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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 1994
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Sowing Method and Flooding Time at Furrow Sowing Culture of Rice in Paddy Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 205~210
This experiment was conducted to investigate of soil hardening degree before sowing, furrow depth at sowing and flooding time after sowing at furrowing in flooded rice paddy field that many people have an interest in as direct sowing method most recently. As hardening period was increased, the percentage of seedling stand and seed floating at flooding were increased slightly, while buried depth of stem at maximum tillering stage and cone penetration depth were decreased, respectively. Therefore, optimum degree of soil hardening was about 3 days after draining, at this time, cone penetration degree was about 6~7cm. According to furrow depth was more and more deep, buried depth of stem was increased gradually, but percentage of seedling stand was decreased considerbly. Also, root distribution ratio on surpace horizon and lodging degree were increased gradually according to furrow depth become more and more shallow. As flooding time after sowing was late, percentage of seedling stand and panicle number per
were decreased slightly. These results apparently indicated that sowing after 3 days hardening when cone penetration degree was 6~7cm, furrow depth 3~4cm degree and flooding time just after sowing the best method to good establish of seedling stand.
Change of Lipoxygenase Activity during Soybean Growth
Eun-Hui Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 211~215
Lipoxygenase is involved in the formation of certain undesirable flavors of soybean products. Three isozymes(L-1, L-2 and L-3) of lipoxygenase have been identified in soybean seeds, and the three types of mutants lacking L-1, L-2 and L-3, respectively, were detected in the 1980's. In this paper, lipoxygenase activity was measured to investigate the response of lipoxygenase in organs and tissues during soybean development. There was no tendency according to genotypes between lipoxygenase lacking mutants and normal soybeans in lipoxygenase activity of leaf at
stage. Likewise, pod wall lipoxygenase was no difference among genotypes tested at R
stage. Seed coat lipoxygenase activity was similar among the lipoxygenase lacking mutants, while normal soybean was lower as compared with that of the lipoxygenase lacking mutants. Embryo and cotyledon lipoxygenase activity in the lipoxygenase lacking mutants was much lower than that of normal soybean, also there was large difference among lipoxygenase lacking mutants. Thus, the lipoxygenase null mutant showed very weak value although the lacking L-3 mutant had a large effect on developing embryo lipoxygenase activity. It was suggested that soybean lipoxygenase isozymes expressed in embryo may be different from those expressed in the pod wall and leaf tissues.
Role of Awns and Leaves during Grain Filling Period in Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 216~222
Experiments were conducted in the research field of the former Wheat and Barley Research with three barley cultivars, Olbori, kangbori and Suwon 18, which show different growth characteristics. Relationships between the degree of grain filling and the functions of photosynthetic organs in grain growth post-anthesis were investigated by removal treatment of awns and leaves, Stems and leaf sheath contributed to final grain weight invariably with cultivars by 79.2∼81.4%. while the contribution rate of awns and leaf blades varied by different cultivars, Awns contributed by 11.6∼13.8% in 'Olbori' and 'Kangbori', and 5.4% in 'Suwon 18', Contribution of leaf blades was 15.4% for 'Suwon 18', and 4.8∼8.1% for other cultivars, Of leaf blades upper ones showed a higher contribution rate, Early-maturing cultivars which maintain leaf greenness to the late phase of grain growth or awned cultivars were considered advantageous in grain filling.
Effects of Water Stress on Nitrate Reductase Activity and Abscisic Acid Content in Soybean Plants
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 223~231
To investigate effects of water stress on leaf water potential, nitrate reductase activity and abscisic acid content, Paldalkong, Saealkong and Danyeobkong were subjected to water stress by polyethyene glycol(PEG, MW=6,000) in the water culture and withholding irrigation in soil culture. Leaf water potential and nitrate reductase activity decreased with increaseing of PEG concentration in the water culture. These were higher at 3rd and 5th leaf stage than at 1st leaf stage. Leaf water potential showed no significant differance among the varieties, but nitrate redutase activity was higher in Paldalkong than in Saealkong and Danyeobkong. Leaf water potential and nitrate reductase activity decreased approximately 2.2 times (-1.67 MPa/-0.75MPa) and 47%(3.1
mole nitrite/g.DW/hour) to control, respectively, after 3 days from water stress treatment in the soil culture. According to increasing PEG concentration, abscisic acid content increased in the water culture and was higher at 5th leaf stage than at 1st and 3rd leaf stage. Paldalkong showed the highest abscisic acid content. Abscisic acid content increased approximately 1.7 times (9.9nmole/g.DW/5.7nmole/g.DW) compared to the control after 3 days from water stress treatment in the soil culture.
Effect of Sowing Depth on Coleoptile Length and Plant Height of Barley, Wheat, Rye and Corn
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 232~236
The term underground stem is not used correctly as mesocotyle that is the first internode of barley, wheat and rye. Mesocotyle does not elongate and it remain in the seed in case of these crops. The elongated stem is second internode of these crops and not mesocotyle but rhizome or underground stem. The node on which the underground stem is attached is coleoptile node and coleptile is attached here. The objective of this study was to determine if the depth of sowing affect the coleoptile length and plant height. The deeper sowing caused the longer coleoptile length and plant height. Coleoptile length and plant height of 2cm depth of sowing showed significant difference with 6cm and 10cm depth of sowing in barley and wheat. Variation of these two characters were high in rye and corn because these crops were both heterogeneous due to out crossing. All the varieties of 4 crops showed significant correlation between coleoptile length and plant height. Chilbohomil showed highly significant correlation between two characters.
Physiological Characteristics and Diural Changes of Photosynthesis in Japonica and Tongil Type Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 237~244
To elucidate the physiological characteristics of 2 japonica type and 2 tongil type of rice cultivars, photosynthesis, respiration and diurnal changes of photosynthesis rate had been investigated 6 times at each growing stage. The ratios of photosynthetic part of tongil types were higher than those of japonica types at tillering stage. The highest photosynthetic activity was measured on August 1, before heading in each growing stage, and efficiency of photosynthesis showed its the highest on July 25. Diurnal photosynthetic curve at heading stage reached the peak at 11-12 AM, but after 2 weeks from heading stage, the peak apperred at 1-2 PM. Conversion of respiration into photosynthesis for
fixation started 30~60 minutes later than the standard sunrise time and reconversion for carborhdrate accmulation began 50~60 minutes earlier than the standard sunset time. Photosynthesis showed positive correlation with chlorophyll content and root activity. Harvest index of tongil type cultivars were significantly higher than those of japonica type cultivars.
Effect of Defoliation Interval on Regrowth and Morphological Characters in White Clover
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 245~255
Weak persistence of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under continuous grazing management has been limited its availability in the mixture with grasses. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of defoliation interval on the regrowth and morphological characters of the clover cultivars. Individual plants of Regal (large leaf), Grasslands Huia (medium-small leaf) and Aberystwyth S184 (small leaf) were grown in 15cm plastic pot containing a 1: 2: 1 soil:sand:Promix mixture for 55 days, and then clipped to remove all fully expanded leaves every 7, 14 or 28 days. For the analysis of the cultivar response, plants were sampled on the final harvest date(0), and 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after the final harvest date. Harvested dry weight of all cultivars declined as defoliation interval was increased, and that of Regal was the highest compared to the other cultivars. During the regrowing period, increase of total plant dry weight was due to that of leaf and petiole dry weight, and that of Osceola was greater than the others. Although total leaf area and mean single leaf area were increased during the regrowing period, they were reduced with increased defoliation interval and those of Osceola were the greatest until 14-days regrowth. S184 possessed the most number of leaves and Osceola did the longest petiole since 14-days regrowth although the more defoliation, the less nunber of leaves per plant and the shorter petiole. Stolon length and growing tips of all cultivars increased steeply during regrowth, while they were decreased with increased defoliation interval and those of S184 were the highest. More frequent defoliation had detrimental effects on regrowth of white clover, although larger leaf type was productive but less persistent in a mixture with grasses than smaller leaf type.
Effects of Topping Methods on Yield and Major Agronomic Characteristics in Hibiscus manihot L.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 256~261
To investigate the effects of topping method on the yield and major agronomic traits of three varieties differed in plant type of Hibiscus manihot the experiments were carried out Mokpo Branch Station of Crop Experiment Station, in 1993. Fresh weight of root, dry weight of culm, dry weight of capsule and dry matter ratio on root were highest in the long culmed variety, and at the plots with topping of growing point in main culm and branches(Treatment No.3). Considering from the above results, optimum topping method seemed to be topping of growing point in main culm and branches in the long culmed variety.
Growth Characteristics and Grain Yield of F
Hybrids, Their Restorers and Maintainers in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 262~269
This study was conducted to clarify high yielding factors of F
hybrids in terms of the growth characteristics, canopy structure, nitrogen content and nitrogen profile in the canopy. Varieties used in this study were four hybrid rices showing different heterosis in grain yield and their parents. Varieties of Japonica were Reimei (maintainer), TP 681 and TP 1278(restorers), and F
TP 681, Reimei ms
TP 1278) hybrid rices. Those of Indica type were 1378 (maintainer), Milyang 46 and Suweon 287(restorers), and F
Milyang 46, 1378 ms
Suweon 287) hybrid rices. High heterosis in F
hybrid rices were shown in panicles per hill and spikelets per panicle, being greatest in spikelets per panicle. Spikelets per square meter expressed even greater heterosis than those two yield components because of multiplicative effect of them. Heterosisof ripened concentration of leaf nitrogen and steeper gradient of leaf nitrogen in canopy strata but also better productive structure in favor of light interception seemed to have led to higher canopy photosynthesis of F
hybrids and subsequent higher partition of assimilates for leaf area expantion especially during vegetative growth stage. Higher dry matter production, resulting from these factors, during vegetative stage would have contributed to the production of greater number of spikelets per square meter, and consequently to higher grain yield in F
Change of Seed Dormancy at Different Storage Conditions in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 270~277
This study was conducted to investigate change of seed dormancy during storage in rice. The result of germination rate observed at different storage duration after harvest indicated that two Japonica rice varieties, Sangpungbyeo and Hwaseongbyeo, tow sare type local varieties, Jakwangdo and Mongeunsare, and a Tongil type rice, Samgangbyeo, showed no dormancy in rice seed harvested at 40 days after heading, However, weak dormancy was found in matured rice seed of Sobaekbyeo and Odaebyeo, and strong seed dormancy was found in Jungwonbyeo, IR-20 and IR-42. Rice seed stored for 30 days after harvest at 2
constant temperature or 25/15
of day /night temperature fluctuation showed higher germination rate above 90% in all varieties tested. But germination rate of seeds stored at 4
for 30 to 180 days showed varietal difference, higher in rice varieties having weak seed dormancy and lower in strong dormancy varieties. Days to 80% germination and average days for germination were shortened by storage for 30 to 180 days after harvest at 2
with RH 40% or day /night 25/15
temperature condition in all rice varieties tested, but the degree of acceleration was lower at the condition of 4
with RH 40%.
Seed Protein Quality of Soybean Mutants
Moo Hee, Yang ; Joe W, Burton ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 278~284
The sulfur amino acid composition in soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds may be an essential characteristic of new cultivars for some animal diets. Variation in seed storage protein among genotypes might make it possible to improve the quality of seed protein by genetically altering seed storage protein composition through plant breeding. This study was carried out to determine if mutant strains have potential for improving seed protein quality in soybean. Ten mutant strains had a distinct characteristic of seed storage protein subunits. Among the mutant strains, the sulfur amino acid compositions(methionine plus cystein) of Keburi(P.I.417016), Keburi(P.I.506817), and P.I.54608-1 were relatively higher than those of the others and were 1.9, 2.1, and 1.8%, repectively, which might be due to low levels of
subunits of 7S protein. Therefore, it is concluded that the mutant strains, Keburi(P.I.417016), Keburi(P.I.506817), and P.I.54608-1 appear to be potential materials for a breeding program for improving sulfur amino acid composition, and the others also seem to be possible breeding materials for other uses.
Allelopathic Effect of Some Weed Species Extracts and Residues on Alfalfa
III-Min Chung ; Ki-June Kim ; Kwang-Ho Kim ; Joung-Kuk Ahn ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 285~294
Dried top and root extracts of seven different weed species, fresh top and root extracts, and various concentrations of extract (0, 5, 10 and 15%, W/V) and residue rate (0.0, 0.25. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%) of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.) were used to study their allelopathic effects on alfalfa in the laboratory and greenhouse. Top and root aqueous extracts of common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.), giant foxtail (Setaria faberii Herrm), redroot pig-weed (Amaranthus retroflexus L), velvetleaf, large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L), canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L.) and prostrate knotweed (Polygonium aviculare L.) significantly inhibited germination, seedling length, weight, and vigor in alfalfa. Top growth extracts of weeds exhibited greater allelopathic effects than root extracts. Alfalfa test species, WL-320, responded significantly different to the various weed species extracts in terms of allelopathic effect. The regression slopes of various top extracts showed significant variation with respect to germination percentage. Velvetleaf (b=3.69) extracts were the most inhibitory, while large crabgrass (b=2.39) extracts had the least allelopathic effect on alfalfa. When compared the activity of fresh velvetleaf extract to that of dry velvetleaf extract, dry extract was more inhibitory to alfalfa germination and seedling growth. Germination, seedling length and weight of alfalfa were inversely proportional to the concentration of dried velvetleaf extracts. Seedling emergence and survival percentage was inhibited by velvetleaf residue mixture treatment. Also, more of the toxic effects were observed from the dried top extracts, as compared to extracts from fresh top and root. These results demonstrate the allelopathic activity of different weed species extracts and suggest that weeds may affect crop growth and development due to the inhibitory effects of allelochemicals present in weed tissue.
Allelopathic Influence of Alfalfa and Vetch Extracts and Residues on Soybean and Corn
Ki-June Kim ; III-Min Chung ; Kwang-Ho Kim ; Joung-Kuk Ahn ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 3, 1994, Pages 295~305
Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the allelopathic potential of alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean and corn using various extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, w/v) and residue rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%, w/w). Aqueous extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and vetch (Vicia spp.) exhibited an allelopathic effect on soybean and corn seed germination, seedling length and weight. The degree of inhibition significantly increased as the aqueous extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts reduced soybean seed germination, seedling length and weight by 35%, 57%, 32% and 15%, 42%, 25% respectively, when compared to control. Corn germination, seedling length and weight was inhibited by 20%, 23%, 38% by alfalfa and 19%, 18%, 35% by 20% vetch extracts. Alfalfa and vetch extracts inhibited secondary root formation and branching as the extract concentration increased. Alfalfa and vetch 20% extracts inhibited by 41% and 32% secondary root numbers, respectively as compared to control. It was found that the aqueous extract of alfalfa resulted in greater reduction in germination, seedling length and weight of soybean than that of vetch. Alfalfa and vetch 1% residue rate inhibited soybean plant height by 30% and 10%, leaf area by 31% and 23%, and dry weight by 18% and 1%, nodule number by 27% and 20% also. Alfalfa and vetch residue significantly enhanced plant height, leaf area and dry weight of corn. The maximum stimulation occurred with 0.25% and 1% of alfalfa and vetch residue rates, respectively. Plant height, leaf area, and dry weight increased by 23%, 59%, 58% and 17%, 52%, 94% with alfalfa and vetch residues of 0.25% and 1%, respectively. This study demonstrates that there is an allelopathic potential resulting from alfalfa and vetch residues on soybean growth and yield. It also suggests that these residues may affect crop growth and development due to the inhibitory or stimulatory effects of allelochemicals existing in the residue.