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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 1994
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Physicochemical Properties of Sugary-Endosperm Mutants in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 1~6
Some physicochemical properties of sugary rices were comparatively analyzed with the original cultivars, using Hwachung su-1, su-2, and Nampung su lines bred in Seoul Nat'l Univ., and EM 5 bred in Kyushu Univ. Sugary rice grains were smaller in width and thickness, and the relative dry weight of 1000 grains of sugary rices ranged from 49% to 72%, compared to normal ones. No distinct starch granules were found in endosperm of sugary rices exposured by SEM, with structural variations between Hwachung su-1 and su-2 lines. Sugary rices showed the significant increases in sucrose, glucose and fructose content, especially much higher in sucrose content showing 5.84-8.79%, in comparison with the normal ones, 1.11∼2.65%. However, sucrose and total sugar content varied within sugary lines carrying the same sugary gene, and were significantly lower in Hwachung su-2. Sugary rices, except Hwachung su-1, showed the same or lower ADV and harder gel characteristics, compared to normal ones. Protein and lipid content were much higher in sugary rices, due to the increased relative proportion of aleurone layer in brown rice caused by thicker aleurone layer than in normal rices and the reduction of endosperm part. However, there were no remarkable changes in amino acid and fatty acid compositions.
Rapid Evaluation of Chemical Components of Rice Grain Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 7~14
This study was conducted to establish the rapid evaluation method of chemical components of rice grain on the basis of non-destructive method. A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic(NIRS) method was utilized, for the determination of amylose, protein, magnesium, and potassium content of rice. A multiple linear regression analysis for the data obtained by standard laboratory methods and NIRS method was carried out to make a calibration. The standard error of prediction for amylose, protein, magneisum and potassium content were 0.88%, 0.28%, 12.62mg and 10.79mg, respectively. It was concluded that the NlRS method can be useful the rapid determination of amylose, protein, magnesium and potassium content instead of the existing laboratory method.
Varietal and Locational Variation of Grain Quality Components of Rice Produced n Middle and Southern Plain Areas in Korea
Soo-Yeon Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 15~26
To understand the relative contribution of varietal and environmental variation on various grain quality components in rice, grain appearance, milling recovery, several physicochemical properties of rice grain and texture or palatability of cooked rice for milled rice materials of seven cultivars(five japonica & two Tongil-type), produced at six locations of the middle and southern plain area of Korea in 1989, were evaluated and analyzed the obtained data. Highly significant varietal variations were detected in all grain quality components of the rice materials and marked locational variations with about 14-54% portion of total variation were recognized in grain appearance, milling recovery, alkali digestibility, protein content, K /Mg ratio, gelatinization temperature, breakdown and setback viscosities. Variations of variety x location interaction were especially large in overall palatability score of cooked rice and consistency or set- back viscosities of amylograph. Tongil-type cultivars showed poor marketing quality, lower milling recovery, slightly lower alkali digestibility and amylose content, a little higher protein content and K /Mg ratio, relatively higher peak, breakdown and consistency viscosities, significantly lower setback viscosity, and more undesirable palatability of cooked rice compared with japonica rices. The japonica rice varieties possessing good palatability of cooked rice were slightly low in protein content and a little high in K /Mg ratio and stickiness /hardness ratio of cooked rice. Rice 1000-kernel weight was significantly heavier in rice materials produced in Iri lowland compared with other locations. Milling recovery from rough to brown rice and ripening quality were lowest in Milyang late-planted rice while highest in Iri lowland and Gyehwa reclaimed-land rice. Amylose content of milled rice was about 1% lower in Gyehwa rice compared with other locations. Protein content of polished rice was about 1% lower in rice materials of middle plain area than those of southern plain regions. K/Mg ratio of milled rice was lowest in Iri rice while highest in Milyang rice. Alkali digestibility was highest in Milyang rice while lowest in Honam plain rice, but the temperature of gelatinization initiation of rice flour in amylograph was lowest in Suwon and Iri rices while highest in Milyang rice. Breakdown viscosity was lowest in Milyang rice and next lower in Ichon lowland rice while highest in Gyehwa and Iri rices, and setback viscosity was the contrary tendency. The stickiness/hardness ratio of cooked rice was slightly lower in southern-plain rices than in middle-plain ones, and the palatability of cooked rice was best in Namyang reclaimed-land rice and next better with the order of Suwon
Milyang rices. The rice materials can be classified genotypically into two ecotypes of japonica and Tongil-type rice groups, and environmentally into three regions of Milyang, middle and Honam lowland by the distribution on the plane of 1st and 2nd principal components contracted from eleven grain quality properties closely associated with palatability of cooked rice by principal component analysis.
Varietal and Locational Variation of Grain Quality Components of Rice Produced in Hilly and High Altitude Areas in Korea
Soo-Yeon Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 27~37
To catch the relative importance of varietal and environmental variation in various grain quality components associated with palatability of cooked rice, grain appearance, milling recovery, several physicochemical properties of milled rice and texture or eating quality of cooked rice for rice materials of five japonica cultivars, produced at four locations of the mid-mountainous and alpine area of Korea in 1989, were evaluated and analyzed the obtained data. Highly significant varietal and locational variations were detected in 1000-grain weight, amylose content, K/Mg ratio, gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown and setback viscosities as compared with variety x location interaction variation. Also, marked locational variations were recongnized in milling recovery from rough to brwon rice, alkali digestibility and protein content, and significant varietal variation was caught in stickiness /hardness ratio of cooked rice. The variety x location interaction variation was especially large in quality components of grain appearance and ripening, palatability of cooked rice and consistency viscosity. One thousand kernel weight was heaviest in Jinbuolbyeo and Odaebyeo, and the unfilled grain ratio was lowest in Jinbuolbyeo. Odaebyeo showed slightly' lower ratio of intact and clear milled rice because of more chalky rice kernels compared with other cultivars. Amylose content of Jinbuolbyeo and Sobaegbyeo was about 1% lower than that of others and K/Mg ratio of Odaebyeo was the lowest one among rice materials. Odaebyeo, Sobaegbyeo and Jinbuolbyeo revealed significantly low gelatinization temperature and setback viscosity while high peak and breakdown viscosities. Cholwon rice showed the greatest kernel weight, good grain filling but lowest ratio of intact and clear milled rice while Jinbu rices exhibited the highest milling recovery from rough to brown rice and ratio of sound milled rice. Amylose content of milled rice in Jinbu rices was about 2-3% lower than those in other locations. Protein content of polished rice was about 1% lower in rice materials of middle zone than those of southern part of Korea. K/Mg ratio of milled rice was highest in Jinbu rice and potassium content was slightly higher in the rice materials of middle region than in those of southern region. Alkali digestion value and gelatinization temperature of polished rice was markedly high in Jinbu rices as compared with other locations. Breakdown viscosity was hightest in Chlown rices and next higher with the order of Hwaso>Unbong>Jinbu rices, and setback viscosity was the quite contrary tendency with breakdown. The stickiness /hardness ratio of cooked rice was relatively higher value in Cholwon rices than in the others and the palatability of cooked rice was a little better in Unbong and Cholwon rices than in Jinbu and Hwaso rices, although variety x location interaction variation was large. The rice materials can be classified largely into two groups of Jinbu and the others by the distribution on the plane of 1st and 2nd principal components (about 60% of total informations) contracted from twelve grain quality properties closely associated with eating quality of cooked rice. Also, Jinbu and the other rices were divided into two and three rice groups respectively. Varietal variation of overall rice quality was smallest in Hwaso. The most superior rice group in overall quality evaluation included Odaebyeo produced at Cholwon, Unbong and Hwaso, and Sobaegbyeo grown at Unbong
Grain Quality Characteristics for Brewing in Rice
Jae Kil Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 38~44
The study was conducted to investigate some grain quality characters related with brewing fittness for rice wine by adopting eight rice varieties as materials. Six japonica rice varieties except two Tongil-type rice had short and round grain of 1.80 or lower grain length/width ratio. 1000-grain weight of brown rice was 21.7~29.5g of significant difference among varieties. The white-center of rice grain was most severe in Hidahomare and Iri 402. Among tested varieties, Seomjinbyeo, Iri 402, Dongjinbyeo and Hidahomare had 50% or higher head rice ratio, while the others had relatively worse milling properties resulted from higher ratio of notched-belly and broken grain. Chemical components and total acid and amino acid content of refined rice wine was relatively good in every variety. Liquifying and saccharificating power was higher and koji conditon was also good in the varieties of high head rice ratio. Seomjinbyeo, Dongjinbyeo and Iri 402 was preferred in sensory test of refined wine and was recognized as superior adaptable rice varieties for brewing rice wine.
Varietal Variation of Cooking Quality and Interrelationship between Cooking and Physicochemical Properties of Rice Grain
Kwang-Ho Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 45~54
Cooking characteristics of ninety five non-glutinous and twenty six glutinous varieties were checked for understanding the varietal variation and interrelationship between the cooking and physicochemical properties of rice grain. The greatest variation in non-glutinous and glutinous rice varieties was observed in iodine blue value and the next large variation was recognized in amount of soluble solid in cooking water. Average values of volume expansion rate, iodine blue value and amounts of soluble solid in cooking water were different among domestic-bred japonica, Korean local and foreign rice varieties. Korean-bred japonica rice cultivars can be classified into several groups having same cooking quality such as <Jangan.·Seoan>, <Jinmi·Ilpum· Daeseong>, <Seohae·Namwon·Yeongduk>, <Chucheong·Bongkwang>, <Odae·Keumo> and <Hwacheong·Donghae·Palgong> by the distribution on the plane of 1st and 2nd principal components contracted from four cooking characteristics. Glutinous rice cultivars can be grouped into several different cooking quality types such as <Nonglimna 1·Suwon 357·Jodo·Inbujinado>, <Sangnambatbyeo·Jeokdo>, <Mujudo·Daigol-mochi>, <Daegoldo·Jindo>, <Jinbuchal·Colored Daegoldo>, <Shinseonchal·Hung-Tsan> and <Agudo·Irakdo> by the same analysis. Positive correlation was found between volume expansion rate and water absorption rate at 21℃. Iodine blue value was correlated negatively with amounts of soluble solid, and positively with amylose content in non-glutinous rices. In glutinous rices volume expansion rate showed positive relationship with iodine blue value, amounts of soluble solid and gel consistency. Iodine blue value was also positively correlated with alkali digestion value in glutinous rice.
Starch Content and Its Associated Grain Characters in Naked Barley
Je-Cheon Chae ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 55~62
The germplasms of naked barley evaluated for starch content were 137 crossing blacks and progeny lines obtained from the breeding program of the Wheat and Barley Research Institute, 540 Tabdong Kwonsungu Suwon, in the 1988/1989 season. Starch content was distributed between 49.15 and 62.50% with a mean of 57.20%. It was high in the bred lines and the Uz type lines than the imported, uz type or lax type ones. The range observed for seed coat weight was 1.12-3.02mg and the mean seed coat weight was 1.88mg. The seed coat weight ratio to kernel weight was measured between 4.0 and 8.7% with a mean of 6.5%. The varieties differ greatly in the characteristics depending on the plant type and origin of germplasms. The variation observed with protein content ranged from 9.60 to. 15.90% while the average was 12.86%. Starch content was negative relationships with kernel weight, seed coat weight, seed coat weight ratio., kernel width, kernel thickness and protein content, and starch content was higher in smaller kernels within a variety. The weight and weight ratio. of seed coat were positively correlated with the width, thick-ness of kernels, whilst they were negatively correlated with starch content. The heritability of starch content was 30.0%.
Cooking and Milling Characteristics of Several Barley Starch Isogenic Lines
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 63~72
The relationships among the endosperm structure, physicochemical characteristics and cooking and milling properties were examined in this study by using the isogenic lines which have the same genetic background except starch characteristics. The isogenic lines were bread by combining three pairs of genes, of waxy or non-waxy, fractured or round starch granule, and shrunken or plump endosperm. Although grains weight and chemical compositions of the endosperms did not differ widely, but cooking qualities, amylose contents,
-glucan viscosities were significant differences between isogenic types. Water absorptions and expansibilities were highest in waxy lines, and lowest in fratured starch granular lines; the smaller the seed sizes were, the higher the water absorptions were. Mixogram pattern of cooked barley varied with the starch properties and milling properties were excellent in fractured granular lines, whereas those properties of the waxy and shrunken endosperm lines were not good.
Changes of Major Quality Characters during Grain Filling in Waxy Corn and Super Sweet Corn
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 73~78
This experiment was carried out to investigate the major characteristics associated with the flavor rate and their changes according to days after silking of super sweet corn(Cocktail 86) for vegetable and waxy corn(Chalok 1). Ear elongation finished around 22∼24 days after silking. In kernel development, elongation was much more prominant in super sweet corn than that in waxy corn but thickness was vice versa. Pericarp thickness and kernel hardness of super sweet corn were slightly increased but those of waxy corn were increased rapidly as the ears matured. Moisture and sucrose content of super sweet corn remained high but the waxy corn was not. The reducing sugars(glucose, fructose) were relatively high at the early maturity stage but they were decreased as the ears matured and negatively correlated with sucrose and flavor rate. Soluble solids (Brix %) were positively correlated with sucrose and total sugar(sucrose+ glucose+fructose) content in waxy corn but not in super sweet corn and was considered as inappropriate criate criterion to envaluate the sugar content and flavor rate. Pericarp thickness and sucrose content were positively correlated with the flavor rate in both hybrids but total sugar content, and kernel hardness were positively correlated with flavor rate in super sweet corn and waxy corn respectively.
Changes of Sugar Content by Different Storage Durations in Sweet Corn and Super Sweet Corn
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 79~84
Sweet corn hybrid GCB 70 and super sweet corn hybrid NES were cultivated at vinyl tunnel in 1991 to determine the physiologically optimum harvest time for higher eating quality and sugar contnent of kernel by eat parts after silking and stored in refrigerator of 4
and in the air. The development of ear increased continuously from silking to 30th day after silking, and sugar content was the hightest on 15th day after silking. The physiologically optimum harvest time for GCB 70 and NES was about 15~20th day and 20~25th day after silking, respectively. The sugar content of kernel by ear parts for two hybrids were high in order of basal, middle and top parts of the ear and showed significant differences among the parts of the ear. Changes of total sugar content during the storing period at 4
for NES was almost the same by 9th day, but for GCB 70 rapidly decreased from 3rd day. The content of sucrose, glucose and fructose in super sweet corn NES were much higher than those of sweet corn GCB 70, but the maltose content of NES was lower than that of GCB 70.
Changes of Chemical Components during Storage in Sweet Potato Produced at Two Locations
Seong-Geun Oh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 85~91
This experiment was conducted to obtain the basic information of the major chemical components for breeding high quality varieties of sweet potatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lamk]. Six recommended varieties were cultivated at the experimental plots of Hwasung and Suwon in 1992. Starch value. glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose content were analyzed with time intervals during storage period. Starch value of Shinyulmi was the highest among six varieties in both locations. Glucose and fructose contents were appeared wide variations in varieties and locations. Shinyulmi showed the highest maltose content and Yulmi had the highest sucrose content in two locations. Total sugar contents were higher in Shinyulmi and Yulmi. Starch value, glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose content were stable during storage period, however these were differed between locations.
Changes of Seed Chemical Component during Grain Filling in Job′s Tears
Jung-Il Lee ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 92~97
The reports on the chemical composition of developing job's tears seeds is very insufficient by this time. The purpose of this study was to obtain the fundamental information on chemical component of the developing job's tears seed, including starch, sugar, oil, protein, fatty acid, Alkali Digestibility Value(ADV), 100-grain weight. Two job's tears varieties in different by maturity types were analyzed for those components from 10 days after heading to maturity, with 5-day intervals. Total sugar content in seeds followed a pattern of linear increase after heading, but it started to decreased around 15 days after heading. On the other hand, starch content continued to increased until maturity and the highest increasing occurred between 15 and 20 days after heading. The protein content of seeds was decreased, while oil content was increased through the ripening process. Starch content showed a positive correlation with 100-grain weight, ADV, oil and germination percent, but it had negative correlation between total sugar and protein contents in ripening process. Maximum starch content, 100 grain weight, and germination percent obtained by quadratic equation were attained 38 to 43 days after heading. So that the physiological maturity of job's tears seeds was considered to be 40 days after heading.
Starch Content and Its Gelatinization Characteristics in Job′s Tears
Jung-Il Lee ; ; Kwang-Ho Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 98~102
This study was conducted to obtain basic informations on the starch quality improvement breeding of Job's tears. Starch, amylose, gel consistency and amylogram characteristics of seeds were investigated in 36 varieties of domestic and introduced Job's tears. Starch content was distributed between 50.9 and 78% with a mean of 60.5%. The variation observed in amylose content ranged from 0 to 7.2% with the average was 5.2%. Kangsanjong, Chujeonjong, Chungrijong showed medium gel consistency. However, many Job's tears tested showed soft gel consistency. Varietal differences of amylogram characteristics was also found at break down. In general, job's tear starch showed lower value of setback.
Nutrition, Utilization and Productivity of Pearl Millet Hybrids Developed in Korea
Keun-Yong Park ; Rae-Kyung Park ; Byeong-Han Choi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 1, 1994, Pages 103~114
Pearl millet is a
plant and summer crop originated from west Africa, and the sixth most important cereal in the world and the most widely cultivated millet in the semi-arid tropics as a major staple food crop. Its grain of higher quality protein is used to make unleavened bread chapatis and prepared as gruel, dumplings, couscous and beer. It is also used as animal feed and forage in both temperate and tropical regions because it has a capability to grow well not only in the fertile soil, but also in the poor and dry soil. Most of the current breeding procedures used in pearl millet are aimed at maximum exploitation of hybrid vigor for both grain and forage yields in Korea. Pearl millet is ideally suited for exploitation of heterosis using cytoplasmic male sterile lines as seed parent, and fertile inbred lines and open-pollinated cultivars as pollen parent. Pearl millet hybrids developed in Korea produced 3 to 7 tons of grain and 100 to 150 tons of green fodder per hectare.