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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 6 - Dec 1994
Volume 39, Issue 5 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Aug 1994
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Jun 1994
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Apr 1994
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Feb 1994
Selecting the target year
Optimum Number of Seedling Stands of Rice for High Yield in Direct Water-Seeded Culture
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 405~411
This study was carried out to determined the optimum seeding rate and number of seedling stands per unit area for high yield with two varieties of rice, Nakdongbyeo (Japonica type) and Samgangbyeo (Indica x Japonica type), in direct water-seeded rice culture at Crop Experiment Station. Seeds coated with
after germination were sowed at May 4 in 7 levels, such as 1.6, 1.8, 2.1, 2.7, 3.5, 4.0, 4.3kg /10a, and the number of seedling stands per square meter was adjusted to be 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 plants, respectively. The maximum number of tillers increased as the seeding rates increased, but the ratio of effective tillers decreased. The critical dates of effective tillering of tested varieties were delayed by the lower seeding rates, and the date was June 18 at the plot of seeding rate with 3.5kg /10a. The number of panicles per unit area increased in accordance with the increased seeding rates. The number of spikelets per panicle in Nakdongbyeo was not affected by the seeding rates, but in Samgangbyeo it decreased as the seeding rate increased. The optimum number of seedling stand per square meter appeared to be 78 in Nakdongbyeo and 120 in Samgangbyeo, respectively. It meant that the optimum seeding rates for Nakdongbyeo and Samgangbyeo were about 2.7 and 4.0kg /10a, respectively.
Changes of Chemical Composition in Hybrid Seed during Germination and Seedling Growth of Hybrid Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 412~419
This study was carried out to investigate changes of chemical composition in seed, germination percentage, and seedling growth of two F
hybrid rices(V20A/Cheongcheongbyeo, IR62829A/Cheongcheongbyeo) during germination compared with their parents (V20B, IR62829B and Cheongcheongbyeo) and check variety(Samgangbyeo). F
hybrid rice showed higher content of free amino acid, inorganic elements, (
O, MgO) and total sugar, and higher a-amylase activity in brown rice than those of their parents and check variety during germination. Therefore
hybrid rices showed hybrid vigor in germination percentage at 33 hour and 48 hour after sowing.
Hybrid rices also showed /heterosis in seedling growth was different between V20A/Cheongcheongbyeo and IR 62829A/Cheongcheongbyeo. There were positive significant correlation between a-amylase activity and germination percentage, and seedling growth.
Changes of Seed Moisture Content and Quality during Grain-filling in Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 420~425
Soybean seeds deteriorate even before harvest, especially under high temperature and high relative humidity conditions. This study was conducted to determine the effect of harvest date on seed quality in early maturing soybean cultivars. Soybean cultivars used in the experiment were Damyang-native, having small seed with yellow color, and Yuhsuzumi, having large seed with green color. The length of physiological maturity to grain harvest was 24 days in Yuhsuzumi and 8 days in Damyang-native. The moisture contents of seed were 25.3 % in Yuhsuzumi and 14.5 % in Damyang-native cultivar when pod reached its mature pod color. The seed color of Yuhsuzumi started to turn yellow, and its germination rate was greatly decreased when harvest was delayed after maturity, However, Damyang-native cultivars produced seed of high quality regardless of delayed harvest.
Influence of Seedling Weight on Agronomic Characters and Their Relation with Bolting in Angelica gigas Nakai
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 426~430
To establish the proper size of seedling of A. gigas, different weight of seedlings were used for this study. Agronomic characters including plant height, number of leaf, leaf length, number of inflorescence, fresh weight and rate of bolting of the aerial parts, root length, root diameter, number of lateral root and root weight of the underground parts were determined and correlation coefficients among them were estimated. Growth of A. gigas showed the significant vigor for all the characters of the aerial parts along with increasing of seedling weight, but root weight in yield decreased in proportion to increasing of seedling weight due to lignification of the root tissue. When the smaller seedlings were transplanted, bolting rates decreased to about 16% as compared with the traditional size of seedlings. Correlation coefficients between aerial and root characters in A. gigas were negative, and the characters such as plant height, number of leaf, number of inflorescence and fresh weight per plant showed highly significant correlation with the rate of bolting which is one of the characters having great influence on yield.
Effects of Sowing Date and Cutting Time on Growth and Dry Matter Yield of Rye in Paddy Field
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 431~436
The objective of experiment was to investigate the effects of sowing dates on forage yield and growth characteristics of rye in paddy field cultivation in midwest region of Korea. The field experiment treated with 5 levels of sowing dates was carried out at Yesan from october 1990 to june 1991. The field emergence rate and winter survival rate were decreased with delay in sowing dates by the days from sowing to emergence were took a long period of time. The crop growth rate were increased with early in sowing date. The fresh and dry weight of rye were increased with early in sowing date, but there was no significant differences between sowing date from Oct. 5 to Oct. 25. The highest fresh yield was obtained at flowering stage and the highest dry yield was obtained at milky stage. The ratio of leaf blade and leaf sheath in rye plant were decreased with earlier sowing date and delayed harvest, but the ratio of stem and inflorescence was vice versa.
Determination of Critical Early Seeding Date for Seedling Emergence in Dry-Seeded Rice Based on Statistical Analysis of Daily Mean Air Temperature in Korea
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 437~443
Appearance characteristics based on the daily mean air temperature (DMAT) were evaluated to obtain the fundamental data for the safety of dry-seeded rice under the local climatic conditions. The climatic data of 56 meteorological stations throughout Korea were applied for determination of the effective standard temperature at the emergence. The first appearance date at the DMAT 1
was found to be 20~30 days (standard deviation: 5~7 days) for year fluctuation and 4
30 days for regional change in Pusan and Taegwallyong. Mean appearance date of it, also, was 10 days earlier than that of its 80% chance. Seeding date at the early critical seedling emergence was April 11 for Suwon, March 31 for Kwangju, April 1 for Taegu and April 7 for Kangnung.
Agroclimatic Zoning Based on Critical Early Seeding Date in Dry-Seeded Rice Analyzed by Daily Mean Air Temperature
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 444~452
Early critical seeding date based on the appearance characteristic analysis was examined to obtain the fundamental data for the safty of dry-seeded rice under the local climatic conditions. The effective standard temperature at the early critical seeding date was applied for determination of the appearance date at the daily mean air temperature (DMAT) 13
. The first appearance date at DMAT 13
for 20 years('73~'92) was found to be 30~40 days (standard deviation:8 days) in year fluctuation. Mean appearance date of it, also, was 10 days earlier than that of its 80% chance. The first appearance date at DMAT 13
was April 26 for Suwon, April 14 for Kwangju, April 13 for Taegu and April 21 for Kangnung, and found to be 13 days in regional change between Suwon and Taegu. Thus agroclimatic characteristics based on the latitude and altitude would be analyzed systematically.
Root Yield and Saikosaponin Content in Local Strains of Bupleurum falcatum L.
Hyung-Soo Suh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 453~457
Six local strains collected in Korea and one cultivar (Samdo) introduced from Japan were applied for comparative cultivation to investigate growth characteristics, root yield potentials and saikosaponin contents of root in Bupleurum falcatum L. The one and two year old plants of the native local strains flowered in August 2~3 and July 16~18, respectively, whereas Samdo was late flowering type, being delayed by 18~32days and sustained the growth of above ground parts to the end of November. All the native local strains have similiar characteristics but Samdo was completely different in plant and root type. Local strain collected from Chunchon showed better in growth and root characteristics, consequently resulting high yield of dry roots and saikosaponin contents in both one and two year old plants. The average yield of two year cultivation system was 2.6 times high as 105Kg /10a, compared with that of one year.
Root vs. Shoot Genotype Effects on Growth Characters and Seed to Pod-Shell Ratio in Grafted Soybean Plants
Lee, Suk-Ha ; Seung, Yeul-Gue ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Hong, Eun-Hi ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 458~464
The partitioning of dry matter into seed and pod-shell is important because yield increase can be achieved by improving the distribution rate of assimilation products to seeds. The present study was undertaken to characterize whether the partitioning of dry matter into seed was shoot- or root-controlled through graftiong techniques. Self- and reciprocal-grafts were made among four soybean genotypes, which were 'Baekunkong', 'Suwon 168', and two local soybeans with black seed coat (hereafter referred to as the 'black soybean'), 'Kangleungjarae' and 'Keumleungjarae'. Self-grafted black soybeans showed lower ratio of seed to pod-shell dry wight than self-grafted Baekunkong and Suwon 168. Varying the shoot genotypes in grafts resulted in significant differences in growth characters as well as pod and seed dry weight per plant at physiological maturity. There were significant effects of shoot genotypes on the ratio of seed to pod-shell dry weight, indication that the partitioning of dry matter into seed and pod-shell should be shoot- rather than root-controlled. The grafts with large pod-shell dry weight tended to partition relatively smaller dry matter into seed than pod-shell.
Effect of Osmopriming on Rice Seed Germination in Low Temperature
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 465~472
To improve the germination performance of rice seeds under suboptimal temperature, osmopriming with PEG-6000 was examined. Optimal PEG-6000 concentration to improve germination was 20% PEG-6000 solution, and rice cultivars used in this experiment were Sinunbongbyeo, Gancheokbyeo, Dongjinbyeo. The water content of seeds after soaking for 60 hours in the PEG solution is similar to that of seeds after soaking for 24 hours in the distilled water. Germination performance of the soaked seeds in the PEG solution was higher than that of the soaked seeds in the distilled water or the control, especially under suboptimal temperatures. Electrical conductivity of the soaked seeds in the PEG solution was lower than that of the soaked seeds in the distilled water or the control, and total dehydrogenase activity of the soaked seeds in the PEG solution was higher than that of the soaked seeds in the distilled water or the control. SDS-PAGE results of soluble protein from the embryos of seeds primed differently showed darker band in the seeds soaked in the PEG solution than the seeds soaked in the distilled water or the control at the 68 KD region. Also, band patterns of peroxidase and esterase of embryos soaked in the PEG solution were darked than that of embryos soaked in the distilled water or the control at the Rf 0.94 and Rf 0.87, respectively.
Screening Method for Non-viable Seeds in Brassicaceae Vegetable Crops by Sinapine Leakage
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 473~479
A seed coating system was developed to screen non-viable seeds in the Brassicaceae. The crops studied were radish, chinese cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and brussel sprout. Sinapine leaked more from artificially deteriorated seeds than non-deteriorated seeds. Seed coating with cellulose was to trap the sinapine leakage in the non-viable Brassicaceae vegetable seeds. The seeds were first hydrated, then coated with cellulose powder to capture the leakage. Coated seeds were dried, then sorted two fractions-fluorescent seeds and non-fluorescent seeds under the UV light. The ratio of the fluorescent seeds were higher in bad seedlot than good one. The germination rate were increased 3∼35% by eliminating the fluorescent seeds in tested Brassica vegetable seeds. Sowing non-fluorescent seeds resulted in a greater percent normal seedling than non-coated seeds in all seedlots. The fluorescent seeds contained a high percentage of the dead and abnormal seedlings.
Seedling Growth and Morphology as Influenced by Removal of Cotyledon and Unifoliolate in White Clover
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 480~488
Low seedling growth rates of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) have been limited its good establishment to pastures. The experiment was done to determine the effect of removal of cotyledon and unifoliolate on the growth and morphological characters of contrasting white clover cultivars for 8 weeks after the treatment. Individual plants of cv. Regal (large leaf), Louisiana S-l (medium-large leaf), Grasslands Huia (medium-small leaf) and Aberystwyth S184 (small leaf) were grown in 10cm plastic pot containing a 2:1:1 soil:sand:peat moss mixture until the cotyledon or unifoliolate stage and then removed one (C1) or two cotyledons (C2) at cotyledon stage, and unifoliolate only (U), unifoliolate and one cotyledon (DC1) or unifoliolate and two cotyledons (DC2) at the unifoliolate stage. To measure the removal effect on biomass and morphological characters (leaf area, petiole and stolon lengths, growing tips and leaves), plants were sampled 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the treatment. Intact plants had greater biomass and morphological characters than removal-treated ones, Removal treatments at cotyledon stage, C1 and C2, were decreased more biomass and morphological characters than removal ones at unifoliolate stage while the severer cotyledon removal, the more reduction. Stolon length per plant and petiole length markedly inclined 6 weeks after the treatments although biomass and the other characters continuously did. Relatively large-leaved cultivar had more biomass, leaf area per plant and longer petiole than the other(s) but the reverse results were true in stolon length, growing tips and no. of leaves per plant. Biomass was linearly increased with increased leaf area but the earlier and severer removal, the less slope. The severer damage of cotyledon and unifoliolate had detrimental effects on the growth and aftermath establishment of white clover
Comparisons between Micro-Kjeldahl and Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Protein Content Analysis of Malting Barley Grain
Hyung-Soo Suh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 489~494
Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy(NIRS) has been used as a tool for the rapid, accurate, protein assay of malting barley. NIRS used in this study was filter type instruments, Neotec 102. The objective of this study was to obtain the best calibration equation, for the rapid, ease and accurate protein content analysis of malting barley using NIRS system. The optimum wavelength for protein content analysis used NIRS were 2095nm, 2095/1941nm, 2095/1941/2282nm, 2905/1941/2282/2086nm, respectively. Mean protein content with this calibration equation in NIRS analysis was 10.59%, while 10.60% in Micro-Kjeldahl one. The range of protein content in Micro-Kjeldahl was 8.66~12.66% and that in NIRS was 8.80~12.35%. When 18 other varieties produced in 1992 were analysed with 2095nm, 2095/1941nm, 2095/1941/2282nm, 2095/1941/2282/2086nm equation, standard deviation of difference (SDD)and standard error of performence(SEP) and
values were 0.47, 0.43, 0.95, respectively. Both the mean protein content by Micro-Kjeldahl and by NIRS was 10.25%. With this equation, analysied 31 varities produced in 1993, SDD and SEP and r values were 0.69, 0.67, 0.91, respectively, and that bias value was 0.65. In this analysis, mean protein content by Micro-Kjeldahl was 10.17% and by NIRS was 10.81%. The range of protein content in Micro-Kjeldahl was 7.58~14.29%, What that in NIRS was 8.63~13.93%. After adjusted bias in the best calibration equation, mean protein content of Micro-Kjeldahl was 10.17% and that of NIRS was 10.09%, without variance of SDD, SEP and r values.
Effect of Seeding Method and Flooding Time After Seeding on Seedling Establishment and Growth in Direct Drill Seeding Culture of Rice in Puddled Soil
Keun-Yong Park ; Dong-Sam Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 495~501
This experiment was carried out to investigate the proper seeding methed for direct seeding culture of rice in puddled soil at ill-drained paddy field. Mangeumbyeo was seeded on May 11 with drill seeder attached to cultivater, dibbling seeder attached to transplanter and power dust blower. And to determine the proper flooding time after seeding, Mangeumbyeo was seeded on May 7 and June 1 with drill seeder. Emergence ratio wasn't significantly different between drill seeder seeding and dibbling seeder seeding but emergence was very low with power dust blower. Working hour for seeding was shortened in the order of power dust blower, drill seeder and dibbling seeder, and these seeding methods saved the working hour remarkably compared with machine transplanting of infant seedling by omitting the procedures of raising seedling and transplanting. Lodging occurred slightly in all seeding methods. However, yield wasn't significantly different between machine transplanting of infant seeding and direct seeding culture in puddled soil except power dust blower. When field was flooded on seeding date, the emergence period was shortened, emergence ratio was increased and weed occurrence was decreased. Yield was highest when flooding was done on seeding date as the number of panicle per m
and the number of spikelets per m
were higher than any other flooding time.
Seedling Emergence of Dry-seeded Rice Varieties under Two Soil Moisture Regimes
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 502~511
Investigated were the relationships between plumule elongation characteristics and seedling emergence of 98 varieties including native, improved and red rice varieties of Korea, and varieties from U.S.A., Italy, Japan, etc. under proper and excess soil moisture regimes. Under excess soil moisture condition the seedling emergence and establishment rates were much lower in most of the varieties and the seedling emergence rates were delayed substantially in all varieties employed. The seedling emergence rates were lowest in dwarf and some semi-dwarf varieties showing poor plumule elongation under proper soil moisture condition. The seedling emergence and establishment rates were significantly correlated with the length of mesocotyl, coleoptile and incomplete leaf under both soil moisture regimes, and with the lower first and second internode length under excess soil moisture condition. Average emergence duration showed significant negative correlation with the length of mesocotyl, coleoptile and incomplete leaf under both soil moisture regimes and significant positive correlations with the first and third lower internode length. Based on the standardized partial regression analysis only the variations of mesocotyl and coleoptile length contributed significantly to the varietal difference in seedling establishment rate, and so did the variations of mesocotyl and incomplete leaf length to the varietal differences in emergence speed. In conclusion varieties with greater elongation characteristics of mesocotyl, coleoptile and incomplete leaf are desirable for higher and speedy seedling establishment in dry-direct seeding.
Productivity and Profitability for Direct Seeding Culture of Rice in Mid and Southern Regions
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 39, issue 5, 1994, Pages 512~518
One of most laborious work in rice farming is transplanting of rice seedling which has been required preparation of nursury bed and care of seedling during one month period. In this research, direct seeding in dry paddy(DS) was practiced to compare with traditional tansplanting(TP) in Suwon and Milyang. Growth stages in DS were delayed as its planting time was about 36 days later than TP. Heading stage of DS at Suwon was delayed about 15 days as compared to transplanting culture. Rice yield in DS was decreased 8.2%(Suwon) and 0.11%(Milyang), repectively. Working-hour saving in DS was about 34.0%(Suwon) and 54.0%(Milyang). Production cost of DS was decreased 19%(Suwon) and 29% (Milyang), repectively. Amount of rice production per a unit working-hour in DS could incresed 37%(Suwon) and 113%(Milyang) compared to that of TP, respectively. Therefore, DS was decreased little in rice yield, but it could save working hour and production cost, significantly. Warm region like Milyang had more advantage in DS than Suwon. But, DS needs varietal selection for better emergence in low temperature, and more research in weed control and water management.