induction was compared with the yield obtained by traditional cultivation method. When the seedings were exposed to the natural low air temperature condition until late of November, the plants which had 6 to 8 leaves showed vernalizing effect, and when the low temperature treatment was prolonged until mid of January, 4 to 5 leaf plants showed vernalizing effect. But 2 to 3 leaf plants did not show vernalizing effect regardless of the length of chilling treatment. The effectiveness of exposure to low temperature was markedly dependent upon the age of plants. In the artificial low temperature treatment the range of temperature varied with plant age. Vernalizing effect at 1,5 and 9
of temperature did not show 3,5,6 leaf plants, respectively. The bolting percent in 8 leaf plant at 1,5 and 9
for 8 weeks decreased by 80,45 and 5%, respectively. As daylength became longer, the bolting percent of A. gigas was increased. plants which were grown in the full sunlight showed the highest value in bolting percent, and the bolting percent was not decreased significantly with changing from full sunlight to 50% shading. When A. gigas were grown by the inhibition of floral induction, dry root weight per l0a showed the greatest value in 3 year old plant which 3.6 and 2.4 times higher than that of 1 and 2 year old plant, respectively. The yield of root was increased by 73.7% in 2 year old plant and 159.6% in 3 year old plant compared with the yield obtained by traditional cultivation method.
Effects of Leaf and Pod Removal on Photosynthesis and Assimilate Partition in Soybean
Woong Tae, Kim ; Rak Chun, Seong ; Harry C, Minor ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 159~165
To clarify the effects of sink demand for assimilate on leaf photosynthetic rate, tissue composition, and leaf senescence of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] J plants, pod and leaf tissues were removed at growth stage
. Plant responses were measured every 10days from 2 through 42days following treatment. Leaves of depodded plants exhibited increased starch and chlorophyll contents and specific leaf weight. Stomatal resistance was also increased and leaf photosynthetic rate was reduced. Dry weight of vegetative tissues except leaves was increased by pod removal. Leaf removal resulted in a decreased starch content of leaves from 22 to 42days after treatment and that of roots at all sampling times. Specific leaf weight was decreased while leaf photosynthetic rate was increased. Stomatal resistance and chlorophyll content were little affected. Weight per seed was decreased 3.0% by leaf removal. Except for the seed, tissue protein contents were increased by pod removal but decreased by leaf removal, however, seed protein content was not affected by either. Apparent senescence was delayed by depodding. Both apparent and functional senescence were accelerated by leaf removal.
Effect of Fungicide Benoram Seed Treatment on Germination, Growth, and Yield in Summer-Type Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 166~173
Seed infection to pod and stem blight (Diaporthe phaseolorum) is severe at summer type soybeans maturing at hot and humid conditions. In order to increase germination and plant stand, this experiments were evaluated the effects of fungicide Benoram(Benomyl 20%
Thiram 20%) seed treatments with different seed sizes on emergence yield at field conditions, and with different infection degrees to pod and stem blight on germination in laboratory. Benoram treatment on seed was improved emergence rate and elongated hypocotyl not increased growth and yield. It was clearly improved length but germinations and germination speed by Benoram fungicide treatment on severely infected seed however was not improved germination rate at good quality of seeds and the effect was higher at large seed cultivar than small ones.
Performance of Direct Seeded Paddy Rice in Dry Soil at Different Seeding Depths
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 174~182
Performance of 3 indica
japonica(Chilseungbyeo, Samgangbyeo, and Gayabyeo), 7 japonica(Yeongsanbyeo, Yeongdeugbyeo, Hwajinbyeo, Palgongbyeo, Seumjinbyeo, Tamjinbyeo, and Milyang 95), and 2 indica(Tebonnet and Lemont) rice varieties was tested at 1, 3, 5, and 7cm seeding depths in a growth chamber and field. In the growth chamber the number of days from seeding to seedling emergence increased as seeding depth increased, while percent germination and emergence and emergence / germination ratio decreased. However, in the field seedling emergence at 1em seeding depth delayed slightly compared to 3cm probably due to lack of soil moisture. The number of seedlings and maximum tillers at 1, 3, and 5cm seeding depths was similar, but it was higher compared to 7cm seeding depth. Yield and yield components were similar among the seeding depths when all the varieties averaged although 1,000-grain weight was slightly higher at 7cm deeding depth compared to others. At 1cm seeding depth the length of mesocotyl of all varieties was similar and ranged 0.1-0.2cm and that of coleptile ranged 0.8-1.1cm. As seeding depth increased up to 7cm Tebonnet which showed the highest percent emergence emerged by elongation of both mesocotyl and coleoptile, while the other varieties emerged largely by elongation of coleoptile.
Effect of Sulfer Containing Fertilizers on Grain Yield and Chemical Composition of Soybean
Keun-Yong Park ; Jae-Seok Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 183~188
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of sulfur containing fertilizers on growth, yield and nutritive quality of soybean as affected by lime application at reclaimed soil. Lime application for neutralization requirements showed the effect of increased grain yield about 32% compared to the non application at newly opened land of red and yellow soil. In case of lime application, the sulfur containing fertilizers combined with super phosphate, ammonium sulfate, and gypsum increased the grain yield by 31%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. When lime was not applied, magnesium carbonate application increased the yield by 47%, super phosphate by 22%, and gypsum by 15%. The protein content of grain was higher at lime application than those of non lime application and was increased by the application of sulfur containing fertilizer. But lipid content was not affected by lime or sulfur application. From the above results obtained it was concluded that sulfur fertilizer effect under lime application was significant when combined with super phosphate or ammonium sulfate application. Magnesium carbonate or super phosphate application was the best combination with sulfur-containing fertilizer.
Responses of Growth and Yield Characters on Planting Density in Determinate and Indeterminate Soybeans
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 189~195
This study was conducted to obtain the .basic informations for developing soybean varieties and mechanizing cultivation at the Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Korea in 1990. Two determinate soybean varieties, Hwangkeurnkong and Jangyeobkong, and two indeterminate soybean varieties, Clark and Williams were planted at three planting densities (33,22,16 plants /
). Number of branches and number of nodes on branches per unit area (
) were greater in determinate varieties than in indeterminate ones, and number of nodes on mainstem were greater in indeterminate varieties than in determinate ones. The higher planting density increased those characters. Seed weight per unit area (
) was higher in determinate varieties than in indeterminate ones, and it was great at the higher planting density. Indeterminate varieties showed greater mainstem dependence rate for yield components than determinate ones did. Harvest index was higher in indeterminate varieties than in determinate ones. The lower planting density increased harvest index. Stem dry weight per unit area(
) was greater in determinate varieties than in indeterminate ones, and it was greater at the higher planting density. Variations among plants were great in the order of branch-related yield characters > total plant-re-lated yield characters > mainstem-related yield characters > morphological characters of mainstem and 100 seed weight. Difference between determinate and indeterminate varieties was significant in branch-related characters. Indeterminate varieties showed greater variations than determinate ones did in branch-related yield characters at different planting densities.
Response of Nodulation and Leaf Nitrate Reductase Activity of Alfalfa to Exogeneous Nitrate Supply
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 2, 1993, Pages 196~200
A full understanding of the interdependence of leaf nitrate ((
￣) metabolism and symbiotic nitrogen(
) fixation in legume crops is needed to help maximize the use of both N sources as well as to improve forage quality through the inhibition of leaf nitrate accumulation. The present work examines the effects of added nitrate, the level of which are 0,2,4,8 and 12mM, on the nodule formation and leaf nitrate utilization and on the possibility of inducing nitrate-toxicity to livestocks in two alfalfa varieties, ' Vernal ' of grazing type and ' Victoria ' of hay type. Higher level of exogeneous nitrate resulted in the increased above-ground dry weight. Nodulation was inhibited severely when more than 8mM NO
￣ was supplied to alfalfa plants, and leaf nitrate reductase reached a maximunm at 4mM nitrate supply. The
of nitrate reductase in leaves of Vernal was similar to that of Victoria, whereas the
of Vernal was higher than that of Victoria. High accumulation of leaf nitrate,
g/g leaf fresh weight, was shown at 12mM nitrate supply, which was thought to be not enough to induce nitrate-toxicity to livestocks.icity to livestocks.