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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Dec 1993
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Oct 1993
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Aug 1993
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Jun 1993
Volume 38, Issue 2 - May 1993
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Feb 1993
Selecting the target year
Effects of Leaf and Pod Removal on Assimilate Translocation in Soybean Plants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 377~382
Effects of leaf and pod removal on changes in dry weight and on the contents of soluble sugar, starch, protein and oil in leaves and seeds of soybean [Glycine max(L.) Merr.] cultivar ‘Hwangkeumkong’ were measured at the research farm of Korea University in 1992. The upper 40% and lower 60% of leaves and pods were subjected to treatments at the growth stage of beginning pod(R3). Upper leaf-lower pod removal showed the highest leaf and the lowest seed dry weights. Soluble sugar content was no different among treatments in leaves and seeds. The highest starch content was found in leaves of upper leaf-lower pod removal. Protein content was higher in lower leaves than upper leaves and the lowest in seeds of lower leaf-upper pod removal which had the highest oil content in leaves and seeds. These results apparently indicated that photoassimilates were mobilized from upper leaves to lower seeds, and protein sources were moved from lower to upper parts but weak in remobilization from leaves for the long distance translocation during the reproductive growth period.
Effect of Inabenfide and Nitrogen Top-Dressing on Ethylene Evolution and Lodging in Rice
Lee, Sang-Chul ; Takeshi, Tanabe ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 383~390
This experiment was carried out in the green house at Tokyo University of Agriculture in 1992 to investigate the relationship between lodging resistances and specific morphological characters and to examine the effects of nitrogen top-dressing and growth retardant on changes of the endogenous ethylene content in rice plant. Inabenfide did not affect significantly yield, yield component, chlorophyll content, and
assimilation but, decreasing plant height when growth regulators were applied at booting stage, decreasing internode elongation, and increasing culm thickness and diameter of the third and fourth internode. While, nitrogen top-dressing usually showed to effect increasing vegetative growth such as plant height, tiller number, and morphological characteristics but, were not significantly affected the chlorophyll content and
assimilation. Ethylene evolution was dramatically changed with nitrogen top-dressing and growth retardant. Application of Inabenfide at 15 days before heading inhibited ethylene evolution in the all nitrogen levels. Higher nitrogen top-dressing showed higher ethylene evolution than that of low nitrogen level. High positive correlation was detected between nitrogen application and ethylene evolution.
Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in Crop Plants II. Physiological Responses of Barley, Rye, and Italian Ryegrass Seedling to NaCl Concentration
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 391~397
Rye(Secale cereale cv. Chunchu), barley(Hordeum vulgare cv. Dusan 29#), and italian ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum cv. Barmultra) were treated at 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 % of NaCl solution for 30 days. Plant height, leaf length, and leaf area were decreased with increasing NaCl level, and leaf area was decreased mainly due to decrease of leaf length. Root length was decreased at higher NaCl levels, but root number was increased. Shoot dry weight was decreased by increasing NaCl levels in rye and italian ryegrass, but barley did not show significant change. Dry weight of root was more decreased than that of shoot at higher NaCl levels. Chlorophyll content was decreased, but electric contuctivty of shoots and roots was increased at higher NaCl levels. Na+ content in shoot and root was increased with increasing NaCl level but the degree was not same. Reducing power of roots was that three crops as affected by NaCl was not equal. Barley was the most tolerant to NaCl stress.
Growth of Rice Plant and Salinity under Different Flooding Times and Days to Transplanting after Submerged Rotary in Saline Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 398~404
This study was conducted in order to obtain the information for yield improvement in saline paddy. Saline concentration, growth and yield of rice, being subjected to different flooding times and days to transplanting were investigated in saline paddy with 0.35 % and 0.5 % salt concentration. Saline concentration of soil was increased to 0.41 % just after rotary in the paddy with 0.35 % salinity, but decreased to 0.20 % after 3 to 4 times of flooding treatment. And also that of surface water was decreased from 0.2 % to 0.11 %. Saline concentration of soil in 5cm depth was decreased to 0.31 % by one time flooding and to 0.22% by 3～4 times flooding but salinity below 7cm depth showed slight decrease. Seedling death was exceeded 37 % when transplanted one day after rotary in the paddy with 0.35% salinity. Death ratio was decreased to 20% by three times flooding and transplanting six days after rotary. In paddy with 0.5 % salinity, death ratio was high but the tendency was very similar to 0.35 % field. In 0.35 % saline paddy field, yields were increased by 14 % by three times flooding and transplanting six days after rotary as compared to one time flooding and transplanting are day after rotary. Therefore, 3 to 4 times flooding and transplanting 5 to 6 days after rotary are desirable in high saline paddy.
Effects of Different Water Depths on Early Growth of Rice and Barnyard grass(Echinochloa crus-galli)
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 405~412
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of water depths on seedling stand and early growth of califonia rice varieties, S201, M202, A301, Italico livorno and Korean variety, Hwaseongbyeo, and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) The coleoptile length of rice was longer with deep water depth while for the radicle length shorten. As water depth was increased, the percentage of seedling stand were decreased slightly in rice, while sharply increased in barnyardgrass. Plant height of rice with increasing water depth were longer, whereas that of barnyardgrass reduced significantly with weaker. Tiller number of rice and barnyardgrass were significantly reduced as water depth increased. Dry matter weight and healthy score of rice seedling at 35DAS were highest in 7.5cm water depth followed saturated moisture, 15, and 22.5cm water depth, while for barnyardgrass those were especially negatively affected by deep water depth. These results showed that the seedling stand and early growth of barnyardgrass was highly suppressed by deeper water levels compared with rice. Rice cultivars which are showes growth characteristics in deeper water levels at early growth stage were Italico livorno and S201 in Japonica / Indica.
Breeding Hybrid Rice with Good Quality and High Yield I. Breeding of Cytoplasmic-Genetic Male Sterile and Restorer Lines with Backgrounds of Korean Rice Varieties
Hak-Soo SUH ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 413~417
This study was conducted to breed various cytoplasmic genetic male sterile (CGMS) and restorer lines with backgrounds of Korean japonica rice varieties. The CGMS line BT-CMS was crossed with the restorer line AR-3. The fertile
was emasculated and crossed with the Korean japonica rice varieties of the early maturing Sobaegbyeo, Odaebyeo, Gwanagbyeo and Daeseongbyeo, and of the medium maturing Hwajinbyeo, Paldal, Suwon 224 and Iri 386, and of the late maturing Nagdongbyeo, Palkweng, Hwacheongbyeo and Milyang 97. Each of the three way cross
was segregated into fertile and sterile individuals. The sterile individuals in each cross were discarded and the fertile individuals were emasculated and backcrossed with the Korean japonica rice varieties. The same process was applied from BC
generation. In the
of each cross, the male sterile individual was crossed with the recurrent Korean japonica variety which was maintainer of male sterility. The male sterile lines of
were named as Sobaegbyeo R, Odaebyeo R, Gwanagbyeo R, etc. The fertile individuals homozygous in pollen fertility were selected from the
generation and named as Sobaegbyeo R, Odaebyeo R, Gwanagbyeo R, etc. Agronomic characteristics of the CGMS, restorer lines with backgrounds of Korean japonica, and the recurrent Korean japonica rice varieties grown in the field condition were compared. Culm length of the CGMS lines tended to be shorter than that of the recurrent parent, however no significant differences in heading date, panicle length and yield component were found among the CGMS, restorer and recurrent lines.
Breeding Hybrid Rice with Good Quality and High Yield II. Combining Ability of the Cytoplasmic-Genetic Male Sterile and Restorer Lines with Backgrounds of Japonica Rice, and Heterosis for Yield and Grain Quality of the Hybrid Rices
Hak-Soo SUH ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 418~424
In order to test combining ability of the cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile(CGMS) and restorer lines with backgrounds of Korean japonica rice varieties, diallel crosses were made among the early maturing CGMS lines Sobaegbyeo A, Odaebyeo A, Gwanagbyeo A and Daeseongbyeo A, and the restorer lines Sobaegbyeo R, Odaebyeo R, Gwanagbyeo Rand Daeseongbyeo R, and among the medium maturing CGMS lines Hwajinbyeo A, Paldal A, Suwon 224 A and Iri 386 A and the restorer lines Hwajinbyeo R, Paldal R, Suwon 224 Rand Iri 386 R, and among the late maturing CGMS lines Nagdongbyeo A, Palkweng A, Hwacheongbyeo A and Milyang 97 A and the restorer lines Nagdongbyeo R, Palkweng R, H wacheongbyeo Rand Milyang 97 R. The fourty eight combinations of the hybrids, their parents and the maintainers were grown in field condition in 1992. General combining ability, relative specific combining ability and relative combining ability for yield of the CGMS and restorer lines were tested. Combining ability of the CGMS lines Odaebyeo A, Iri 386 A, Nagdongbyeo A and Palkweng A, and of the restorer lines Odaebyeo R, Hwajinbyeo R, Hwacheongbyeo Rand Palkweng R was relatively high. Heterobeltiosis for grain yield over the better parent of the early maturing hybrids ranged from -17 % to 15%, and that of the medium maturing ones from -4% to 22%, and that of the late maturing ones from -46% to 30% respectively, Standard heterosis over the standard variety of the early maturing hybrids ranged from -13 % to 12 %, and that of the medium maturing ones from 0 % to 26%, and that of the late maturing ones from -38% to 26% respectively, Positive and negative heterosis for grain yield of the hybrid rices were observed depending on cross combinations, In the positive heterosis hybrids, number of panicles per hill and number of spikelets per panicle contributed mostly to grain yield, while in the negative heterosis hybrids, spikelet fertility and 1000 grain weight were closely correlated to grain yield. Amylose content of the hybrid rices, maintainer and restorer lines was mostly lower than 20 %, and alkali digestion value was higher than 6.0. Grain appearance of the hybrids tested was similar to the korean japonica rice varieties.
Temperature Effects at Different Growth Stages on Grain Filling in Winter Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 425~431
Temperature effects on the grain filling of winter barley(CV. Gangbori, Olbori and Suwon 18) were studied in controlled environments under three day /night temperature regimes (viz. 25/20, 20/15 and 15/10
) and at three stages of development, viz. Vegetative, spike development and grain filling stages. Physiological maturity times to the temperature regimes were observed at 53 to 57 days after heading at 15/10
, 43 to 45 days and 32 to 33 days at 20/15
, respectively. When plants were grown in 25/20
during the spike development stages, the number of spikes per plant and grains per spike decreased by 39% and 41% respectively compared with 20/15
of day / night temperature. The effect of high temperature on grain weight was not significant in all growth phases except post-anthesis where grain weight decreased by 30%. Therefore, the most important temperature effects were round during the spike development stages.
Agronomic Characteristics of Black Soybean Collections in Korea
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 432~436
The improvement of superior black soybeans could be accomplished through maintenance and use of black soybean collections. This experiment was carried out to select pure-line from the domestic black soybean genotypes, and survey some agronomic characteristics of the collections. Nine hundred and sixty five lines of black soybeans were collected in 197 locations on spring, 1991. Higher distribution was present in broad leaves, purple flower color and tawny pubescence color which were approximate to be 97, 90 and 98%, respectively. In pod color of black soybean collections, 60% was brown and 27% was light brown and 10% was dark brown. The 61 to 70 days were required for flowering in 61 % of the collections. Growing days of 51 % of black soybean collections ranged 121 to 130, and those of 37 % were over 131 days.
Seed Characteristics of Black Soybean Collections in Korea
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 437~441
The improvement of superior black soybeans could be accomplished through maintenance and use of black soybean collections. A collection of 965 black soybean lines currently grown by farmers was made in 197 locations on spring, 1991. This study was carried out to evaluate them as useful germplasm. Seed characteristics of black soybean collections were evaluated for black soybean breeding for seed quality. The 100-seeds weight of 929 black soybean genotypes were distributed from 6.9 to 48.1 gram. The maximum and minimum 100-seeds weight were derived from Chungnam and Jeonbuk province, respectively. l00-seeds weight was heavier in middle and late maturity group, as maturity was later, whereas no tendency was shown in early maturity group. Length, width and thickness of the collected black soybean seeds were 9.5
1.3mm and 7.3
1.2mm, respectively. Black soybean collections with yellow seed embryo was 72% and the others were green seed embryo.
Mutagenesis of Nodulation and Other Growth Characters with Ethyl Methanesulfonate in Soybean
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 442~448
The aims of the work were to examme the variability induced by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis of soybean plants, and to isolate mutants altered in nodulation and other growth characters. Seeds of two soybean cultivars, ‘Hwanggeumkong’ and ‘Baegunkong’ were treated with 30 and 50mM EMS(pH 7.0) for 6 hours and were planted directly in the field. Field emergency of
seed was averaged to be 61.0%, and frequency of plants with chlorophyll-deficient sectors of the first trifoliolate is about 0.7%. Regardless of varieties and does of EMS,
plant injury at harvest was present in plant height, pod and seed number per plant when compared to those of original-type soybean plants. The
variability of nodulation process induced by EMS treatment was found to be narrower than that of shoot dry weight. On the basis of the occurrence of chlorophyll-deficient plants, mutated cell frequency within
seed ranged from 5.3% to 84.2%, suggesting that mutation frequency on the
seed induced by EMS occurred partly and randomly regardless of varieties and doses of EMS. The putative mutant, which had more nodulation than original-type plant, was short in plant height. Sparse-nodulating soybean mutant was lower in leaf chlorophyll content and showed reduced growth.
Effects of Temperature on Leaf Emergence Rates and Phyllochron of Naked and Malting Barley
Kang, Young-Kil ; Ko, Koan-Su ; Kang, Bong-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 449~457
Three naked and three malting barley cultivars were grown at constant temperatures of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28
, and day/night temperatures of 6/2, 10/6, 14/10, 18/14, 22/18, 26/22 and 30/26
through the fourth leaf stage in growth chambers to determine the effects of the temperature on leaf emergence rate and phyllochron in naked and malting barley seedlings. The number of leaves per main stem was recorded daily from the first leaf stage to the fourth. At a given temperature, the emergence of new leaves was a linear function of time for all cultivars. There were no great differences in leaf emergence rate and phyllochron between constant and variable day/night temperature regimes except at 28
. Leaf emergence rate and phyllochron significantly differed among cultivars and among mean temperatures within cultivars. For all cultivars, leaf emergence rate per day increased parabolically with increasing mean air temperature until an optimum temperature was reached and then declined. There were no differences in the optimum temperatures for the leaf emergence rate per day among six cultivars, which ranged 20.1 to 21.5
. The leaf emergence rates at the optimum temperatures ranged 0.202 to 0.226 leaves / day for naked barley cultivars and 0.231 to 0.241 leaves / day for malting barley cultivars. As temperature increased, leaf emergence rate per GDD decreased exponentially and the phyllochron (GDD/leaf) increased exponentially. The mean of the phyllochron for six cultivars was 46.2 GDD at 4
and 129.3 GDD at 28
. These results suggest that the temperature and cultivar effects must be considered for prediction of leaf development in barley.
N Uptake and Assimilation of Barley Seedlings as Affected by N Availability, Temperature and Water Potential
Yong-Woong Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 458~465
Water culture experiments were carried out to elucidate the effects of N availability, temperature and water potential of culture solution on the uptake and assimilation of N and dry matter accumulation by barley seedlings. N assimilation and dry matter accumulation at 3 to 4 leaves stage in barley plants were maximized at about 3.4 % of N concentration in leaf. N assimilation by barley plants increased with increase of nitrate concentration up to 80ppm in the solution. Over this level nitrate began to accumulated in the leaves and stems proportionally to the N availability in culture solution. Nitrate reductase activity increased in parallel with the increase in the concentration of reduced N in leaves. N uptake by barley plants decreased markedly when water potential reduced below -2 bar or when temperature dropped below 5
. These results suggest that the basal application rate of N, 60kg per hectare, for the barley crop needs to be re-examined under the concept of N use efficiency with taking into consideration of temperature and soil N availability because about a half of N accumulated in the leaves of barley plant before wintering is known to be lost by winter killing of above-ground part of the plant.
Photosynthesis and Regrowth of Leaf in Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrid, Pearl Millet, and Barnyard Millet after 2nd Cutting
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 466~476
Field experiment was carried out to study the new and old leaf development and photosynthesis of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid 855F, pearl millet Suwon No.6 and barnyard millet in cutting and non-cutting plots from the 2nd cutting day(September, 17th). Leaf regrowth of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and pearl millet begun after the 2nd cutting day, except barnyard millet. Photosynthetic rate of new leaf blades in cutting plots reached to higher level than old leaf at 12th to 20th day after cutting(DAC). Stomatal density of leaf blade of each crop in non-cutting plot was observed higher pearl millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrid than barnyard millet. New leaf blade of each crop in cutting plot was showed complete development in stomata size, form and vascular bundles in 12th DAC. Non-structural carbohydrates(NSC) contents of stembase in sorghum-sudan hybrid which had 17 %, the highest among three forages decreased daily into 8th DAC and begun to increase from 20th DAC. But, those of pearl millet and barnyard millet in cutting plots were about 10 % at cutting day and inclined to decrease continuously into the 20th DAC and reached about 3～4% in 32nd DAC. These results showed that regrowth energy of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid was mainly dependent on non-structural carbohydrates of stembase until 12th DAC, but pearl millet had active lower leaves supported its regrowth by concurrent photosynthesis. As barnyard millet which did not reserve enough NSC, its regrowth fail to survive under low temperature. Also, late regrowth of rest two forage crops was delayed with decreasing daily temperature after mid-September.
Relationship between Tobacco Yield and Leaf Dry Weight at Different Growing Season
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 38, issue 5, 1993, Pages 477~482
The study was conducted to investigate the relationships between tobacco leaf yield and changes of leaf dry matters by tobacco growing season. In flue-cured tobacco, leaf yield was high significantly correlated with leaf dry matters from 50 days to 70 days after transplanting. In Burley tobacco, leaf yield was affected differently by the leaf dry matters according to the different growing season. High significant correlation was noted between yield and leaf dry matters at 70 days after transplanting, and having low significant correlation with leaf dry matters at 55, 60, 65 days after transplanting.