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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Crop Science
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Crop Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 40, Issue 6 - Dec 1995
Volume 40, Issue 5 - Oct 1995
Volume 40, Issue 4 - Aug 1995
Volume 40, Issue 3 - Jun 1995
Volume 40, Issue 2 - Apr 1995
Volume 40, Issue 1 - Feb 1995
Selecting the target year
Effective Tillering Pattern and Grain Yield on Different Sowing Depth in Barley
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 671~683
This study was aimed to provide understanding on the eco-physiological response of barley tillers as affected by sowing depth. Yield and yield contribution rate of tillers were investigated with the data of field experiments in the former Wheat and Barley Research Institute of Suwon, Korea from October 1983 to July 1984. When barley was sowed in various depth of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9cm below the ground surface, 13 mainstem leaves appeared by 3 and 5cm treatments, and 11 leaves by 1, 7 and 9cm treatments. The effective tillers were observed from 8/0 in lcm depth, while 10/0 in 3-5cm depth and 9/0 in 7cm depth. There was no coleoptile tiller in 7cm depth sowing. Deep and shallow sowings produced fewer leaves and tillers, as early growth was hindered by deep sowing whereas cold damage was apparent in shallow sowing. Accordingly, more effective tillers per plant and higher grain weight per ear were observed in 3∼5cm depth sowing. Yield contribution by the tillers with various sowing depth was as follows: mainstem, 1, 2, 11, 3, 21, 4 and 12. The contribution of 1P, 13, 2P, 23 and 31 varied with the treatments.
Agronomic Characteristics of A Mutant for Genic Male Sterility-Chalky Endosperm and Its Utilization on
Hybrid Breeding System in Rice
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 684~696
A mutant for chalky endosperm and genetic male sterility (GMS) was newly developed in rice. The two characters were found to be controlled by single recessive gene which has pleiotropic effect, indicating that chalky seeds should be GMS seeds in segregating populations. Chalky seeds showed the same shape and size as normal seeds. However, starch composition of central part of endosperm was looser and shape of starch granules was rounder compared with normal endosperm, resulting in significantly lower grain weight, absolute density and grain hardness in chalky grains than in normal ones. Amylose content and gel consistency of chalky grains were much lower and harder, respectively. Male sterile plants showed much shorter plant height, poorer panicle exsertion and lesser panicle number compared with normal plants. Microspore abortion stage in pollen developmental process was observed as before meiosis. Male sterility of the mutant was stable regadless of temperature and day length. A system breeding hybrid rice using this mutant was discussed, comp ring with other systems utilizing cytoplasmic-genic male sterility(CGMS) and environment sensitive GMS(EGMS). Separation of GMS seeds in mixed seed bulks by specific gravity (1.14∼1.16g / cm3) was successful about 85∼90%. But some mixed normal plants were seemed to be easily removed by the apparent difference in growth characters at seedling stage. The highest natural outcrossing rate of this GMS line was as 17.3 % in a plot treated with 2-row pollinator, I-row GMS, and GA3 + cutting of flag leaf + pollen-scattering by rope.
Growth and Lodging of Rice as Affected by Growth Regulators under Different Midsummer Drainage Times in Puddled-soil Drill Seeding
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 697~704
This experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of the midsummer drainage times and some growth regulators on lodging characters, lodging and yield in puddled-soil drill seeding in rice. Dongjinbyeo, the mid-late maturing rice variety was seeded at May 11 by seeding machine with 4cm of furrow depth. Experimental plots were divided two main treatment without midsummer drain and two time drains (30 and 50 days after seeding), Inabenfide(IBF) was applied 40days before heading(DBH) and IBP was applied at 30DBH, respectively. Culm length was shorten, the wall of N
was thicken, and the breaking weight was increased at two time drainage and growth regulators applied in order of Inabenfide, IBP, and Control. Lodging wasn't occurred at two time drainage but it was occurred at none drainage in the order of Control, IBP, and Inabenfide applied. Yield was higher at two time drainage compared with none drainage and higher in order of Inabenfide, IBP and Control in none drainage but wasn't significantly different among growth regulators applied in two time drainage. Therefore, two times midsummer soil drying is recommendable management method for puddled -soil drill seeding of rice. Rice, Direct seeding, Puddled-soil, Drill seeding, Midsummer drainage, Growth regulator, Lodging.
Influence of Rainfall on Germination of Malting Barley at Harvesting Season
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 705~710
In order to find out the effect of rainfall at harvesting season on germination of malting barley, the seeds sampled from Cheju island and southern part of Korea were examined. The germination rate of seeds from Cheju island where rainfall was frequent at harvesting season, ranged from 46 to 71%, even though disease infection of the seeds was not that serious as would be expected. High sugar content of seed was resulted from the degradation of carbohydrates during the harvest season. From TZ test the rainfall - affected seeds were found to be highly viable but in the state of secondary dormancy. Results of cold germination test showed that the seeds were recovered from the secondary dormancy. Therefore, it was recommended that the seeds affected by the rainfall at harvesting season should be utilized after 12 months when the dormancy period terminated. The germination percent of the seeds was significantly enhanced by prechilling and / or 1 ppm gibberellic acid treatment. Different seed lots showed different rate of germination and the degree of dormancy.
Effective Screening Condition for Low-Temperature Germinability of Rice
Soon-Chul Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 711~715
This study was carried out to determine the desirable screeing condition for low-temperature germinability of rice seeds. The germination test was performed with fifty rice varieties from three countries, mainly including the recent Korean rice cultivars. The analyzed result of germination test under three temperature conditions(13
) pointed out that 11 days after seeding at 13
was the most efficient testing condition for low-temperature germinability in terms of mean and variation in germination rate. Highly significant correlations were observed between germination rates of 11 days after seeding at 13
and germination coefficients, average days of germination at 13 for 20 days. Low-temperature germinability were highly positively associated with days to heading or amylose content, but negatively correlated with grain width.
Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Determination of Grain Components in Barley
Hyung-Soo Suh ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 716~722
Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a tool for the rapid, accurate and nondestructive assay of small grain and forage quality analysis. The objective of this study was to establish the rapid, easy and accurate analysis method for major components of covered barley using NIRS system. NIRS used in this study was filter type instrument, Neotec 102. To obtain a useful calibration equation, standard regression between the data was analyzed by chemical analysis and by NIRS method. Standard errors of prediction (SEP) and simple correlations for unknown samples were calculated using obtained equation. SEPs for starch,
-glucan, protein and ash contents were 2.75%, 0.64%, 0.26% and 0.19%, respectively. The simple correlations for starch,
-glucan, protein and ash contents were 0.932, 0.588, 0.984 and 0.867, respectively. It was concluded that the NIRS method would be applicabl for the rapid determination of starch, protein and ash contents in barley grains.
Effects of Source-Sink Alteration on Dry Matter Accumulation and Protein Content in Soybean
Rac Chun, Seong ; Ji Hee, park ; Sei Joon, Park ; Jae Young, Cho ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 723~730
Effects of leaf and pod removal on changes in dry weight and protein content of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivar 'Hwangkeumkong' were measured at the research farm of Korea University in 1992. The upper 40% and lower 60% of leaves and pods were subjected to treatments at the growth stage of beginning pod(R3). Leaf dry weight of lower part was increased by upper leaf-lower pod removal, but seed dry weight of upper part was decreased. The upper leaf-lower pod removal also increased stem dry weight and decreased upper pod dry weight. Protein content was higher in lower leaves than upper leaves. Seed protein contents were decreased both upper leaf-lower pod removal and lower leaf-upper pod removal treatments. The upper leaf-lower pod removal showed the highest leaf and the lowest seed protein quantities among the five treatments. These results indicated that protein sources were moved from lower to upper parts but weak in remobilization from leaves for the long distance translocation during the reproductive growth period of soybean plants.an plants.
Effect of Nitrogen Split Application Methods under Different Soil Textures on Growth and Yield of Rice in Direct Seeding on Dry Paddy
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 731~737
This experiment was carried out at National Crop Experiment Station in 1994 to obtain basic information of growth characters and yield of rice under various nitrogen split application methods on different soil textures in direct seeding on dry paddy. Hwaseongbyeo sown on April 27 by flat drill seeding, and irrigation was done at 3 leaf stage after seedling establishment. Number of seedling stand was 159~177 seedlings per
regardless of soil texture and nitrogen application method. Number of panicle per unit area in loam was higher than in sandy loam, and it also was higher in top dressing plots, which were 3 times application at rate of 40-30-30% (3rd leaf stage -7th leaf stage -panicle initiation stage) and 4 times application 10-30-30-30%(basal-3rd leaf stage -7th leaf stage -panicle initiation stage), than in conventional method. Leaf colour, leaf area index and dry matter production at heading stage were highest at top dressing plots among the nitrogen application methods in both sandy loam and loam. Lodging index in top dressing plots increased by low breaking weight with long culm. There were field lodging of degree 3 in top dressing plots. Rice yield in sandy loam, loam increased by 7~9%, 6~9% in top dressing of nitrogen, respectively.
Specificity of Weed Competition and Herbicide Response in Barley under Foggy Condition
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 738~746
Greenhouse studies were carried out to find the difference of growth, weed competition and herbicides response in barley(Hordeum vulgare L. emend Larnark) under foggy and non-foggy condition. Plant height, leaf stage, leaf width and shoot fresh weight of barley under foggy condition were greatly increased, while heading rate ripening rate and number of grains per panicle of barley were reduced. Weed emergence based on fresh weight was much greater under foggy than that under non-foggy condition. Plant height of barley under foggy condition was increased comparing with non-foggy condition and significantly reduced with increasing the duration of weed competition, while 1,000-grain weight of barley reduced by the early competition(0∼20 days). Among the herbicides treated, butachlor and thiobencarb inhibited growth of barley under foggy than non-foggy condition. Plant height of barley treated of herbicides under foggy condition was ever increased but 1,000-grain weight of barley was reduced. Weeding efficacy(75-90%) by shoot fresh weight of weeds under foggy condition at 25 days after application was lower 3 to 15% than that under non-foggy condition.
Effect of Slow-release Fertilizer Levels of Rice in Different Cultural Methods
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 747~756
To find out the optimum application method of slow-releasing fertilizer(SRF) and conventional fertilizer(CF) with different fertilization rate under two culture methods[l0-day old seedling machine transplanting(MT) and direct-sowing on dry paddy(DS)] in the south-western region(clay loam soil) of Korea, used were Chosun slow-releasing fertilizer(silicate latex coated fertilizer: N-P
O =18-12-13) and conventional fertilizer. Plant height and number of tillers with different two culture methods were higher at MT than DS in early growth. The ratio of dry weight in heading stage was higher at CF than SRF in MT than DS and especially, SRF 80% + CF 20% than SRF 100% or CF 100%. Leaf area index (LAI) in heading stage was higher at CF in MT but higher at SRF in DS than their counterparts. Chlorophyll content was higher at SRF than in CF expect for heading stage(HS), especially in DS. It was highest at HS in CF without its difference during maximum tillering stage(MTS) and panicle formation stage(PFS), while highest at PFS in SRF with tendency of gradual increase and decrease before and after PFS, respectively. Heading was delayed 2~3 days at SRF in two cultrue methods and 4~5 days at SRF in DS in comparison with CF in MT with delay of 2 days at DS compared with MT. Culm length was longer at CF in MT and at SRF in DS than their counterparts. Panicle number per m was more at SRF and in DS. Filled grain ratio was higher at CF and in MT. Yield was obtained 101 and 100% at 100% and 80% level of SRF in DS respectively, and 96% at 80% level of CF in MT, compared with conventional application method (516kg /l0a), and increased 2~4% at DS and 0~3% at MT in SRF. Yield was high in order of 100%(SRF) =80%(SRF) + 20%(CF) > 100%(SRF) + 20%(CF) > 80%(SRF) at MT and 80%(SRF) + 20%(CF) =100%(SRF) > 80%(SRF) =100%(SRF) + 20%(CF) at DS.
Growth Regulators and Colchicine Treatments for Embryo Culture Efficiency in Barley
Bong Yeon, Kim ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 757~767
This experiment was done to determine the optimum concentration of IAA for root development in plants regenerated from the callus culture of barley embryos. Two concentrations of 2,4-D, 3ppm and 5ppm selected as an optimum among five different concentrations in the previous experiment were used for callus induction and proliferation in this experiment. For callus induction, 3ppm of 2,4-D produced 35.6% in immature embryos and 4.4% in mature embryos, while 5ppm gave 33.8% in immature and 5.6% in mature embryos. Out of 320 immature embryos cultured, 111 embryos were induced to calli and 684 plants were produced from them, while only 16 embryos were induced to calli from 320 mature embryos and 92 plants were restored. The rates of callusing and plant regeneration were 34.7%, 214% in immature embryos and 5.0%, 28.7% in mature embryos, respectively. The average root lengths and root numbers of plants restored from callus at five different IAA concentrations of 0ppm, Ippm, 5ppm, l0ppm and 30ppm were 7.9mm, 3.6; 18.4mm, 5.2; 16.1mm, 3.9; 8.5mm, 3.5 and 6.4mm, 3.4, while plants directly obtained from mature embryos were 14.8mm, 4.9; 4.9mm, 3.6; 4.3mm, 3.1; 3.6mm, 2.6 and 3.2mm, 2.1, respectively. Therefore, 1ppm gave the best result for the root. promotion in callus, whle 0ppm, a control, gave the largest root developmemt in embryos. High concentration of lAA(30ppm) in callus and any exogeneous supplement of lAA in embryos negatively affected to the root lengths and root numbers. Genotypic effect was also observed in given four varieties, Bruce, Klages, Olbori and Albori. For chromosome doubling, when 0.1% colchicine was applied on 428 plants under three different conditions such as air circulation, temperatures and growth stages, 319 plants of doubled haploids were obtained so that the rate was 74.5%
Changes of Sugar Content during Germination and Germinability in Corn
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 768~774
These experiments were conducted to determine the change of sugar content during germination in corn, which were analyzed by using HPLC. Germination percentage and growth rate of Golden cross bantam 70 were higher than those of Suweon 19. The emergences of radicle and plumule of Golden cross bantam 70 were faster compared to those of Suweon 19. Three major components, sucrose, glucose and fructose, were detected during germination. Content of sucrose in two tested hybrids decreased rapidly as time passes. In embryo of Suweon 19, the content of sucrose was 38.92% on 12 hours after incubation but decreased to 4.52% on 72 hours. In that of Golden cross bantam 70, it decreased rapidly more than Suweon 19 from 53.03% on 12 hours to 8.18% on 72 hours. On the other hand, the contents of glucose and fructose increased.
Variation of Pectin, Catechins and Caffein Contents in Korean Green Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) by Harvesting Time and Processing Recipe
Byong-Hee Hong ;
Korean Journal of Crop Science, volume 40, issue 6, 1995, Pages 775~781
This study was conducted to find out the variation in some medicinal components of Korean green tea by processing recipe and harvesting time in Bongsan-ri(steamroasted green tea) and Buchun-ri(roasted green tea) area. Total chlorophyll content of green tea grown at Bongsan-ri and Buchun-ri was 293mg% and 275mg% and ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b was 70:30 and 67:33 respectively. The later harvested one had the higher chlorophyll content but the chlorophyll content of the last harvested green tea at Buchun-ri decreased more sharply. Water-soluble pectin of green tea produced at Bongsan-ri and Buchun-ri was 2.05% and 1.84%, respectively. It also increased at the later harvested ones. Total amino acids content of Bongsan-ri and Buchun-ri tea was 2,156mg% and 1,723mg%, respectively. The later harvested tea showed the remarkably decreased. Caffein and catechins of Bongsan-ri and Buchun-ri tea were 2.03%, 11.52% and 2.62%, 14.05%, respectively, Total free catechins content of Bongsan-ri and Buchun-ri tea was 35.59% and 42.73%, and ester type was 58.09% and 44.47%, respectively. Extracted catechins and caffeins of green tea were increased when extracting water temperature was raised from
and leaching time was lengthened from 3min. to 9min. About 89% catechins and 97% caffeins of green tea was extracted by nine minutes soaking in 85