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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 1995
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 1995
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
Selecting the target year
Flowering Response to Light Intensity and Night Interruption in Perilla
Keun-Yong Park ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 543~547
This study was conducted to light intensity and night interruption on leaf production in perilla. Using two cultivars ; og-dong and Yeup-sil. The present studies were conducted to investigate effect of the light intensity and night interruption for prolongation of vegetative growth by flowering inhibition in the National Honam Crop Experiment Station, R. D. A, Iri, Korea. The results are summarized as followes, varietal differences of days to flower initiation were not significant by the light intensity and night interruption, however differences of days to flower initiation light intensity or night interruption treatment were higly significant. Flowering of perilla was prolongated in high light intensity and in long night interruption. Between the factors treated flowering of perilla was more influenced by light intensity than night interruption. Days to flower initiation of perilla were light intensity(0.5∼1 Lux) in 30 mins night interruption, however 3∼10 light intensity in 60 mins night interruption and 30∼100 Lux light intensity in 10, 30, 60 mins night interruption treatment were not flowering. Plant height, leaf area and dry weight of perilla were the highest in 30∼100 Lux light intensity treatment than in the other treatments. The results would be avaliable establish year-round production methods for low cost of perilla leaf.
Effective Tillering Pattern and Grain Yield on Different Sowing Method in Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 548~555
This study was aimed to provide understanding on the eco-physiological response of barley tillers as affected by sowing method. Yield and yield contribution rates of tillers were investigated with the data of field experiments in the Honam Crops Experiment Station of Iri, Korea from October 1986 to July 1987. Narrow-seeding (each row placement 40cm
seeding width of each row 18cm), drill-seeding (20cm
5cm) and broadcasting on wide ridge (each ridge placement 120cm
ridge width 90cm) were applied to examine the effects of various sowing methods. Primary tillers such as mainstem, 1 and 2 produced ears in all treatments, but the ear from a secondary tiller of 11 was observed only in broadcasting on wide ridge. Drill-seeding was the highest in number of spikelet, grain and plump grain per ear, while narrow-seeding being the lowest. The plump grain yield per square meter was 679.8g in narrow-seeding, while drill-seeding and broadcasting produced more than narrow seeding by 28.7% and 16.8% respectively. The actual yields per l0a for sowing methods showed a similar pattern to plump grain yield per square meter in which the yield was 567.6kg by narrow-seeding and the increments of drill-seeding and broadcasting were 30.6% and 15.4%, respectively.
Endogenous Rhythms of
Assimilation, Stomatal Conductance and Soluble Carbohydrate Concentration during Grain Filling in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 556~561
Persisent circadian rhythms in carbon assimilation, stomatal conductance and soluble carbohydrate concentration were investigated during grain filling period in rice plant transferred from a natural photoperiod to constant conditions. A weak rhythm in photosynthesis, measured as carbon assimilation, and stomatal opening, as conductance to water vapor, with a period of approximately 24-hours, occurred under constant condition. Carbon assimilation and stomatal conductance reached maximum values near noon and minimum values near midnight during the early stage (until 72-hour) after transferring to constant condition, and then the amplitude and phase were changed slowly, the rhythms with little damping, reaching maximum values near midnight and minimum values near noon during 96~120-hours after transferring. However, photosynthesis in plants grown for 14days after anthesis under constant moderate light(day and night) did not oscillated in constant condition unlike plants grown under a cycle of light and darkness. These phenomenon was observed in soluble carbohydrate concentration in flag leaves as well. Evidences from several approaches indicate that endogenous rhythms of
assimilation, stomatal conductance and soluble carbohydrate concentration are closely couped with each other and particularly important to plants, which depend on the natural day-night cycle as a external signal.
Changes of Rice Yields and Soil Chemical Properties in 5-Year Direct Seeding on Dry Paddy after Barley
Soon-Chul Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 562~568
Changes in rice yield and soil chemistry of dry seeded rice in double cropping of rice and barley were investigated at National Yeongnam Agricultural Experiment Station during 5 years (1990-1994). Barley straw added or removed dry seeding had safe rice seedling stand for good rice production. However, the coefficient of variation of seedling stand by year was higher than dry seeding in rice single crop. Rice seedling height was slightly reduced by barley straw incorporation. However, it recovered soon as rice growing progressed. Heading time delayed 4 days in flat seeding method but not in high-ridged seeding method which imply that. this is more safe seeding technology than flat seeding method. Comparing to rice single crop, barley straw added dry seeding increased rice yield by 2∼19%(Average of 5 years: 8%) from second year due to higher panicle and spikelet number. Contents of organic matter was 2.71% in 1990. In 1994, it decreased 2.61% for rice single crop, while increased 3.02% and 3.41% for barley straw removed or added field, respectively. Rice grain quality was not significantly different among cropping patterns.
Growth and Yield of Azukibean Seed from Virus-infected Plant
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 569~573
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Azukibean seeds gained from virus-infected plant on the growth and yield of the next generation. In conventional cultivation, plants showed high infection rate, whereas plants in isolation cultivation showed normal growth without virus-infection. It was considered that virus-infection of Azukibean(variety Chungjupat) occurred not because of seed infection but because of insects-vector in growing period. And thread-shaped virus particles were observed in diseased leaf showing mosaic through electron microscope.
Influence of Midsummer Drainage on Growth and Lodging of Rice in Direct Seeding on Dry Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 574~579
To investigate the effect of the midsummer drainage method on growth and lodging characters, Dongjinbyeo was direct seeded on dry paddy field under 4cm of soil depth at May 1 by seeding machine. Three kind of drainage methods were treated such as, once in 20day, towice in 20, 30 days and 3 times 20, 30, 40 days after flooding. As increase the drainage times, the culm and internode length were shorter, culm wall of 4th internode was thicker, breaking weight was heavier, height of center weight was lower, lodging index was reduced, and dry weight of root was increased. Field lodging occured seriously at none drainage but didn't, with two or three times of drainage. Grain yield was not shown significantly different compared with constant flooding irrespective of midsummer drainage times. Therefore two or three times of midsummer drainage could be recommended as the effective water management for the reduction of lodging occurance in direct seeding culture on dry paddy field.
Effect of Soil Temperatures on Seedling Emergence in Direct Seeding on Dry Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 580~586
Soil temperatures at depths of 1~5cm are important to the germination and emergence of dry seeded-rice. An automated weather station was used to monitor the hourly weather parameters at Experiment Farm, Kyung Hee University from April 21 to May 30 in 1994. The data was analyzed to figure out the 24-hour temporal changes in air 1.5m above ground and soil temperatures under ground of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20cm. The fluctuations of soil temperature were greatest at the soil surface and decreased with increasing depth. Mean soil temperatures at depth of 2.5cm were about 3
higher than mean air temperatures during the observation period. Although mean soil temperatures at depth of 2.5cm during 10 or 15 days after April 21, May 1 and May 11 showed almost same temperatures, the distribution patterns of temperature regime were different from each other. Rice cultivars, Hwasung, Seohae, Nampung, IR60 and CR155, were seeded at depth of 2.5cm on April 21, May 1 and May 11, respectively. The periods of seedling emergence(PSE) varied in accordance with cultivars and seeding dates. PSE was correlated with accumulated daily mean air temperatures and accumulated hours classified by temperature regimes.
Growth and Aromatic Constituents of Wild and Domesticated Codonopsis lanceolata Grown at Two Different Regions
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 587~593
Growth characteristics and aromatic constituents of wild and domesticated Codonopsis lanceolata grown in different regions were investigated to find the best cultural condition for quality improvement. The results were as followings: Air temperature of wild region was lower to 4~8 and soil temperature was also lower to 3 compared with domesticated region. Soil of wild region had about three times richer organic matter with lower pH. Chromosome number of wild and domestcated species was 2n=16, ovary number was 3, but seed number of wild species was 132 vs domesticated showing 62. Recovery yield of wild species grown wild region had 0.55%, besides that, the wild species grown in domesticated region had 0.34. But the domesticated species in wild and domesticated regions was the same as 0.28. Inorganic element contents of domesticated region showed much higher than that of wild region. Major aromatic constituents were specified in wild Codonopsis lanceolata as dimethyl benzene, 3-ethyl-5-2-(ethylbutyl)-octadecane, benzaldehyde, 14, 14-dimethyl-hexadecanoate, methylhexadecenoate of which was not detected in domesticated species.
Physiological Response of Soybean under Excessive Soil Water Stress during Vegetative Growth Period
Yong-Woong Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 594~599
Generally, excessive soil water stress in vegetative growth stage inhibits the growth of soybeans. Leaf area expansion of the plant during excessive soil water stress was only half and the respiration of roots was much diminished compared with the plant none water stress. When excessive soil water stress to the soybeans was continued for 7 days, outer epidermis and vascular system of tap root were severely cracked, more than thirty-five percent of nodule was died and the bacteroid layers of alive nodule were disintegrated.
Effect of Long-day and Night-break Treatment on Growth and Anthesis of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 600~607
Orostachys japonicus, called Wasong and used as anti-tumor medicinal plant, was cultivated in plastic house. The experiment was done to clarify the effect of long-day and night-break treatment at the timing of bolting on its morphological characters, organ dry weight and flowering of florets. After grown in 15cm plastic boxes containing 2:1 soil:peat moss mixture for about 4 months, long-day of 16 hours and night-break of 2 hours around midnight were treated from Sept. 9. The plants were sampled 5 times at 2-week interval after the treatments. Long-day and night-break treatment delayed the growth of inflorescence and showed greater stem diameter on the last sampling and no. of leaves and bracts than the natural daylength. The treatments also had greater leaf and bract dry weight since 2 weeks, and the other fraction and total dry weights since 4 weeks but less floret dry weight from 4 to 6 weeks after the treatments than the natural daylength. The treatments, however, decreased no. of flowered florets and ratio of flowering plants although all the treatments showed nearly the same no. of total florets per plant until 6 weeks after the treatments, late October, which resulted in the modification of source to sink or vice versa. In the natural daylength, the florets were functioned as sink, while root, leaf and bract as source, but in the long-day and night-break treatments stem and florets were done as sink.
Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Hybrid Rice
Tae, Hyun-Sook ; Kim, Kil-Ung ; Shin, Dong-Hyun ; Wenxiong Lin ; Moon, Huhn-Pal ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 608~618
This study was conducted to determine physiobiochemical basis of heterosis using rice hybrids such as Shanyou 63 (Zhenshan 97As Minhui 63) and Teyou 63 (Longtepu A Minhui 63) as compared with inbred rice like Milyang 23. Seed protein patterns of rice hybrid showed complementary genetic characteristics inherited from their parents. Hybrid rice had larger embryo and higher
-amylase activity than those of inbred rice. The larger embryo of hybrid was significantly correlated with tillering ability and high number of low node tillers jplant increased by 60~70% in Shanyou 63, leading to higher productive tillers/plant which directly influenced on grain yield of hybrid rice. These characters were further supported by high chlorophyll content in hybrids. Exogenous application of GA
(0.02 ppm) on inbred rice like Milyang 23, increased significantly
-amylase activity, but no effect of GA
on hybrid rice was observed, indicating that sufficient amount of GA
is endogenously present in hybrid rice, showing 1 to 3.5 fold higher activity of
-amylase in hybrid rice, which trigger heterosis from the germinating stage. Further, activity of cytochrome c oxidase was 2.66 to 5.52 fold higher in hybrid rice than that of inbred rice, indicating that rice hybrids have very active metabolism reflecting vigorous growth starting from the germinating stage, in turn leading to higher tillering ability.
Effect of Alfalfa Extract, It's Concentration and Absorbents on Germination and Growth of Alfalfa
Ill Min, Chung ; Ki-June Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 619~628
Crude aqueous extracts from dried leaves, stems, roots, and flowers from both field grown and greenhouse grown alfalfa plants inhibited alfalfa seed germination and seedling growth. The degree of inhibition was greater in the field grown plant extracts. Flowers extract of field grown plant most inhibited alfalfa germination and seedling growth. In the concentration study, the highest concentration of extract (9.0%, w/v) significantly inhibited total alfalfa seed germination by 50% as compared to control. In partitioning study using pot hydroponic culture of plant biomass into leaves, stems, root, LAR products of LWR and SLA exhibited significant variation among four species. This result support that the inhibitory effect of autotoxic substances presenting in alfalfa tissue may be possible interference with the patitioning of biomass into leaf component relative to the total biomass produced by the alfalfa plant. Toxicity of extract was not reduced by adding activated charcoal, Dowex-50W, amberlite to the extract. Toxic substances existing in most plant tissues but mainly above ground foliage are water soluble and stable and may persist in old alfalfa fields. Thus, it is recommended to remove as much as possible of the above growth parts, especially vegetative stage, before one tries to re-establish alfalfa in former field of alfalfa.
Effect of Nitrogen Management on Rice Growth and Yield under Different Seedling Density in Puddled -soil Drill Seeding
Dong-Sam Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 629~636
This study was carried out to clarify the proper nitrogen application methods under the different seedling density in puddled-soil drill seeding of rice. Seedling density was adjusted as 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150ea/
just after emergence and nitrogen was applied with five methods including conventional respectively. The maximum tillering stage was shorten as the seedling density was increase but decreased the percentage of productive tillers. Lodging was occurred serverely as the seedling was more than 120ea/
, when nitrogen was applied at panicle initiation stage. Grain yield wasn't significantly different among seedling densities when it was more than 60ea/
, but the density of 30ea/
was decreased. It wasn't significantly different among the nitrogen application methods when it was more than 90ea/m, but was higher at early application of tillering fertilizer (T
) than conventional method when the seedling density was less than 60ea/
. Supposing that the yield of reseeding is the same as optimum seedling density, minimum seedling density needs for reseeding would be less than 55 ea/
as the aspect of income allowed for managing expense.
Characteristics of Rice Mutants Resistant to 5- Methyltryptophan
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 637~643
TR75, a rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Sasanishikj) mutant resistant to 5-methyltryptophan (5MT) was segregated from the progenies of its initial mutant line, TR1. The 5MT resistance of TR75 was inherited in the M
generations as a single dominant nuclear gene, and was also expressed in callus derived from seeds, roots, and anthers as well as in the seedlings. The callus induced from these organs could grow at 50 mg/1 of 5MT, whereas the growth of wild-type callus was completely inhibited even at 25 mg/1. The seedlings of TR75 did not show resistance to L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, S-2-aminoethyl-L-cysteine, p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine. The content of free amino acids in the TR75 homozygous seeds increased approximately 1.5 to 2.0 fold compared to wild-type seeds. Especially, the contents of tryptophan, phenylalanine and aspartic acid were 5.0, 5.3 and 2.7 times higher than those of wild-type seeds, respectively.y.
Inheritance of Diterpenes in Nicotiana tabacum L.
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 644~648
This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of duvatrienediol(DVTs) and cis-abienol concentration from flesh tobacco leaves. NC744, which has a very low levels of DVTs and no cis-abienol was used as a parent in cross to TI 1068 producing a normal amount of DVTs and cis-abienol. Presence of DVTs and cis-abienol on the leaf surface was determined using thin layer chromatography(TLC). Segregation pattern from F
[ (TI 1068
NC744J generations revealed that TI 1068 have a single dominant gene controlling DVTs and cis-abienol production. And DVTs production was inherited independently of the ability to produce cis-abienol.
Characteristics of Haploid Plants Derived from Interspecific Cross between Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Tobacco
(Nicotiana tabacum) and Nicotiana africana
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 649~654
This study was conducted to investigate the utility and agronomic characteristics and use of cytoplasmic. male-sterile (CMS) haploid plants derived from interspecific cross between (male-sterile NC82
plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and Nicotiana africana. Abundant seeds of high germinability were obtained when Nicotiana tabacum (cytoplasmic male-sterile F
plants) is pollinated by Nicotiana africana. Most of seedlings died at the cotyledonary stage. The remaining seedlings are viable F
hybrids or maternal haploids that can be easily distinguished. Number of interspecific Fl hybrids and matermal haploids per capsule obtained from the interspecific cross between cytoplasmic male-sterile tobacco F
plants and N.africana yielded 2.2 and 0.5 plants, respectively. Out of 149 CMS haploid plants obtained from interspecific cross, 102 plants showed green type while the others were yellow type for leaf and stem. This results agreed with the genetic ratios expected among haploid plants from the F
hybrids heterozygous for two recessive genes of yellow color of burley tobacco plant. Out of 83 CMS haploid plants inoculated with TMV, 48 plants showed resistant, while the others was susceptible. It agreed with the expected genetic ratios for a single dominant gene of TMV resistance. CMS haploid plant will be useful as a source material for breeding of CMS doubled haploid lines
Plant Architecture and Dry Matter Production in Large-Grain Rice Variety
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 655~661
This study was conducted to get basic information of dry matter production and agronomic characteristics for increasing grain ripening in rice cultivar with large grains. Three cultivars which have different grain size were used. Of the two large grain cultivars, SR7796-3-1-5-1-l(SR7796F
) had long culm and SR11269-13-3-4-2(SR11269F
) had short culm. On the other hand, Tamjinbyeo was recommended cultivar had medium size of grain and culm. LAI was highest in Tamjinbyeo, followed by the SR11269F
, LAI decrement was higher in large grain cultivars than that of Tamjinbyeo after 20days after heading. Total dry weight(TDW) of areal part was highest in SR11269F
, followed by the Tamjinbyeo and SR7796F
. Dry weight (DW) of stem (leaf sheath+culm) at harvesting stage was decreased 15%, 12% in Tamjinbyeo, SR11269F
, respectively, but was increased 5% in SR7796F
compared to heading stage. In distribution rate of each organ to TDW, distribution rate of leaf blade was low in large grain cultivar, but that of stem in Tamjinbyeo, SR7796F
was 36%, 38% and 42%, respectively. In canopy architecture leaf blade weight was the highest 30~40cm, 40~50cm and 70~8Ocm above the ground in SR11269F
, Tamjinbyeo and SR7796F
, respectively. Range of panicle distribution in the canopy was 40cm in Tamjinbyeo, and was 70cm in large-grain cultivars. The results suggest that it has to take a growing interest in developing culture method for increasing LAI during growth stage, especially, around heading, in keeping green leaf till ripening stage and also in growing unformly plant within rice hill in large grain cultivars.cultivars.ltivars.
Effect of Temperatures during Ripening Period on Morpological Characteristics of Rachis-Grain in Rice
Jung-Il Lee ; E-Hun Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 5, 1995, Pages 662~669
To clarify the effect of temperature during ripening on grain quality, rice plant which was grown under normal natural conditions untill heading stage was subjected various temperature regimes during grain filling stage. Three varieties, Odaebyeo, Hwaseongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo were used. Grains on primary and secondary-rachis branches were harvested seperately and measured specific gravity, grain size and weight. The optimum daily temperature for grain filling of rice during ripening period was about 22
and grain filling under alternating temperature(26/18
, day /night) was better than constant temperature (22 /22
) based on 1, 000-grain weight and yield. Grain size based on volume per grain was smallest under the constant temperature of 22 /22
. The size of secondary-rachis branches was smaller than primary-rachis branch. The difference in size between primary and secondary-rachis branches was biggest in Hwaseongbyeo, followed by Odaebyeo and Dongjinbyeo. The temperature regimes treated did not influence the grain size difference between branches so much. The 1000-grain weight was lighter under high temperature than low temperature in Odaebyeo, but reversed tendency was observed in Dongjinbyeo of secondary rachis-branches.